Barotseland Bibliography


This list comprises miscellaneous works, across the disciplines, that either focus on or relate in part to the Upper Zambezi Valley region and/or its peoples, known variously as Barotseland; Western Province, Zambia; Western Zambia, North-Western Zambia; North-Western Rhodesia; Lozi/Malozi/Barotse/Marotse/Murutse; Luyi; Mbunda; Balovale; Luvale; Nkoya; Caprivi; Fwe; Subia/Subiya/Basubiya/Masubiya; Mbukushu; Ila/BaIla/Mashukulumbwe/Bashukulumbwe. This is a general bibliography. No attempt has been made in this list to divide into social or physical aspects or other subject categories. Thus the best use of this list would probably be as an author search.

Arnot, F.S. (1884) From Natal to the Upper Zambezi: First Year Among the Barotsi – Extracts from Letters and Diaries, James E. Hawkins, London

______(1889) Garenganze or Seven Year’s Pioneer Work in Central Africa, James E. Hawkins, London.

______(1900) ‘The regions of the Okavango’ Geographical Journal, 15, 291.

______(1969) Garenganze or Seven Year’s Pioneer Work in Central Africa [New edition of 1889 work], Frank Cass, London.


Baker, E. (1921) The Life and Explorations of Frederick Stanley Arnot, Seeley Service and Co., London.


Baxter, T W. (1951a) ‘The Barotse concessions: Part I’ Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 3, 39-49.

______(1951b) 'The Barotse Concessions Part II', Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 4, 38-45.

______(1963) ‘The concessions of Northern Rhodesia’ The National Archives of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Occasional Papers No. 1, pp 3-41.

Beguin, E. (1903) Les Ma-Rotse, Librairie Benda, Lausanne.

Bennett, P.R. (1970) ‘Sesotho-Lozi: a clue to the evolution of multi-level tonal systems,’ Journal of African Languages, 9, 153-64.

Bertrand, A. (1897) ‘From the Machili to Lealui’, Geographical Journal, 9, 2, 145-149.

______(1899)The Kingdom of the Barotsi of Upper Zambezia, T. Fisher Unwin, London.

Boggie, J.M. (1940) First Steps in Civilising Rhodesia, Philpott and Collins, Edinburgh (partic. Chap. 23-26).

Bostoen, K. (2007) ‘Bantu plant names as indicators of linguistic stratigraphy in the Western Province of Zambia’ in Payne, D.L. and Peña, J. (Eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, 16-29. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project (

Bradley, K. (1959) ‘Statesmen: Coryndon and Lewanika in North-Western Rhodesia’ Northern Rhodesia Journal, 4, 2, 127-134.

Bradshaw, B.F. (1881) ‘Notes on the Chobe River, South Central Africa’, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 3, 208-213.

Brelsford, W.V. (1956) The Tribes of Northern Rhodesia, Government Printer, Lusaka.

______(1965) Generation of Men: The European Pioneers of Northern Rhodesia, Stuart Manning, Harare.

Bruchmann, D.K. (2000) Caprivi, an African Flashpoint: An Illustrated History of Namibia’s Tropical Region where Four Countries Meet (Author’s Edition), Northcliff, South Africa.

Buiswalelo, H. M. (1984) Lilimi la Silozi: Litopa ze Pahami, Gamsberg, Windhoek.

Bull, M. M. [see also Mainga, M.]

______(1972) ‘Lewanika’s achievement’ Journal of African History, 13, 3, 463-472.

______(1996) ‘The Barotseland Agreement 1964 in historical perspective: a preliminary study’, seminar paper prepared and presented to the Department of History and the Institute for African Studies, University of Zambia, 4th September 1996

______(1997) ‘Lozi-Nkoya relations: indigenous politics in the Western Province of Zambia’, Paper presented to the Institute of Economic and Social Research, Lusaka.


Burger, J.P. (1960) An English-Lozi Vocabulary, Book Depot of Paris Missionary Society, Sefula, pp. 171.

Burles, R.S. (1952) ‘The Katengo council elections’, Journal of African Administration, 4, 1, 14-17.

