Silozi-English dictionary

This dictionary is contained in five files:

N. n. pronounced as in English When followed by y  it has a palatal sound as in nyuny-wani (bird).

Note: Apart from this sound, letter N has another velar nasal sound as ng in singing. It is shown in this dictionary as a distinct character. n and will be found after n in the alphabetic order.

na1, pers. pron. subj. Ist person sing (with a verb without object or with a simple pron. as obj ) 1: Na mu bona, I see him

na2, emph. pron. I st person sing. me: Ki na ya mu bizize, it is me who called him.

na3, aux. verb. giving the main verb a meaning of continuity: Ni ta na ni sebeza, I shall go on working

na4, interrogative particle. (this par-ticle is used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence; but it can also be used in both places, the second emphasizing the interroga-tion): Na ne ni sika ku bulela cwalo na? well I told you so, didn't l?; Na, ha mu na ku ya, na? you are not going are you?

na5, verb. to be; used in conjunction with the preposition ni, to have; Ni na ni, I have (lit: I am with); or in the negative, not to have: Ha ni na, I have not, Hakuna, there is none; Ku na ni–i? what is wrong with it? -na—or-nela (ile) v.i. (1)to rain: Pula ya na orya nela, it is raining (2) to leak (speaking of a house): Ndu ya nela, the house leaks der. mune-lelo, rel. -nelela (nelezi) to ~ in the way (rain): Pula i mu nelezi kakai? where was he caught by the rain? caus. -nelisa (nelisize) to cause to rain; to cause to leak. freq. -ne-langa to rain frequently red. -nela-nela (nela-nelile) to rain intermit-tently and lightly; to leak a little in some places: Ndu ya ka i nela-nela hanyinyani fela, my house leaks, but not very much. pass. -nelwa (nelilwe) to get wet (by rain)

-naa (naile) v.i. to walk with diffi-culty (difficulty caused by abscess, syphilis, etc. ) caus. -naisa (naisize) to cause to walk with difficulty. red. -naa-naa (naa-naile) to walk slowly and with difficulty.

nabi (linabi) n. prince, mate of royal blood.

nabutolo (bo-nabutolo) n. a lazy person unwilling to make any kind of effort. cf. nakulonda.

nacinkwa (bo-nacinkwa) n. small pox syn. bukalanga.

naha (li or ma-) n. country, land: mwa naheni, in the veldt fig. exp. naha kaufela, the whole nation

-nahana (nahani or nahanile) v.i. to consider, to meditate upon, to think, to ponder der. munahano. caus. -nahanisa (nahanisize) to pro-voke meditation, to stimulate re-flection int. -nahanisisa (nahanisi-size) to think carefully: U nahani-sise hande, u sike wa bulela lishano, think very carefully and do not tell any lies freq. -nahananga to have the habit of pondering matters red. -nahana-nahana (nahana-naha-nile) to spend some time in think-ing: Mu nahane-nahane hande fa taba ye, mu sike mwa i sEya fela allow yourself a little time Ibr rel-fection, and do not leave this matter unsettled.

nahatute (manahatute) n. wilder-ness, desert.

naheni, adv. in the veldt fig. exp. ku ya kwa nahe–i, to go to stool syn. kasaka.

nakabamba, n. wilderness, desert. fig. worthless people; Ha ni lati ku fa lico za ka maiba a nakabamba, I do not like to share my food with useless people (lit. to give food to wild doves)

nakabuma, n. cold wind (which usually blows in March and April, between the rainy and the cold seasons).

nakalomo (bo-nakalomo) n. a talka-tive person.

nakaloti (bo-nakaloti) n. Luyana. sorcerer. syn. muloti, muloi.

nakandama (bo-nakandama) n. kind of mushroom (usually eaten raw).

nakanwele (bo-nakanwele) n. South African, Red-billed Fire Finch. (also kanwele).

nakashasha, n. scurvy syn. ma-zambo, lindombe.

nakasheke, n. Luyana, sandy place.

nakatenge (bo-nakatenge) n. generic name for small fish. fig. exp. milili ya nakatenge, knotty hair, very dif-ficult to comb.

nakatongo (bo-nakatongo) n. kind of grass (used in the preparation of medicine to give strength).

nakawa (bo-nakawa) n. Luyana. cow idiom. exp. nakawa lukula mu-bonda, (the gift of a cow wipes out every fault).

nakeli (bo-nakeli) n. polecat. syn. kangamba.

naketa (bo-naketa) n. any kind of African wooden dish or vessel with a lid.

nako (li-) n. (1) time, moment, period; hour: ka nako ya ndwa, in war time, mwa linako zepeli, in two hours' time; ka nako ya te–i, at the proper time; ku toma nako, to fix a time; ki nako ma–i? what time is it? ka nako ye–wi, another time. (2) Watch clock: Nakoya ka iyemi, ha ni sika if a moya mabani, my watch has stopped because I forgot to wind it up yesterday.

nakŸlonda (bo-nakulonda) n. a lazy person (from 40nda). cfi nabutolo.

nakumene, n. Luyana. generic name for wild fruits. mushrooms, etc.

nakuwana, adv. in an unknown way. syn. kunu, muyemuye.

nala, peace, comfort, liberty, pros-perity: ku ca nala, to live in peace.

nala2, adj. brown with large white spots. (with reference to cows: nalana).

nalela, n. wide open space: Mulena u sa lifa nalela, the Litunga is al-ready in public.

naleli (li) n. star: naleli ye muhata comet.

nali (li-) n. buffalo. fig great fighter.

nalielo (bo-nalielo) n. Luyana. a stupid person (usually applied to a woman unacquainted with marital laws). syn. muelo.

nalikanda, n. Luyana (1) the last dance. (2) the last thing.

nalikena (bo-nalikena) n. a clean, white, fine thing. (from -kena).

nalikolo (bo-) n. Luyana. someone afflicted by umbilical hernia.

nalikundumbwa (bo-nalikun-dumbwa) n. Iong and graceful Afri-can skirt. (from -kundumbwa).

nalikwanda (bo-nalikwanda) n. the Litunga's barge the state barge.

nalikwinji (bo-)n Pigmy Kingfisher.

nalimai (bo-) n. uniucky person. fig. exp. peba nalimai, person victim-ized by everybody (lit. uniucky mouse) syn. mai, nomai.

nalinanu (bo-) n. someone being funny in order to amuse people. (from -nanuba).

nalinyawe (b>) n. someone show-ing off in order to attract attention (from nysuba).

nalitwi (bo-) n. menses; u kwa na-litwi, she is having her monthly period. syn. nde, mweya.

naloya (bo-) n. Luyana. Iechwe an-telope.

nalu (li-) n. Luyana. wickedness, cruelty.

nalubeso (bo-) n. miniature hoe worn as a distinctive women's or-nament.

nalukapwa (bo-) n. Purple Heron.

nalukena (bo-) n. Luyana. kind of grass.

alulea or naluleya (bo-) n. Luyana. young girl not yet pubescent.

nalulelule, n. moment, little while; kwa nalulelule, after a little while syn. muzuzu2.

alulenge (bo-) n. black-winged stilt-bird.

nalumbe (bo-) n. African Jacana, Tilly trotter. (bird).

nalumbwa (bo-) n. small antheap.

n lumino (bo-) n. Luyana, wrong doer, whose behaviour can only bring bad luck.

nalundula or nalundulwa (bo-) n. 8 mole-cricket.

wlungwana (bo-) n. Cape wagtail (bird) (believed to announce visi-tors when it sits on the top of a house; also believed to be God's messenger). fig. person acting as a spy.

nalunkalamba (bo-) n. praying mantis

aluntambwe (bo-) n. chameleon. fig. a lazy and very slow person. syn. Iongolo.

nalusha (bo-) n. kind of fish.

nalutemambo (bo-) n. kind of fish.

nalutio (bo-) n. concubine

nalutota (bo-) n. Rosy-breasted Longolaw. (bird) (from 4nta).

milutowela (bo-) n. action of sorting people into groups or to choose people from different groups: Mu kete batu ka nalutowela, choose people from different groups

nalwange (bo-) n. cattle egret, Buff-backed Egret.

 nama1 (li- or ma-) n. meat, flesh.