Bwalya, G.M. and Akombelwa, M. (1989) ‘Animal traction, development and gender: Experiences from Western Zambia,’ in Starkey, P. and Kaumbutho, P. (eds.) A Resource Book of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA), Intermediate technology Publications, London*


Caplan, G.L. (1969) ‘Barotseland’s scramble for protection, Journal of African History, 10, 2, 277-294.

______(1968) ‘Barotseland: the secessionist challenge to Zambia’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 6, 3, 343-360.

______(1969) ‘Zambia, Barotseland, and the liberation of southern Africa, Africa Today, 16, 4, 13-17.


Chapman, J. (1860) Travels in the Interior of South Africa [2 volumes], Bell and Daldy, London.

Chibanza, S.J. (1961) ‘Kaonde history’, Part II of Central Bantu historical texts I, Rhodes-Livingstone Communication No. 22, Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Lusaka.

Chicken, R.T. (1951) ‘Memories of abandoned bomas, No. 1, Mwengwa’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 3, 69-72.

Chirenje, J.M. (1987) Ethiopianism and Afro-Americans in Southern Africa, 1883-1916, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

Clarence-Smith, W.G. (1977) ‘The Lozi social formation, 1875-1906,’ History Staff Seminars, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, 23 February 1977

______(1977) ‘Climatic variations and natural disasters in Barotseland, 1847-1907,’ History Staff Seminars, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, 1 June 1977.

______(1977) ‘A note on tsetse fly and rinderpest in Barotseland, 1850s-1900s,’ History Staff Seminars, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia, 1 June 1977.

______(1979) ‘Slaves, commoners and landlords in Bulozi, c1875 to 1906’, Journal of African History, 20, 219-234.


Clarence-Smith, G. and Moorsom, R. (1977) ‘Underdevelopment and class formation in Ovamboland, 1844-1917 in Palmer, R. and Parsons, N. [eds.] The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa’, Heinemann, London, pp. 96-112.


Clark, J.D. (1951) ‘Bushmen hunters of the Barotse forests’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 3, 56-65.

______(1959) The Prehistory of Southern Africa, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Clark, J.D. and Fagan, B.M. (1965) ‘Charcoals, sands and channel-decorated pottery from Northern Rhodesia’, American Anthropologist, 67, 2, 354-371.

Clay, G. (1945) ‘History of the Mankoya district’, Communications from the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute No.4, typescript held at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

______(1963) ‘Barotseland between 1801 and 1864’, (Paper presented to the Seventh Conference of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute) Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Livingstone, Zambia.

______(1968) Your Friend Lewanika: The Life and Times of Lubosi Lewanika, Litunga of Barotseland, 1842 to 1916, Chatto and Windus, London


Coillard, F. (1897) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Hodder and Staughton, London

______(1898) Sur le Haut Zambèse, Berger-Lerrault, Paris.

______(1971) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Third Edition with a new Introduction by Max Gluckman, Frank Cass, London.

Cole, M. (1963) ‘Vegetation and geomorphology in Northern Rhodesia: an aspect of the distribution of the Savannah of Central Africa’, Geographical Journal, 129, 3, 290-305.

Colyer, S. (1914) Sikololo: notes on the grammar with a vocabulary, pp. 53.

Cooper, G. (1951) ‘Village crafts in Barotseland’, Rhodes-Livingstone Journal, 11, 47-60.

Deak, A. (1996) ‘A Museum’s role in society’, unpublished paper submitted foe degree of MSSc, Stockholm University.

Elderkin, E.D. (1998) ‘Silozi and Namibia’ in K. Legère ed. Cross-Border Languages: Reports and Studies – Regional Workshops on Cross-Border Languages, Okahandja, 23-27 September 1996, Gamsberg Macmillan Windhoek, 205-225.

Eldridge, I.M. (1956) 'Short history of the Sesheke district', Northern Rhodesia Journal, 3, 2, 174-176.

Ellenberger, D.F. (1912) History of the Basuto Ancient and Modern, Caxton Publishing, London.

Fanshawe, D.B. and Mutimushi, J.M. (1971) ‘A Checklist of Plant Names in the Lozi Languages’, Ministry of Rural Development, Lusaka.

Favre, E. (1913) François Coillard Missionaire au Zambèze, Société des Missions Evangeliques, Paris.

Fisch, M. (1999a) The Caprivi Strip during the German Colonial Period 1890 to 1914 [English translation], Out of Africa Publishers, Windhoek.

_____(1999b) The Secessionist Movement in Caprivi: A Historical perspective, Namibia Scientific Society, Windhoek.

Flint, E. (1970) ‘Trade and politics in Barotseland during the Kololo period’, Journal of African History, 11, 1, 71-86

Flint, L.S. (2010) Historical Constructions of Postcolonial Citizenship and Subjectivity: The Case of the Lozi peoples of Southern Central Africa, Lambert Academic Publications, Saabrücken, Germany ISBN 978-3-8433-6703-5

______(2010) ‘Communities and Climate: Building Local Capacity for Adaptation’ in Fujikura, R. and Kawanishi, M., (eds.) Climate Change Adaptation and International Development: Making Development Cooperation More Effective, Earthscan, London

______(2009) ‘Climate change, vulnerability and the potential for adaptation: Case study – the Upper Zambezi Valley region of Western Zambia’ in Ranade, P. S. (ed.) Climate Change: Impact and Mitigation, Icfai University Press, Hyderabad.

______(2008) ‘Socio-ecological vulnerability and resilience in an arena of rapid environmental change; Community adaptation to climate variability in the Upper Zambezi Valley floodplain’, Working Paper of the Research Institute for Humanities and Nature, Kyoto, Working Paper on Socio-Ecological Resilience Series 2008-004, available online at 53 pp.

______(2007)’Citizenship and subjectivity in the post-colonial state’ [focuses on Zambia] in Senghor, J.C. and Poku, N.K. Towards Africa’s Renewal, Ashgate, Abingdon 38 pp.

______(2007) ‘Vulnerability and the social economy: the potential for adaptation to climate change in the Upper Zambezi Valley floodplain’ Paper given to IPCC – TGICA Expert Meeting, Fiji, June 2007.

______(2007) ‘The South Africanisation’ of southern central Africa: global meets local over time and space in the Upper Zambezi Valley’ ASAFAS Special Papers, 9, 91-104, Kyoto University.

______(2006) ‘Towards a strategy for environmental change: vulnerability and adaptation in the Upper Zambezi Valley region of Western Zambia’ in Junko, M. et al (eds.) Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries and Re-visioning Area Studies: Perspectives from Asia and Africa, Proceedings of Symposium, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 195-207.

______(2006) ‘Contradictions and challenges in representing the past: the Kuomboka festival of Western Zambia’ Journal of Southern African Studies, 32, 4, 701-717.

______(2005) ‘Historical constructions of postcolonial citizenship and subjectivity: the case of the Lozi peoples of southern central Africa’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.

______(2003) ‘State-building in central southern Africa: Citizenship and subjectivity in Barotseland and Caprivi’, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 36, 2, 393-428.


Fortune, G. (1977) An Outline of Silozi Grammar, Bookworld Publishers, Lusaka, 106 pp.

Fosse, L.J. (1992) ‘The social construction of ethnicity and nationalism in Independent Namibia’, Discussion Paper No. 14, University of Namibia, Windhoek

Fraenkel, P. (1959) Wayaleshi, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London

Frankenberg, R. (1978) ‘Economic Anthropology or political economy? (I): the Barotse social formation – a case study’ in Clammer, J. [ed.] The New Economic Anthropology, Macmillan, London, 31-60

Franklin, H. (1963) Unholy Wedlock: The Future of the Central African Federation, George Allen and Unwin, London [esp. pp. 216-218].

Gale, W.D. (1958) Zambezi Sunrise: How Civilisation came to Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Howard B. Timmins, Cape Town [esp. pp. 104-111, 215-219].

Gann, L.H. (1954) ‘The End of the Slave Trade in British Central Africa: 1889-1912’, Rhodes-Livingstone Journal, 16, 27-51.

______(1958) The Birth of a Plural Society: The development of Northern Rhodesia under the British South Africa Company 1894-1914, Manchester University Press [on behalf of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute], Manchester.

______(1964) A History of Northern Rhodesia: Early Days to 1953, Chatto and Windus, London.

Gelfand, M. (1961) Northern Rhodesia in the days of the Charter: A Medical and Social Study, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Gibbons, A. St. H. (1897) ‘A journey in the Marotse and the Mashukulumbwe countries’, Geographical Journal, 9, 2, 121-143.