-nama2 (namile) v.i. (1) to stretch out one's legs. (2) to spread out (sweet potatoes, pumpkins, etc. ) der. bu-namelo . rel. -namela (namezi) to stretch out one,s legs towards or aginst an object: ku namela mahutu kwa mulilo, to stretch one's legs to-wards the fire. caus. -namisa (nami-size) to cause someone to stretch out his legs; to stretch out some-body's legs. int. a)-namelela (nam-elezi) to stretch out one's legs for a long time; b) -namiseleza (namise-lelize) to stretch out for good rec. -namelana (namelani) to stretch out one's legs against another: Mina banana mu sike mwa name-iana cwalo, mu ka tuha mu lwana, you, children, do not stretch out your legs against one another, or you will be fighting. inv. -namuluha (namuluhile) to change position of the legs; to move one's legs out of the way. fig. to run swiftly. (see: -namuluha). red. -nama-nama (nama-namile) to move one's legs again and again. ref. -inamisa (in-amisize) to be able to stretch out one's own legs: Kuli ni inamise, ha ni koni, lihutu li butuku, I cannot stretch out my leg, for it is painful.

namacilal (tu-) n. kind of winged insect which bites.

namacila2 (bo-) n. Luyana. a person fond of malaka (vegetable mar-rows).

namakanangelwa (bo-) n. Luyana. insubordinate person refusing to carry out orders or follow advice. (from: -kana).

namakau (bo-) n. Luyana. a person possessing many hoes fig. person of great asset to another

namakau-simbundu (bo-) n. Luyana. jackal. syn. Iuwawa.

namala (bo-) n. Iight beer. cfi maheu.

-namalala (namalalile) v.i. to sit with outstretched legs cf. -nama,-tandabala. rel. -namalalela (nama-lalezi) to stretch out one's legs in a certain direction fig. to hasten  somewhere Mwa lu bona lwani, lu namalalezi kai? . you see that tall thin fellow over there, where is he hurrying to? red. -namalala-nama-lala (namalala-namalalile) to change frequently the position of one's legs

-namalaza (namalazize) v.t. to stretch, to extend: namalaza muhala, stretch out the rope.

namalimi-kwalula (bo-) n. someone contradicting himself, someone in-consistenl in his relationship with people .

namalomo (bo-) n. a person with a large mouth.

namalotanu (bo-) n. Luyana. dreamer; person who reveals his dreams to others in spite of the taboo against this fig. a wicked person, an evil-doer. syn. nama-loya, namalianga.

namalianga (bo-) n. scoundrel, ma-lefactor, criminal. syn. namaloya, namalotanu.

namaloya (bo-) n. wicked person, evil-doer. (from: -loya). syn. nama-lotanu, namalianga.

namalwa (bo-) n. special kind of 'drum1 (having a stick through the middle: the rubbing of this stick makes the skin vibrate and the drum resound)

namani (ma-) n. calf fig. king (Li-tunga); namani-ye-tuna, a person who does not agree to leave prob-lems or difficulties unsettled. syn. mwika.

mamasha (bo-) n. fishing net (large meshes)

mamasiku (bo-) n. Luyana person born early in the morning (before sunrise).

namaya (bo-) n. Luyana. Litunga's ny-switch.

nambe (li-) n. Iarge, well made clay pot

nambo (li-) n. Ieather strap (used for tying hunting dogs) fig. any kind of bond, tie, etc: Na se ni li mwa nambo ya ku nyalwa, ha ni sa izamaelafela, I am no longer free for I am engaged to be married

nambotelwa (bo-) n. person unable to do any work properly.

nambulwamoko (bo-) n. Luyana. a lazy person, unable to earn his living. fig. a sleeveless coat

nambulwalitina (bo-) n. an an-onymous person.

nambwamutalati (bo-) n. rain-bow. syn. temwe.

nameke (bo-) n. female wild-goose cf. ngunga. Iicikwi.

nameto (bo-) n. a person appointed to look after a royal tomb syn. nomboti, mushei.

namibonda (bo-) n. Luyana. (1) person often guilty; (2) person in-clined to fine other people even for triffling matters.

namongo (bo-) n. kind of snake fig. jealous person

namonyi (bo-) n. insect living on fresh maize cf. silundolwa, silu-kolwa.

namoo, n. platform reserved for the Litunga in the Kuta.

namusanza (bo-) n. kind of creeper bearing edible fruit

namucoko or mucoko (bo- or mi-) n. kind of pumpkin. cf. namunda-langwe, mupusi.

namuka (namukile) v.i. to walk in a file, (people, cattle, etc.) (namukau (bo-) n. garden belonging to the Litunga and which had to be vol-untarily cultivated in the past syn. mbilye, sinjambi.

namukuka (bo-) n. unmarried woman (young or old, either never married, or abandoned by the hus-band) syn. nasikwakwa.

namukuywe (bo-) n. ungrateful person (from -kuyula).

namulomo (bo-) n. Iarge shrub, edible berries of thesame. (these berries are believed to be the food of ghosts).

-namuluha (namuluhile) v.i. to change position of the legs, to fold the legs, to move one's legs out of the way. cf. -nama. fig. to run swiftly. rel. -nam,uluhela (namulu-hezi) to run towards, to pursue, to chase: Nja ya ka ne i namuluhezi lizwii, kono ya palelwa ku li swala, my dog chased a lechwe but was unable to catch it.

-namulula (namuluzi) v.t. to unfold: ku namulula museme, to unfold a mat. syn. -pubJula. rel. -namululela (namululezi) to unfold for some-one, to unfold for a certain reason. caus. -namululisa (namululisize) to help someone to unfold. freq. -namululanga to have the habit of unfolding. red. -namulula-namulula (namulula-namuluzi) to unfold again and again: Wena u namulula-namulula fela miseme, ku leka ha u leki, you just unfold the mats, but you do not buy them.

namundalangwe (bo-) n. pumpkin. cf. namucoko, mupusi.

namunganga (bo-) n. manner in which three people are stamping in the same mortar: Likalibe li kona ku sita namunganga, young girls can stamp three together in the same mortar.

namungundwe (bo-) n. Luyana. hyena. (from -ngundula) syn. mu-kutulu sitongwani, siwi.

namuntuma (bo-) n. poor person unable to support himself

namushinji (bo-) n. kind of snake (non-venomous).

namutesuko n. fresh maize crushed and dried in the sun to be made into flour when dry.

namutwakubili (bo-) n. an unrelia-ble person, untrustworthy person; liar.

namuyaweli n. maize sown after the generai sowing time in order to provide fresh green cobs after season (from -yawela).

namuyengwe (bo-) n. a swift draught-animal (horse, ox).

-nanabeza (nanabelize) v.t. & v.i. to snatch skilfully to walk carefully without making the least noise

-nanala (nanalile) v.i. to advance, to walk stealthily. rel. -nanalela (na-nalezi) to walk stealthily towards something in order to take or attack by surprise; Muzumi u nana-lela lifolofolo, the hunter is creep-ing up on the wild animals. syn. s-hondakela.

nandakaywa, adv. Luyana. the whole day: Lufuluhile nandakaywa, we have been paddling for the whole day.

nandalume (li-) n. Luyana. a man who earns a good living by work-ing deligently.

nandinde (bo-) n. kind of small palm tree bearing edible fruit

-nanga1 (nangile) v.t. to make des-igns on mats (with mashandi) der. munangi, mananga. rel. -nangela (nangezi) to make designs for someone caus. -nangisa (nangisize) to help someone make designs ref. -inangela (inangezi) to make onoe own designs: Ki yena ya in-angezi museme wa hae, he made his own designs on his mat.

-n nga2 (nangile) v.t. to put a mix-ture of fat and wax. in the centre of a drum skin to make it resound properly. dr. munangi, nango. rel. -nangela (nangezi) to ~ for some-one. -caus. -nangisa (nangisize) to help someone to ~.