______(1898a) ‘Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper Zambezi’ Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, 260-276.

______(1898b) Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa 1895-96, Methuen and Co., London.

______(1901) ‘Explorations in Marotseland and neighbouring regions’, Geographical Journal, 17, 106-134.

______(1904) Africa from North to South through Marotseland (Two Volumes), John Lane, The Botley Head, London.

______(1905) Review of In Remotest Barotseland by Harding, C, Geographical Journal, 26, 444-445.


Gluckman, M. (1941) ‘Economy of the Central Barotse Plain’, Rhodes-Livingstone Papers, 11, Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Livingstone. *

______(1943a) ‘Administrative organisation of the Barotse Native Authorities with a plan for reforming them’ Volume 1, Communications from the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, No. 1, Livingstone. *

______(1943b) ‘Administrative organisation of the Barotse Native Authorities with a plan for reforming them’ Volume II, Communications from the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, No. 1, Livingstone. *

______(1943c) ‘Visit to Barotse at Rand Mines Feb.-March 1943’, Paper located at Documentation Centre of Institute of Economic and Social Research, Lusaka. *

______(1943d) ‘Barotse Civil Wars and the World War, 1939-43’, article prepared for publication in Mutende in English and Silozi, June 1943. *

______(1943e) ‘Essays on Lozi land and royal property’ Rhodes-Livingstone Papers, 10. *

______(1943f) ‘Correspondence’, South Africa Journal of Economics, 11, 227-228. *

______(1945) ‘Barotseland: where western civilisation has brought poverty’, Libertas, August 1945, Johannesburg.

______(1946) ‘Barotse Ironworkers’ ISCOR Magazine, Pretoria. *

______(1951) ‘The Lozi of Barotseland in North-Western Rhodesia’ in Colson, E. and Gluckman, G. (eds.) Seven Tribes of British Central Africa, Oxford University Press, London for Rhodes-Livingstone Institute. *

______(1955a) ‘Anthropology in Central Africa’, original paper presented for publication in Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 4957, Vol. 103, 645-665, located at Institute of Economic and Social Research, Lusaka. *

______(1955b) ‘”As men are everywhere else”: Max Gluckman on David Livingstone’ The Listener, 22nd September 1955 (non-academic). *

______(1963) ‘‘Civil war and theories of power in Barotseland: African and medieval analogies’, Yale Law Journal, 72, 8, 1515-1546.

______(1967) The Judicial Process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia [2nd Edition], Manchester University Press, Manchester.

______(1968) ‘Essays on Lozi land and royal property’ (2nd Impression) Rhodes-Livingstone Papers, No. 10.

______(1968) ‘Economy of the Central Barotse Plain’ (2nd Impression), Rhodes-Livingstone Papers, 11, Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Livingstone.

______(1971) ‘Introduction to Third Edition’ in Coillard, F. On the Threshold of Central Africa, Frank Cass, London, 7-25. *

Gorman, W.A.R. (1950) Simple Silozi, Longmans, London, pp. 107.

Gowlett, D.F. (1964) ‘Morphology of the Substantive in Lozi,’ University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

______(1966) ‘Some Lozi riddles and tongue-twisters annotated and analysed,’ African Studies, 25, 3, 139-158.

______(1967) ‘Morphology of the Verb in Lozi,’ MA thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, pp. 308.

______(1971) ‘A selection of Barotse folktales and riddles’, African Studies, 30, 15-33.

______(1989) ‘The parentage and development of Lozi’ Journal of African Languages, 11, 2, 127-49.

Grove, A.T. (1969) ‘Landforms and climatic change in the Kalahari and Ngamiland’, Geographical Journal, 135, 2, 191-212.

Hailey, W.M.H. (1950) Native Administration in the British African Territories, Part II, Central Africa: Zanzibar, Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia, HMSO, London [esp. pp. 76-79, 86-87, 88-102].

______(1951) Native Administration in the British African Territories, Part IV, HMSO, London [esp. pp.20-23].

______(1953) Native Administration in the British African Territories, part V, The High Commission Territories: Basutoland, The Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland, HMSO, London [esp. 181, 261-263].

______(1957) An African Survey, Revised 1956: A Study of Problems Arising in Africa South of the Sahara, Oxford University Press, London [esp. pp. 488-491].


Harding, C. (1933) Far Bugles, Simpkin Marshall, London.

______(1905) In Remotest Barotseland: Being an Account of a Journey of over 8000 miles through the Wildest and Remotest Parts of Lewanika’s Empire, Hurst and Blackett, London.

Herbert, E.W. (2002) Twilight on the Zambezi Late Colonialism in Central Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Hermitte, E.L. (1974) 'An economic history of Barotseland', Unpublished PhD Thesis [Ref. 74-28,643], Northwestern University, USA.

Hogan, B. (2014) ‘The ends of slavery in Barotseland, Western Zambia (c.1800-1925),’ Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Kent, UK


Holub, E. (1879) A Cultural Survey of the Lozi-Mbunda Kingdom in South Central Africa, Royal Imperial Geographical Society, Vienna.

______(1880) ‘Journey through Central South Africa, from the Diamond Fields to the Upper Zambesi’, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 2, 3, 166-182.

______(1881) Seven Years in South Africa: Travels, Researches, and Hunting Adventures, between the Diamond Fields and the Zambesi (1872-79) [2 volumes], Sampson Low. Marston, Searle and Rivington, London.

______(1890) Von der Capstadt ins Land der Maschukulumbe Reisen im Südlichen Afrika in den Jahren 1883-7, Alfred Hölder, Wien.

Holy, L. [ed.] (1975) Emil Holub’s Travels North of the Zambezi 1885-6: Being a translation into English of part of the second volume of Von der Capstadt…, Manchester University Press for University of Zambia, Manchester.

Hooker, J.R. (1966) ‘Welfare associations and other instruments of accommodation in the Rhodesias between the World Wars’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 9, 1, 51-63.

Hudson, R.S. (1935) ‘The human geography of Balovale District, Northern Rhodesia,’ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 65, 235-266. *

______(1953) ‘Memories of abandoned bomas, No. 4, Nalolo’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 2, 2, 37-41. *

Hudson, R.S. and Prescot, H.K. (1924) ‘The election of a ‘Ngambela’ in Barotseland, Man, 24, 138-139. *

Ikacana, N.S. (1964)‘Litaba za Makwangwa’ [‘History of the Makwangwa’] plus English translation by H. Zulu, held as typescripts at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

Indakwa, J. (1975) ‘King Lewanika and the expansion of British rule in Barotseland 1890-1923: a study of British policy in Barotseland and North and Southern Zambesia in general, unpublished PhD thesis, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

Jacottet, E. (1896)Etudes sur les Langues du Haut Zambèze, E. Leroux, Paris.

Jalla, A. (1909) History, Traditions and Legends of the Barotse Nation, original translation into English, file 321, Institute of Economic and Social research, Lusaka.

______(1917a) Sikololo-English Dictionary, pp. 205.

______(1917b) English-Sikololo dictionary, pp. 159.

______(1917c) Elementary Grammar of the Sikololo Language, pp.102.

______(1921) Litaba za Sicaba sa Malozi, [Matters of Lozi History] originally produced for Colonial Office - Africa No. 1179, revised in 1996 with orthography approved by the Zambian Ministry of Education and published by Bookworld, Lusaka

______(1937a) Dictionary of the Lozi language, London.

______(1937b) Elementary Grammar of the Lozi Language, United Society for Christian Literature, pp. 108.

Jalla, A. and E. (1904) Pionniers parmi les Ma-Rotse, Imprimarie Claudienne, Florence.

Johnson, J. (1893) Reality versus Romance in South Central Africa, Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Kamitondo, E.N. (1958) Silozi Note Book, Longmans, Cape Town [pp. 46].

Kalaluka, L. (1979) Kuomboka: A Living Traditional Culture among the Malozi People of Zambia, National Education Company of Zambia, Lusaka.

Kamwengo, M.M. (1973) ‘The missionary activities in Barotseland (The present Western Province of Zambia’ Lusaka, University of Zambia, Paper located in the Documentation and Information Centre of the Institute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR), University of Zambia.

Kangumu, B.K. (2000) ‘A forgotten corner of Namibia: Aspects of the History of the Caprivi Strip, c1939-1980, unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Cape Town, 2000/24537.

Kashoki, M.E. (1990) The Factor of Language in Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda Foundation, Lusaka [pp. 164].