-nanga3 (nangile) v.i. the sun is up, it  is getting late.

nangala (li-) n. Luyana. double headed hammer used by blacks-mith.

-nangalala (nangalalile) v.i. to raise the head in order to see in a cer-tain direction caus. -nangalalisa (nangalalisize) to cause to raise the head: Ki–i sa boni se si mu nangala-lisa toho cwalo? what has he seen to make him raise his head like that?

-nangamana (nangamani or nanga-manile) v.i. (1) to straighten one-self; (2) to be raised up above the water (prow of a canoe). caus. -nangamanisa (nangamanisize) to cause to ~.

-nangela (nangezi) v.t. to observe with curiosity, to scout, to take a peep at to survey, to spy. syn. -uku-mela, -yunda. cf. -shoka. der. Ii-nangekb rel. -nangelela (nangelezi) to enquire for someone. caus. -nangelisa (nangelisize) to cause to observe, to survey. freq. -nange-langa or -nanpela (nangaezi) to observe every now and then.

nangenya (bo-) n. kind of grass used in basketry.

nango (li-) n. mixture made of fat and wax and used to make drums resound properly. (from-nanga). syn. Iikosho.

nangu (li-)' n. a clever person, expert in singing; a person learn-ing quickly a foreign language; a person especially gifted in all dis-ciplines. syn. sikwab.

nangu' expression used beofre a re-quest, please: Nangu mu to ni bitula kamuso ha mu ta ya kwa Mongu, please come and fetch me to-morrow when you go to Mongu. syn. inge.

-nanguka (nangukile) v.i. to stretch up inclined backwards: Nanguka hande ni ku sele mulyani mwa me o. keep your hand bent backwards so that I can put the drops in your eyes. syn. -inuka. caus. -nangukisa (nangukisize) to bend the head backwards.

-nangula (nanguzi) v.t. to bend the head back: Mu mu nangule toho. Iu mu bee mulyani mwa meto, bend his head back so that we can put drops in his eyes.

naniliatandombe (bo-) n. Smaller Jacana, Little Tilly Trotter (bird)

nankwayula (ho-) n. a woman spoken of despisingly. (from -kwayuka).

-nanuba (nanubik) v.i. to make fun in order to amuse people. der. nali-n nu, bunanu, linaRu. rel. -nanubela (nanubezi) to do amusing things in order to attract people's attention, to amuse for some purpose. caus. -nanubisa (nanubisize) to amuse people with something. freq. -na-nubanga to keep awake: U no na-nubanga ni wena, do keep alert, will you!

-nanuha (nanuhile) v.i. to get up; to spring up (plants), to grow up (children).

-nanula (nanuzi) v.t. to lift up, to ralse. der. munanuli, smanuliso. rel. -nanulela (nanulezi) to raise to-wards. caus. -nanulisa (nanulisize) to help or order to lift up. int. -na-nulelela (nanulelezi) to litt up and carry the whole: Ba nanulelezi li-byana kaufela ku isa kwa likamba, they have already moved every-thing to the shore. freq. -nanulanga to lift up habitually. red. -nanula-nanula (nanula-nanuzi) or-nanaula (nanauzi) to lift up now and then. ref. -inanulela (in mlezi) to lift up and carry for oneself: Mu tuhele ni ta inanulela mutiyo wa ka, leave it, I shall carry the load myself.

na–ala (bo-) n. plenty of water: Ba tazize poto ka na–ala wa mezi ibo bupi ki bo bunyinyani, they filled up the pot with water when it con-tained only a little mealie-meal.

na–undu (bo-) n. earthen lid.

na–we (bo-) n. dropsy.

na–ungelele (bo-) n. manner of re-cruiting everybody for a certain purpose: Kacenu . ki na–ungelele, batu kaufela ba isizwe kwa Kuta, touay everynoay has been called and taken to the court.

-napuluha (napuluhile) v.i. to be left with an empty breast or udder

-napulula (napuluzi) v.t. to milk to the last drop. syn. -hamulula. rel. -napululela (napululezi) to milk to the last drop for a certain purpose. caus. -napululisa (napululisize) to milk to the last drop for some reason: Mu sike mwa napulisa banana likomu za mutu, do not allow the children to milk the people's cows to the last drop.

nasikambo (bo-) n. Sacred Ibis.

nasikuku (bo-) n. hen.

nasikwakwa (bo-) n. unmarried woman. syn. namakuka.

nasilele, n. name of Nyambe's wife

msi–ange (bo-) n. a person who is never pleased with what happens, is done, or is given: Luna batu lu bo nasi–ange; ha ku si na pula lwa bil-aela, ku nele pula lwa tongoka, we people are never satisfied, when it does not rain we grumble, and we are still dissatisfied when it is pouring down.

nasitwitwi (bo-) n. kind of little bird.

nasiyalila (bo-) n. small blind harm-less snake (this snake is believed to foretell the death of a a relative) syn. simonoliywa.

-nata (natile) v.t. to beat; to strike: ku nata mutu, to beat a person; TweluSu i se i nata, it is already striking twelve der. munati, sina- tiso. cf. -shapa, -opa, -tuyula. rel. -natela (natezi) to beat on some-one's behalf; to beat with a defi-nite intention: Ni mu natela ku sa utwa kwa hae, l am beating him be-cause of his disobedience caus. -natisa (natisize) to cause or to help to beat. int. -natelela (natelezi) to beat all (a whole group of chil-dren, etc.) rec. -natana (natani or natanile) to beat each other; to fight. rec. a) -natanga to have the habit of beating; b) -nataka (nata-kile) to beat repeatedly and severely; c) -natakisa (natakisize) to cause someone to be beaten re-peatedly and severely. ref. -inata (inatile) to hurt oneself: Ni inatile kwa sikwalo, l hurt myself on the door

natamikwa (bo-) n. dug out canoe which always precedes the royal barge.

Natamoyo (bo-) n. second council-lor in both Lealui and Nalolo courts (in the past, when someone who was condemned to death touched him or ran to his court-yard to get refuge, he was saved) fig. Saviour.

natandi (bo-) n. prince's wife, cf. meyana.

natangundu (bo-) n. Namaqua Dove

Nateyo, n. one of the Litunga's yards.

natikowa (li-) n. clan of origin of any Mulozi; ba natikowa, people belonging to such a clan

-natuka (natukile) v.i. to lose one's temper rel. -natukela (natukezi) to be very angry with someone: lfa li wa ni natukela cwana, se ni ikomo-kela fela, I really got amazed at the way he flew into rage with me. caus. -natukisa (natukisize) to cause someone to fly into a rage


nawa (li- or ma-) n. bean

Nayuma, n. one of the Litunga's yards (where precious things used to be stored).

nca, adj. new, fresh, young.

nceluk (li-) n. grown up person (also fully grown animal). syn. kokota, silmkota.

nciba (li-) n. col. name. Great quantity of small fish called mis-hiba. cf. mushiba.

ncumbe (li- or be-) n. a tall. stout person.

newa (li-) n. disease: Ncwa ya Bulozi, leprosy. fig. a person expert in a particular work: Yo ki newa kwa ku yaha, this person is expert in building.

nda1 (li-) n. Iouse, chikoe (jigger). syn. katakinya.

nda2 interj. of denial. no!

-ndsamana (ndsamani or ndsama-nine) v.i. to run fast. syn. -bnda-mana, -msta. rel. -ndsamanela (ndsamanezi) to run fast towards. c us. -ndsamanis (ndsam nisize) to chase. int. -ndsamanekla (ndsa-manelezi) to run away for good

-ndsameka (ndsamekile) v.t. to chase

ndabbangwana (bo-) n. Luyana. vagabond, tramp, hobo.

ndaleti (li-) n. (1) a person ap-pointed to protect birds in their breeding place (thicket of reeds) and to keep an eye on the young ones to save them from being slaughtered. (2) a person ap-pointed to scare birds from the Li-tunga's fields at seed time or when harvest time has approached.

ndalume (li-) n. Luyana war axe.

nd malume (li- or bo-) n. a man living at his wife's palce.

ndamauna (ndamauzi) n. v.t. to fire several shots one after another.

ndamb (li-) n. nervure of a palm leaf cut in such a way as to pro-duce a loud sound by friction. fig. visible ribs on a very thin body: Mutu yo u kulile hahulu, makuro a hae se ili ndamba fela, this person has been very ill, his ribs look like a notched palm-leaf nervure.

-ndambaela (ndambaezi) v.i. to walk very slowly (as a sick person) syn. -ndambyaela, -ndombysela. rel. -ndambyselela (ndambyselezi) to walk slowly to a certain place. c us. -ndambaelisa (ndambaelisize) to cause to walk slowly; to help walk slowly.

ndambo (li-) n. guide, leader; ndambo-muwa-muwa. a kind hearted person always showing the right way in every respect. syn. nungu. cf. ndau.

-ndambysela (ndamyaezi) v.i. same as -ndamiela.

-ndambyela (ndambyezi) v.t. to stretch material when sewing: U ndambyele hande ndelesi ya ka, take care when sewing my dress and do not make zig-zags.

ndamiw (li- or ma-) n. garden behind a house.

-ndamwena (ndamwesi) v.t. Luyana, to seperate fighting people, to rescue, to save from danger. der. bundamweti, syn. -lamulela.

-ndandala (ndandalile) v.t. to curse, to wish evil upon, to utter impre-cations. der. mundandali. syn. -kuta' -shenya. rel. -ndandalela (ndandalezi) to curse on some-one's behalf caus. -ndandalisa (ndandalisize) to cause to curse freq. . -ndandal nga to be inclined to curse for trifling reasons: Wena u ndandalanga fe/a bana ba hao mo ku sina libaka, you, you curse your chilaren all the time wAhout gooa reason.

-ndandama1 (ndandamile) v.i. to walk  hurriedly, to rush forward. syn. akufa. rel. -ndandamela (ndanda-mezi) to walk hurriedly towards caus. -ndandamisa ( ndandamisize ) to cause to rush; to take some-thing hurriedly to a certain place: U ndandamiseza kai mukeke wa ka wo? where are you rushing off to with my plate?

-ndandama2 (ndandamile) v.i. to pal-pitate, to throb syn. -lukuma, -luluma. fig. to puff as a railway engine: sitima na mu ndandamo, the train. rel. -ndandamela (ndanda-mezi) fig. to puff at a cerlain dis-tance: Sitima nako ye, se siyo ndan-damela kwakule, now the train is already puffing far away. caus. -ndandamisa (ndandamisize) to cause to palpitate: Se si ndanda-misa pilu ya hae cwalo ki .sabo, it is fear that causes such heart palpita-tions.

ndandanda (ma-) n. succession of many villages built in a line, mostly along the edge of foresl.

ndandulo (li-) n. silling room, lounge (in a house)

-ndandumuka (ndawumukile) v.i. to walk, to cycle, to drive down a slope; to descend. der. mundandu-muko, syn. -shetumuka, -ngenyuka. rel. -ndandumukela (ndandumukezi) to descend in a certain direction; to fall to: Potoloto ya ka i ndandu-mukezifafasi, my pencil fell on lhe floor. caus. -ndandumukisa (ndan-dumukisize) to cause to fall.

-ndanga1 (ndangile) v.t. lo give ex-press orders der. mundangi. cf. Iaa.

-ndanga2 (ndangile) v.i. to dance (girls' initiation dance) der. mun-dangi. caus. -ndangisa (ndangisize) to teach a girl the initiation dance.

ndangamwa, adv. persistently. round the clock without rest: Kacenu lu yemi ndangamwa, lu sebeza ka tata, we are working very hard lodays withoul rest righl round the clock.

-ndanyuka (ndanyukile) v.i. lo spill oul (water, milk, etc.) syn. -suluha. rel. -ndanyukela (ndanyukezi) to spill down: Mabisi a ndanyukezi fafasi, milk spilled on lo the floor.

-ndanyuna (ndanyuzi) v.t. to spill (waler, milk, elc.): Nja i ndanyuzi mabisi a ka. a dog spilied my milk. syn. -sulula rel. -ndanyunela (nda-nyunezi) to spill someone's milk. water, etc . . .: Mwa bona ki kale a ni ndanyunena mabisi a ka? Iook he has spilled my milk! caus. -ndanyu-nisa (ndanyunisize) to cause to spill. in!. -ndanyunelela (ndanyune-lezi) to spill entirely.

ndate (bo-) n. father; my falher, (used in greeling any man).

ndau (li-) n. someone who knows well things not known by others; guide. Ieader. cf. ndambo.

ndaundau (li-) n. kind of lree, the roots of which are used in lhe preparalion of a powder-perfume. (see lukumba).

nde, adj. good, nice, fine, beauliful, right.

nde1 (li-) n. Luyana. Iion.

nde2 (li ) n. Luyana. menses. syn. na-litwi, cf. mweya

ndea, n. adolescence, youth: U fumani mba mwa ndea, she became pregnant in her youth: U melezi limbi mwa ndea, his hair lurned while while he was still adolescenl.

ndee (li-) n. someone shirking one,s work or duty. cf. bundee.

ndklesi (ma-) n. Eng. dress.

ndelumuna (li-) n. (us. p..) fresh young leaves (of any lree).

ndelwa (li-) n. fealher. head-dress.

ndembela (li-) n. ’lag, banner.

ndembwe, n. slowness in doing things. syn. mbombwe.

 ndendeka (ndendekile) v.t. to con-verse, to hold a long conversation with, to make conversation to syn. -ambola. caus.

ndendelya, adv. for a long time under water: Mukolo wa hae wa sa li ku li ndendelya, ni ka nako ye ha u cimbuki, his canoe is still under water~ it has not yet come to the surface.

ndendema (ndendemile) v.i. to be without strength caus. -ndende-misa (ndendemisize) to weaken. ref. -indendemisa (indendemisize) to pretend to be sick or weak: U sike wn indendemisa. hakuna ya ka kona ku ku lwala, do not pretend to be sick, for there is nobody who will be able to take you to the hospital (to carry you)

-dendemela1 (ndendemezi) v.i. to be smooth (skin)

ndendemela2 (li-) n. silk cloth

-ndendeya (ndendeyile) v.i. to speak lengthily cf. -ndengula rel. -nden-deyela (ndendeyezi) to speak to someone at length. caus. -nden-deyisa (ndendeyisize) to cause to ~ red. -ndendeya-ndendeya (nden-deya-ndendeyile) to speak ceaseles-sly

-ndendula (ndenduzi) v.t. to hit. rel. -ndendulela (ndendulezi) to hit on someone's behalf, to hit in a cer-tain direction. red. -ndendaula (ndendauzi) to hit repeatedly

ndendumuna (ndendumuzi) v.t. to cut open a calabash, to open a tin with a knife or a tin-opener. der. mundendumuni, sindendumuniso. cf. -kwalula. rel. -ndendumunela (nden-dumunezi) to open a tin for some-one caus. -ndendumunisa (ndendu-munisize) to help to open a tin. int. -ndendumunelela (ndendumunelezi ) to open a tin completely. ref. ndendumunela (indendumunezi) to  open for oneself: Mwanana yo ni yena sa kona ku indendumunela ma-huluhulu, this child can now open mahuluhulu fruit by himself.

ndenga (li-) n. action of digging a canal for the first time

-ndengula (ndenguzi) v.i. to speak loudly and lengthily. der. kamun-dengule. rel. -ndengulela ( ndengu-lezi) to go and speak at length somewhere. caus. -ndengulisa (ndengulisize) to speak endlessly freq. -ndengulanga to have the habit of ~.

ndenja (li-) n. Eng. danger. syn. kozi, ziyezi.

ndenyuka (ndenyukile) v.i. to be very hot (speaking of the sun): Lizazi la kacenu li ndenyukile maswe, the sun is very hot today.

-ndeya, n. see ndea.

ndewetele (bo-) n. a great eater syn. sicombulaye

ndiala (li-) n. orphan, fatherless, motherless, survivor (also ndiyala).

ndikusi (li-) n. Bottle-nose fish known scientifically as Mormyrus lacerda

ndilu (li-) n. Glossy Starling (bird).