Kayongo, K. (1987) Reciprocity and Interdependence: The Rise and Fall of the Kololo Empire in the 19th Century, Almquist and Wiksell International, Lund.

Kilby, S.E. (2001) No Cross Marks the Spot, Galamena press, Southend-on-Sea.

Kruger, C.E. ‘The Eastern Caprivi Zipfel’ unpublished document held by National Archives of Namibia (NAN), Windhoek – File P/B0139.

______(1984) Kruger, C.E. (1984) ‘History of the Caprivi Strip 1890–1984’, Unpublished typescript, National Archives of Namibia (NAN), Windhoek, Private Accessions, A.0472. *

Larson, T.J. (1963) ‘Epic tales of the Mbukushu’, African Studies, 22, 4, 176-189.

______(1966) ‘The significance of rainmaking for the Mbukushu’, African Studies 25, 1, 23-36.

______(1971) ‘The Hambukushu migrations to Ngamiland’, African Social Research, 11, 27-49.

Lewanika, G.A.M. (1949) English-Lozi Phrase Book, Macmillan, London, pp. 53.

Lisimba, M. (2000) Lozi Names in Language and Culture, International Centre for Bantu Civilizations, Libreville, pp. 320.

Listowel, J. (1974) The Other Livingstone, Julian Friedmann Publishers, Lewes.

Livingstone, C. (1861-2) ‘On the Batoka country’, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, VI.

Livingstone, D. (1854) ‘Explorations into the Interior of Africa’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 24, 291-306.

______(1857) Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa John Murray, London republished by same publisher in 1899 with foreword by F. S. Arnot.

______(1861) ‘Extract from Despatches of Dr. David Livingstone 1858-1861’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 3 18-24.

Livingstone, D. and C. (1865) Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi and its Tributaries, John Murray, London.

Lutke-Entrup, J. (1971) Limitations and Possibilities of Increasing Market Production of Peasant African Cattle Holders in Western Province, Zambia, Communication No. 7, Institute for African Studies, University of Zambia. *

Mackenzie, J. (1871) Ten Years North of the Orange River: A Story of Everyday Life and Work among the South African Tribes from 1859-1869, Edmonton and Douglas, Edinburgh, 1871.

Mackintosh, C.W. (1907) Coillard of the Zambezi, T. Fisher Unwin, London.

______(1937) Yeta III, Paramount Chief of the Barotse (Northern Rhodesia), A Sketch of his Life, Pickering and Inglis, London.

______(1942) Lewanika: Paramount Chief of the Barotse and Allied Tribes 1875-1916, United Society for Christian Literature, London.

______(1950) ‘Some pioneer missions of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland’.

Maclaren, P.I.R. (1958) ‘The fishing devices of central and southern Africa’, Occasional Papers of the Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 12, Livingstone.

Maclean, H.A.M. (1965) An Agricultural Stocktaking of Barotseland, Government Printer, Republic of Zambia, Lusaka.

Macmillan, H. (2005) An African Trading Empire: The Story of the Susman Brothers and Wulfsohn, 1901-2003 , I.B. Tauris, London.

Macnair, J.I. [ed.] (1954) Livingstone’s Travels, J.M. Dent, London.

Mainga, M. (1966) ‘The origin of the Lozi: some oral traditions’ in Eric Stokes and Richard Brown (eds.), The Zambesian Past: Studies in Central African History, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 238-247

______(1972) ‘A history of Lozi religion to the end of the nineteenth century’ in Ranger, T. O. and Kinambo, I.N. [eds.] The Historical Study of African Religion, Heinemann, London, pp. 95-107.

______Bulozi under the Luyana Kings, Longman, London, 1973.

Maritz, C. (1996) ‘The Subia and the Fwe of Caprivi: any historical grounds for a status of primus inter pares?Africa Insight, 26, 2, 177-185.

McCullough, M. (1956) ‘The social survey of the African population of Livingstone’, Rhodes-Livingstone Papers, No. 26, Manchester University Press.

Milbourne, K. (1997) ‘Diplomacy in motion: Makishi as political harmony in Barotseland’ Baobab on-line article [], University of Iowa.

Mills, E.C, (ANZAC) (1950) 'Overlanding cattle from Barotse to Angola', Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 2, 53-63.