-ndimana (ndimani) v.i. to run quickly. syn. -ndsamana, -ngwili-mana.

ndimba1 (li-) n. Luyana. kind of genet. syn. sipa.

-ndimba2 (ndimbile) v.t. Luyana. to hate. der. ndimbelela syn. -toya.

-ndimbela (ndimbezi) v.t. to hold someone tightly in wrestling, (to look the neck with the arm). rel. -ndimbelela (ndimbelezi) to throttle on behalf of someone. rec. -ndi belana (ndimbelani) to hold each other tightly by the neck.

ndimbelela, n. hatred resentment. syn. shoyo (from -ndimba).

ndimbwandi (bo-) n. a person hated  by many without reason. ndinda (li-) n. Luyana. edge of a cul-tivated field.

-ndindaa (ndindile) v.t. as -ndimbela. -ndindaela (ndindaezi) v.i. to walk in a martial manner cf. -ndingaela, der. mundindaeli. rel. -ndindaelela (ndindaelezl) to walk somewhere martially. caus. -ndindaelisa (ndin-daelisize) to cause to ~: Se si mu ndindaelisa cwalo ki mukusi kaufela, he is walking in a military fashion because he is very strong. red. -ndindaela-ndindaela (ndindaela-ndindaezi) to give a false impress-ion of strength by walking in a martial manner.

-ndindila (ndindilile) v.i. to refuse to be sent, to disobey. syn. -hana. caus. -ndindilisa (ndindilisize) to cause disobedience.

-ndinduka (ndindukile) v.i. to have one's fill, to be satiated, satisfied: U. ndindukile, he is satisfied, he has got enough. syn. -kula, -sinduka. cuas. -ndindukisa (ndindukisize) to give much food, to completely fill someone.

-ndingaela (ndingaezl) v.i. to walk see: -ndindaela.

ndingulu, noun taken adverbially making a detour: ku zamaya nding-ulu, to take a long way, to make a detour. fig. to talk round a subject. ndinu (li-) n. Luyana excrement.

zndinyuka (ndinyukile) v.i. as -ndin-duka.

-ndinyuna (ndinyuzl) v.t. to strangle, to choke, throttle syn. -kama. rel. -ndinyunela (ndinyunezi) to strangle for someone, to strangle for a reason. ref. -indinyunisa (indinyuni-size) to act in a way which would cause one great trouble: Ki mulatu wa hao, ki wena ya indinyunisize mutu, it is your fault, you were just asking for that man to be angry.

ndiulu, n. homesickness, nostalgia. idiom. exp. Ndiulu i isa ba ba–ata mwa libita, nostalgia causes the death to many. (from -itiulula). syn. Iiululu.

ndiyameni, n. bereavement (of hus-band or wife) (from -siyamena)

ndo (ma-) n. Luyana. hut, house syn. ndu.

ndokozwani, n. milking cows for the third time in quick succession habit of completely striping cows. (from-lokoza) syn. mulokozwani.

ndolo (li-) n. Iayer of grass on the surface of water: KÇlora kifa ndolo ha kuftEwi, here we are now on grass layered over water, and so we cannot cross. syn. kanamu-lumbe, kanamukowa

ndolondo (tu-) n. wart, skin excres-cence on various parts of the body. syn. kanamulumbe, kanamu-kovva.

-ndolyoka (ndolyokile) v.i. to look at persistently. cf. -talima. rel. -ndo-lyokela (ndolyokezi) to look in a cerfain direction: Undolyokezikai? Talima kwanu, where are you look-ing? Iook this way! caus. -ndolyo-kisa (ndolyokisize) to cause to ~

-ndomaeta (ndomaetile) v.i. to be craving for food: Yomuhulu umaswe ku ndomaeta pilu inge mwa-nana, it is bad for an adult to show a great craving for food like a child. rel. -ndomaetela (ndomaetezi) to be craving for, to be longing for: ku ndomaetela sico, to be craving for food caus. -ndomaetisa (ndo-maetisize) to cause a craving for. freq. -ndomaetanga to be inclined to crave for food.

-ndomauna (ndomauzi) v.t. to eat little bits at a time like a child.

ndombe (li-) n. barble fish. idlom. exp. ku tubeta ndombe, ku sEya muwayo. to attach more impor  tance to a thing than to what en-abled you to find it. (lit: to kiss the barble fish and leave the spear)

ndombondombo, n. characteristic sign or habit pertaining to the members of a particular clan: hereditary characteristic: Bao ki ndombondombo ya bona, ha ba to-menenwi, they have those heredi-tary characteristics, and cannot be imitated.

-ndombvvanga (ndomwangile) v.i. to be ashamed, unable to answer em-barrassing questions. der. mun-dombwangisi. caus. -ndomb v ngisa (ndombvvangisize) to ask embar-rassing questions. rec. -ndomb-wangisana (ndombvvangis ni) to ask each other embarrassing que-stions. ref. -indombvvangis (in-dombwangisize) as -ndombvvangi-s na.

-ndombvilikda (ndombvvilik tite or ndomb viliketiie) v.t. to speak with a bad intention of someone: Ha u mu bona a ndombwiliketa cwalo ki busawana, when you hear him speaking like this, you can be sure that he is slandering someone. rel. -ndomb vilikdeb (ndombvviliketezi) to report about someone: Zamaya u yo ndombwiliketela koo wena u musinyi wa mabizo a ba ba–wi kamita, go and make your report elsewhere, you are always slande-ring people. caus. -ndomb vilikdisa (ndomb viiikdisize) to cause to speak badly of rec. -ndombwilikiti-ssna (ndombvvilikitis ni) to cause each other to ask questions, to provoke each other.

-ndombyada (ndombysezi) v.i. to walk slowly; without strength. der. mundombyseli. syn. -ngunysela, -shonjJnga. rel. -ndombyselela (ndombyselezi) to walk slowly to-wards. cuas. -) -ndombyselisa (ndomby elisize) to cause to walk slowly; b) -ndombyseliseza (ndom-byaeliselize) to accompany some-where a person too weak to walk alone: Na ni zwile mwa sipatela ne ni tokwile wa ku ni ndombyaeliseza kwa hae, l failed to find someone to help me home when I left the hospital. int. -ndombyselelela (ndombyselelezi) to go for good somewhere, handicapped by weakness. ref. -indombyselis (in-dombyselisize) to drag oneself along.

-ndombyanga (ndombpngik) v.i. as ~nby da.

ndondango, n. habit of getting things from the same place again and again: ku eza simu ya mutu ndondango. to steal again and again in someone's field.

ndondela, n. well-being, comfort: Ni ca ndondela mwa musebezi wa ka, I am happy in my work. ndondelia or

ndondelys, adv. with satisfaction: idiom. exp. ku miza ndondelia, to drink, to eat with satisfaction.

ndondo1 (li-) n. earthen pot, pitcher. fig. exp. ku tiba sina ndondo, not to know how to swim, Musali ya sa pepi ki ndondo ya ku nwela mezi, a sterile woman is of no use at all.

ntlondo2 (li-) n. one of ruminant's stomachs. cf. sibumba

ndondo3, interj. of joy; of thankful-ness: Ndondo! mwanaka u f tile, I am so happy my child has come.

-ndondola1 (ndondozl) v.t. (1) to fillip: Ni ndondozi mahuluhulu a ka kauXela,'kono ha ku na le li buzwize, I hiliped all my mahuluhulu; but not a single one was ripe. Fsg. exp. Bwa sa Š ku sa ni sa ka ndonodoli, I did not eat anything for the whole day. (2) to shoot at or hit with an arrow. rel. -ndondolela (ndondolezi)  to fillip for someone, to shoot at with arrows for someone. fret;.

-ndondaula (ndondauzi) to fillip re-peatealy with arrows.

-ndodaula2 (ndondozi) v.i. to hatch (bring forth from the egg)

ndondoma (ndondomile) t.i. to speak with a very low voice, to speak angrily. rel. -ndo domda ( dondomezi) to speak angrily to someone. caus. -ndondomis (ndt~ tomisize) to cause to ~. ref. -in-tiondomisa (indondomisize) to force one's voice.

ndontiomoka (ndondomokile) v.i. to hatch. (emerge from the egg).

ndondomons (ndondomozi) v.t. to hatch, (bring forth from the egg). fig. to have many children. rd. -ndondomoneb (ndondomonezi) to hatch in a certain place. int. -ndon-domonelela (ndontiomonelezi) to batch all the eggs.

ndondwe, n. stoop! Bona munna wa ndondwe u Suluha mukolo wa ndondwe, just look at that stoop-ing man in his canoe which is dangerously down at the prow.

-ndondwela (ndon~rezl) e.t. (1) to grasp by the arm (people) by the leg or horn (cattle). (2) to put one:s arm tightly round someone's neck. syn. -bmbela. rd. xdondwelda ( dondv eizi) to grasp, to seize on someone's behalf. caus. -ndondwe-lisa (ndond velisize) to help to grasp. rec. xdondwd | (ndond ve-lani) to grasp each other tightly.

ndonga (li-) n. needle; syringe: ku taba ndonga. to give an injection. idiom exp. ku shela mwa lito la ndonga, to have a close shave; to have a lucky escape from a great danger.

ndongo1 (li-) n. ground nut, pea nut, monkey nut.

ndongo (li-) n. entrance of a bow- net. syn. sip i.

ndongo3 (li-) n. prow of a canoe: ku uluha mwa ndongo, to paddle at the prow.

ndongwa (li-) n. short-handled spear. fig. exp. ku taba ndongwa, to participate uninvitedly in a meal leaving the hosts hungry.

ndongwvama (ndongv mi or ntlong-vamile) w.t. (I ) to hate persistently: Uutu yo u ni ndongwami m¿we. konji a ni bulaye. this man hates me very much and I fear he might kill me. (2) to chase: Npya ka i ndong-wami /kwŸ, my dog chased a lechwe antelope. rel. -ndong va-mda (ndong v mezi) to hate for a reason: Ku ndongwamela mutu ku sa hae ku m¿we, it is bad to hate someone because of jealousy alone. c us. -ndong vamisa (ndong-vamisize) to act in such a way that a person is hated by someone. int. -ndongwamdeb (ntingbnmeEzi) to hate someone for ever m. -ndong vam na (ndong v m ni) to hate each other persistently. ref. -indong vama (intlong v mi) as rec.

ndoo (li-) n. Luyana. Ieopard. syn. ngwe.

ndopu(li-) n. Luyana. elephant. syn. tou. Banabondopu, twins. syn. mambik. idiom. exp. ndopu-wa-sele-saye, something belonging to no one; Simu ya ka ba if etuzi ndopu-wa-se/e-saye, ba i kungela lico mo ba latela, they consider my field as an ownerless plot where they help themselves to the crop just as they like; ndopu-a-sibinda, caviller, someone who has the habit of rais-ing objections: Mutu yo, ku mu isa mo wa hana, ku mu isa ka fa wa hana, ki ndopu-a-sibinda, this man cavils, for you ask him to do this he refuses, ask him to do that he refuses.


ndotwani (li-) n. penis syn. nemba.

ndowa (li-) n. mud. syn. siieze.

ndu1 (ma-) n. (1) hut, house- room. (2) family (3) household effects: Lisholi u huhuzi ndu ya ka kaufela, a thief has robbed me of all my be-longings. spec. exp. ndu ya mwana, womb; matrixl after-birth; pla-centa ndu ya kokwani, cocoon. cf. mwalianjo. sa exp. ku kena mwandu ya mutu to commit adultery.

ndu2 interj. full up! Ndondo i tezi ili ndu ya mezi, the pitcher is full of water right up to the rim; Mwa ndu ya ni mo ba-silisa ku se ku tezi batu, ku ize ndu! that house where people are mourning is already full

ndui2 (ma-) n. fisherman.

ndul2 (li-) n. kind of water insect living on fish.

ndulweti (bo-) n. wild bitter vegeta-ble.

ndumba (li-) n. woollen blanket. cf. Iipai.

ndumbana (li-) n. a strong brave capable man.

ndumbwi! interj. used for a thing disappearing in water or for the setting of the sun: Lizazi cwale se li li ndumbwi! the sun is now setting. (from -ndumbwikela).

-ndumbwikela (ndumbwikezi) v.i. to disappear (of the sun; of anything under the surface of water) sp. exp.: Ku zwisa muhupulo mwa toho ya musali ku tata ku f ta sitibo se si ndumbwikezi mwa botolo ya mu-kungulu, to make a woman change her mind is more difficult than to extract a cork out of an empty bottle. syn. -tupwikela. caus. -ndumbwikelisa (ndumbvvikelisize ) to cause to throw something into water. Int. -ndumbwikelela (ndumiF wikelezi) to disappear entirely in water. (see kandumbwi).

-ndumbwikeza (ndumbwikelize) v.t. to throw something into water or into a deep hole.

ndume (li-) n. a courageous man (from -ndumeba).

ndume2 (li-) n. severe ailment of the abdomen (tumour)

-ndumeba (ndumebile) v.i. Luyana. to be courageous. der. ndume ibun-dume. rel. -ndumeibela (ndumeizi) to face courageously. caus. -ndu-mebisa (ndumebisize) to give cour-age toheanen tostimulatesome-one's courage.

ndumeketi (II-) n. ambassador rep-resentative of a government in a foreign country. syn. mulumiws.

ndumepu (li-) n. Iarge bull hippopo-tamus.

ndumewa (li-) n. male dog. cf. nja.

-ndumuka (ndumukile) v.i to become dispersed; fiy away (many birds) syn. -ungumuka -undumuka -ngumuka. cf. -hasasa. rel. -ndumu-kela (ndumukezi) to disperse or to fiy away in a cenain direction Li-nyunywani Ii ndumukezi kai? where did the birds fly to? caus. -ndumu-kisa (ndumukisize) to disperse int. -ndumukelela (ndumukelezi) to become dispersed fiying away for good.

-ndumuna (ndumuzl) v.t. to disperse to scatter; to scare birds. cf. -lita rel. -ndumunela (ndumunezi) to scare birds. intentionally: Banana ba ni ndumunezi linyunywani ze ne ni bata ku kunupa children scared away the birds which I was going to shoot. caus. -indumunisa (ndu-munisize) to help to scare birds. int. -ndumunekela (ndumunelezi) to scare away all the birds.

nduna (ma-) n. chief councillor: nduna wa muezi, village headman.

-ndunda (ndundile) v.i. to make a noise when walking quickly with short steps: Ni utwa mutu ya ndunda kwande, I can hear the noise of someone walking quickly outside. rel. Uundela (ndundezl) to hurry somewhere taking short steps: Y>acenu ni ndundezi hahulu kwande bake–isa ku katazwa ki mala, last night I hurried many times outside because of suffering from diar-rhoea. caus. -ndundim (ndundisize) (1) to cause to toddle or to walk hurriedly: Mwanana yo se si mu ndundisa cwana ki–i? why is this child toddling like this? (2) to take away hurriedly: A mu bone njayani i ndundisa sisapo, look at that dog hurrying with a bone. (3) to step heavily when carrying a load. int. -dundiseleza (nduodiselelize) to carry away everything: Ki lisholi u ndundiselc/ize nama kaufela kwa hae, he is a thief for he took all the meat to his home.

ndundana (ndundani or ndundanile) a.i. (I ) to work energetically: lfacenu ni ndundanile ahulu, mi ni felize musebezi wa ka, I made a very great effort today and I have finished my work. (2) to resist: Na ndundana kono cwale u honehile, he tried to resist but now his strength has gone. der. mandunda caus. -dund nis (nd_nbize) to cause to resist. ref. -bdundanilsa (Indun-daniiize) to wrestle.

ndundo (li-) n. cervical bone.

ndundu (li-) n. bundle of bark strips. cf. _ba.