Molteno, R. (1974) ‘Cleavage and conflict in Zambian politics: a study in sectionalism’ in Tordoff, W. (ed.) Politics in Zambia, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Mongu Municipal Council (2002) ‘District profile: Mongu District’, Mongu Municipal Council, Mongu, Western Province, Zambia.

Morgan, T. (1872) Eleven Years in Central South Africa, J. Snow, London [pp. 418].

Mortimer, M.C. (1957) ‘History of the Barotse National School – 1907-1957’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 3, 3, 303-310.

Mukuni, R.M. (1991) Silozi-English Phrase Book, Kenneth Kaunda Foundation [pp. 83].

Mulford, D.C. (1964) The Northern Rhodesia General Election, 1962, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.

______(1967) Zambia: The Politics of Independence, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mumbuna, M. (1960) Mu Zibe za Muleneni [‘Things you ought to know about the Chief’s village’] translated into English by F. Manyando and held as typescript at the Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

Munalula, C.L. (date uncertain) ‘Experiences of the western province of Zambia – understanding the role of traditional authorities’, unpublished paper produced for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), Kristiansand, Norway.

Mupatu, Y.W. (1958) ‘Mulambwa Santulu Receives the Mbunda Chiefs’, translated into English by the author, paper held at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

______(1959) Bulozi Sapili (Bulozi in days past’) Oxford University Press, Cape Town [ typescript of English translation by author held at Livingstone Museum].

Murao, R. (2005) ‘A Study on the shifting cultivation system in Kalahari woodland, Western Zambia, with special reference to cassava management’ African Study Monographs, Supplement 29, 95-105.

Muuka, L.S. (1966) ‘Colonization of Barotseland in the 17th century’ in Stokes, E. and Brown, R. (eds.), The Zambesian Past: Studies in Central African History, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 248-260.

Muyundi, K. (date uncertain) Bucwala mwa Bulozi [‘Craftsmanship in Barotseland’], plus translation into English by D.W. Lukonga, held as typescripts at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

Mwikise, Peter (1989) ‘Enhancing mutual intelligibility among Sesotho, Setswana and Silozi: problems and prospects,’ University of Botswana, Gaborone.

Mwisiya, M. W. (1977) Introduction to Silozi Grammar, Kenneth Kaunda Foundation, Lusaka [pp. 168].

Nalilungwe, M. (date unknown) ‘Here are the Makololo’ – a translation by H. Zulu of ‘Makololo ki ba’, Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, Livingstone, Typescript now held by Livingstone Museum.

Nettelton, G.E. (1934) ‘History of the Ngamiland tribes up to 1926’, Bantu Studies, 8, 343-360 [carries text on ‘Mpukushu’]

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‘Pula’ (1926)


Unidentified authorship journal notes/correspondence

(1856) President Robert Murchison’s address to 4th meeting of Royal Geog Soc of London, Dec 15, 1856 (regarding D. Livingstone), Proceedings of Royal geographical Society of London, 1, 7, 233-249.

(1900) ‘Major Gibbons’ expedition’, Geographical Journal, 15, 644.

(1901) ‘Serpa Pinto’, Geographical Journal, 17, 201-202.

(1905) ‘The Barotse boundary award’, Geographical Journal, 26, 2, 102-104.

(1916-17) ‘The death of Lewanika’, Journal of the African Society, 16, 149-154.

(1926) ‘The Barotse people and some of their customs’ in Taylor, G.A. (ed.) NADA (The Southern Rhodesia Native Affairs Department Annual, No.4, December 1926, 85-91.

(1936) ‘The tribes of the Balovale district and the history of their chieftaincies’ paper prepared by District Officer, Balovale, February 20 1936, typescript held by Li ingstone Museum [TH2/17/1].

(1954) ‘Mwanambinye’s hole’ Northern Rhodesia Journal, 2, 4, 110-111.

(1959) ‘Correspondence – Barotse history’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 4, 1, 91-92.

(1959) ‘Paramount Chief Sir Mwanamina III, KBE’ Northern Rhodesia Journal, 4, 2, 193.

(1961) ‘Arthur Harrington of Senanga’ Northern Rhodesia Journal, 4, 6, 595-6.

(1964) ‘Correspondence – Lewanika visits Livingstone’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 5, 5, 513-514