-ndundula (ndunduzl) v.t. to stamp a small quantity of bran. syn. -n8 nda rel. -ndundulela (ndundu-ilezi) to ~ for someone. ca". -ndundulisa (ndundulbize) to help to ~ freq. -ndundaub (ndundauzl) to ~ hurriedly. ref. -bd kla (bdun-dulezl) to ~ for oneself.

-ndunduma (ndundumile) v.l. to  hurry (as on a trip). rel. -ndundu-mela (ndundumezi) to hurry some-where. caus. -ndundumisa (ndundu-misize) (1) to cause to hurry; (2) to forget one's duty because of great haste: Ki–i se si ku ndundumisize cwalo, mane u yo ndundumisa ni ma–olo a batu? why were you in such a hurry that you even forgot people's letters.

-ndunduya (ndunduylle) v.i. to walk from one place to another (child). der. Iindunduya. c us. -ndunduyisa (ndunduyisize) to cause to walk everywhere.

ndunu (li-) n. chaff (corn, millet) syn. muku.

ndutata, n. stubbornness, obsti-nacy. syn. maha–i.

nduyana (li-) n. someone who knows the river very well; expen fisherman believed to have power over crocodiles.

ndwa (li-) n. war, battle, struggle, fight.

ndwafulu (li-) n. Iarge tonoise. cf. kuh.

ndwalume (li-) n. courageous and experienced warrior.

ndwenduka (nd vendukile) v.i. to look fixedly, to stare at. syn. -njuka, -lubuka, -lutub. rel. ~ vendukela (ndvendhkezi) to look at fixedly, to stare at. c us. -ndvven-dukisa (ndvvendukbize) to cause to ~.

ndwindwi (bo-) n. a species of edible mushroom

ne1 adv. no polite word of refusal or denial. cf batili, awa.

ne2 ad;. rour: batu ba bane, four people; mapulu amane, four oxen.

neamba (bo-) n. troublesome person, a person talking too much and without restraint.

nebeta (bo-) n. a very old person.

nee! inter;. Ku li nee! se ili nee! it is  quiet. syn. ku li tuu! se ili tuu!

-nefuka (nefukile) v.i. to be empty (stomach): Mwa mbaya hae ku nefu-kile, his stomach is empty.

-nefuka2 (nefukile) v.i. to be full of elasticity. (objects).

nefunjo (bo-) n. someone who eats greedily regardless of others. (from funjela).

-neka (nekile) v.i. to be very finely sifted: Bupi bwa No. 1, bu nekile hahulu ku fta bwa No. 2, No. l flour is sifted much more finely than No. 2. caus. -nekisa (nekisize) to sift very finely.

neku (orig.) lineku (ma-) n. side-kwa neku leli–wi, on one side- kwa neku lisili, on another side; kwa maneku kaufela, from all sides from all points of view; kwa neku la bulyo, on the right; kwa neku la nzohoto, on the left.

nekunda (bo-) n. a woman aware of evil things but keeping silent. fig. woman's underwear.

-nela (nelile) v.i. (see na-).

-nema (nemile) v.i. (1) to walk with a jerky gait (due to a heavy load). (2) to be unbalanced, to bend due to heaviness: Mutiyo wa ka wa ni bulaya bake–isa ku nema, the load I am carrying on the stick is ex-hausting me because it tends to jerk. syn. -nemuka cf. -tepeta. caus. -nemisa (nemisize) to cause to sag when walking, to cause to bend (heaviness). red. -nema-nema (nema-nemile) to walk with small and quick steps (as when carrying a heavy load).

nemba (li-) n. penis. syn. ndot vani.

nembele (li-) n. kind of fish (with a small mouth). syn. mutokeya.

nembwe (li-) n. kind of fish.

-nemda (nemetile) v.t. to carry to transport to remove things in stages: Na, ki na ni sweli ku nemeta mbonyi ya bona ni li nosi, I am car-rying their maize all by myself. syn. -nemuka. caus. -nemetisa (ne-metisize) to help to carry to trans-pOn many things.

-nemuka1 (nemukile) v.i. to be bent due to heaviness. der. manemuka. syn. -nema. caw. -nemukisa (nemu-kisize) to bend: lWitai ya mango ya ka, i nemukisizwe ki ku bey ahahulu, the branches of my mango tree are bent by the fruit. int. -nemukelela (nemukelezi) to be extremely bent.

-nemuka2 (nemukile) v.i. to remove things in stages. syn. -nemeta.

-nenaula or -nenauna (nenauzi) v.t. to despise continually. der. mune-nauni syn. -nyefula. rel. -nenaunela (nenaunezi) to despise about something: Ku nenauneia mutu fa nama ya hae ku maswe, it it is bad to despise someone-because he re-fused to let you buy some of his meat. caus. -nenaunisa (nenauni-size) to provoke someone's con-tempt.

-nenekeza (nenekelke) v.i. & v.t. (1) to restrain one's language; (2) to give parsimoniously.

-nengaX (nengiie) v.t. (1) to try to find out a matter privately (2) to betray. der. munengi kanenga. syn. beteka. rel. -nengela (nengezi) to have bad designs against. c us. -nengisa (nengisize) to provoke be-trayal. int. -nengeleb (nengelezi) to persevere in having bad designs against someone. red. -nenga-nenp.(neng-nengile) to try to detect.

-neng 2 (nengile) v.i. Luyana. to dance (any kind of dance).

nengelelo (bo-) n. Pied Kingfisher. syn. mutangalati sakacompole.

-nenola or -nenona (nenozl) v.t. as -nenona.

-nenumuka (nenumukile) v.i. to slip der. munenene.

-nepa (nepile) v.t. (1) to hit on the right a–swer; (2) to throw (spear or stone) (3) to ejaculate. der. b munepi nepo syn. -posa. rel. nepela (nepezi) to throw to: U Enepezi tipa mwa mezi, he threw a knife into the water. fig. exp. ku nepela mutu linguli, to speak to someone in parables. caus. -nepisa (nepisize) to make a person be right or find the right answers Int.stat. -nepahala (nepahalile) to be all correct (answers). int. -nepe-Ida (nepelezi) to find all the cor-rect answers. rec. -enpana (nepani f - or nepanile) to throw at each other. freq. -nepanga to usually find the tcorrect answers. red. -nepa-nepa (nepa-nepile) to play by throwing things again and again. ref. -inepela (inepezi) as rec. - ..

nepo (li-) n. pass mark: A lu sika fumana kale linepo za luna, we have not yet received the examination results.

nete (li-) n. Iarge field; reeds in a marshy place.

-netemana (netemani or netemanile) vi.i. (1) to be concave (speaking of a wall of a place etc. etc.); (2) to be almost sinking: Mu longile hahulu mane mukolo wa mina so ne-temani, your canoe is almost sink-ing for you loaded it too much. der. sineta. caus. -netemanisa (nete-manisize) to cause to be concave-to cause a canoe to be in danger of sinking by loading it too much.

Newa n. one of the Litunga's yards.

-nga (ngile) v.t. to take to fetch idiom. exp. ku ngEwa ki Nyambe to die a natural death; ku nga nak—, to last. der. mungi, mungelo, singelo. rel. -ngela (ngezi) to take for some-one, to take with a certain inten tion: So ngezi likubo za mutu yo ki sika ma–i? why have you taken that person's blankets? caus. -ngisa (ngisize) to order, to help to tŒke. stat. -ngeha (ngehile) to be under the charm of something or some-body: Ni ngehile hahulu ka sifateho sa hao sesinde, I am under the charm of your lovely complexion. int. -ngelela (ngelezi) to take the whole lot. rec. -ngana (ngani or nganile) to agree mutually to live in concubinage. freq. -ngaga to keep on taking. red. -nga-nga (nga-ngile) to take every now and then. ref. -Ikungela (ikungezi) to take for oneself, to appropriate a thing for oneself.

nga-nga-nga ! interj. expressing a feeling of cold, of fear, etc. U sabi-sizwe ki noha yetuna, mane wa ngangama u li nga-nga-nga, he has been frightened by a big snake, that is why he is trembling all over.

ngala1 (li-) n. crest: Liowanyi li na ni ngala yende ku ze–wi kaufela, the most beautiful crest of all is that of the crested-crane.

ngala2, n. the middle of a river, of a lake (where water is deep)- Mu kandulele mukolo mwa ngala, push off the canoe into the deep water.

-ngalaela (ngalaezi) v.i. to walk in an open place in order to be seen. der. Iingalaela, lingalaelelo.

ngalalela, n. place of shallow water. ngalamena, noun take adverbially: backwards; ku wa ngalamena, to fall backwards; ku tapa ngalamena, to swim on the back; ku shwa ngala-mena, to die Iying on one's back.

ngalangala (li-) n. tuft at the end of a reed or a maize stock- feather head-dress.

ngalanganja (li-) n. tattoo around the eye.

-ngaleka1 (ngalekile) v.t. to let a  canoe go on a rock, or run aground caus. -ngalekisa (ngaleki-sue) to cause to ~ freq -nple-kanga or-ngalateka (npitekib) to let a canoe go on rocks again and again

-ngaleka2 (ng lekile) v t to take a canoe to the middle of a river where it is dangerous fg to speak for the first time about an impor-tant matter, to make an avowal of love (man), to take for the first time difficult matters to an impor-tant person c us -ng lekisa (nga-lekisize) to take a canoe to the middle of a river for a certain reason ref -inpleka (ingalekile) fig to present thoughtlessly one's matters to important people; to at-tempt to carry a load too heavy for oneself U ingalekile mutiyo wa sa koni ku lwala, he tried to carry a load far too heavy for him

-ngaluka (nplukile) v i to be dishe-velled fig to be covered with a promising crop

-ngaluka2 (ngalukile) v i to appear proudly somewhere in order to be seen Mwa mu bona muikumusi yani, a sa li ku ngaluka mwa hali a batu! look at that arrogant chap there, standing with pride in the public der. mung bko syn. -nga-tuka rel. -ngalukela (ngalukezi) to appear proudly in public with a cenain intention caus. -nplukis (ngalukisize) to cause to appear in public in order to be seen

ngaluko, n. manner of beating someone down (when wrestling); ku wa ngaluko, to fall on one's back

ngambanga (lii-) n. habit of speaking too much, of saying anything that comes to mind

Ngambela (li-) n. Litunga's Prime Minister syn. Sope, Minyolui, Muswa

ngambob (li-) n. conversation, chat (from -ambola)

ngamboto (li-) n. a matter of common knowledge, a matter known everywhere and talked about by everybody

ngambu! interj stop! finished! ku nata mutu ngambu, to fell someone; ku bulela ngambu, to speak in such a manner that answers or com-ments are impossible

ngambwamuke (bo-) n. Knob-billed Duck

ngana (lil-) n. intelligence, mind, wisdom, sense, common sense syn. mano

nganda (ngandlle) vt to throw to the ground (when wrestling) freq -ngand ka (ngandakile) to throw to the ground again and again

nganda2 (ngandile) v t to stamp a small quantity of bran syn. -ndun-dula rel. -ngandeb (ngandezi) to ~ for someone caus. -ngandisa (ngandisize) to help to ~ red -nganda-nganda (ng nda-ngandile) to ~ intermittently ref -inpndeb (ingandezi) to ~ for oneself

-ngandaela (ngandaezi) v i to walk about openly when it would be better not to do so Muloi u sezwi sa ngandaela Sela, the sunrise has taken the sorcerer by surprise, and so he is revealed for what he is rel. -ngandaelela (ng ndaelezi) to walk openly in a certain direction c us -ngandaelisa (ngandaelisize) to cause to walk openly, to carry openly a thing which should be hidden U. sike wa ngandaelisa ka-sunso kao u ka pate hande, do not walk showing that meat to all and sundry, hide it ng

ngandaleza, noun taken adverbi-ally, in public llfu sike mwa siya li-byana ngandaleza, mu li kenye mwa ndu, do not leave these things in public, take them into the house -ngandamana (ngandamani or ngan-damanile) v i to be without cover to walk without a hat der. singan-damani

ngandameka (ngandamekile) v t to put, to leave something in the open

-ngandana1 (ngandani or ngandanile) v i to work hard, to be active doing many things at a time

-ngandana2 (ngandani or ngandanile) v i to move about (as a child) rel. -ngandanela (ngandanezi) to move about somewhere U sike wa ngan-danelafa mubili wa bo maho, do not bother your mother rolling around her all the time c us -ngandanisa (ngandanisize) to cause to writhe; to cause to roll about Mwananayo se si mu ngandanisa cwana ki tabo, that child is rolling around like that because he is happy

-ngandinga (ngandingile) v i to be impudent, insolent, impeninent syn. -tapala

-ngandoka (ngandokile) v i to fall continually (as a child learning to walk or as drunk person)

ngandu (li-) n. Luyana crocodile fig a greedy, stingy person syn. kwena

-ngandumuka (ngandumukile) v i to fall heavily

-ngandumuna (ngandumuzi) v t to throw to the ground (in wrestling), to knock someone down syn. -npnda

nganga (li-) n. charm used on a fishing net

nganga2 (li-) n. Luyana medicine man, African doctor (from -banga)

-nganga3 (ngangile) v t to build, to do any wood work (carpentry, joinery, etc ) der. mungangi, bung- angl, singangiso syn. -panga cf -yaha rel. -ngangela (ngangezi) to build for someone. caus. -ngangisa (ngangisize) to help to build. red. -nganga-nganga (nganga-ngangile) to build incompletely. ref. -ingang-ela (ingangezi) to build for oneself.

-ngangama (ngangamile) v.i. to shiver, to tremble, to shake, to shudder (from fear, cold or anger). der. mungangami, ilungangami. syn. -tutuma, -njanja, cf. -mbwembweta. rel. -ngangamela (ngangamezi) to tremble for: Ba ngangamela litapi ze ba sa bonangi, they are shaking with excitement on seeing some fish, as they haven't had any for a long time. caus. -ngangamisa (ngangamisize) to cause to shiver. rec. -ngangamelana (ngangamelani) to be trembling with fury (speak-ing of two people on the point of fighting). freq. -ngangamanga to have the habit of trembling, of shivering.

-ngangamana (ngangamani or ngangamanile) v.i. to be perplexed, to be distressed. der. singanyenga-nye. syn. -ziyeleha. caus. -nganga-manis (ngangamanisize) to put in a difficult position, to embarrass; to keep waiting: Mutu yo sa ni ngangamanisizefela, a sa li ku ngela mukolo wa ka kale, ha u kutisi, this man has kept me waiting unduly since he took my canoe has not brought it back.

-ngangameka (ngangamekile) v.t. to entrust someone with duties which are above his strength or ability. syn. -ngulumeka. ref. -ingangameka (ingangamekile) to undertake something which is above one's power.

-ngangameza (ngangamelize) v.t. to swallow, liquid food speedily.

ngangano (li-) n. hard competition,  a match often leading to fighting. (from -kangana).

-ngangatela (ngangatezi) v.i. to become hard (speaking of the soil where cattle have been treading a lot during the rainy season. syn. -mbambatela. caus. -ngangateza (ngangatelize) to harden the soil in the way mentioned above

-ngangauka (ngangaukile) v.i. to speak angrily with a loud voice syn. -kangauka. caus. -ngangaukisa (ngangaukisize) to cause someone to use abusive language

ngangila n. state of standing with-out moving.

-nganguka (nganukile) v.i. to stand straight up; to be properly erected (building).

-ngangula (nganguzi) v.t. to build. der. ngangula. syn. -yahs. rei. -ngangulela (ngangulezi) to build for someone. caus. -nganguiiss (ngang-ulisize) to help to build. ref. -ing-angulela (ingangulezi) to build for oneself.

ngangula (bo-) n. a skilful car-penter. (from -ngangula).

-nganja (li-) n. earthen cup. idiom. exp. Lu isweli nganja kacenu! we are drinking today! cf. mukope.

-nganguta (ngangukile) v.i. to be ex-ceedingly joyful showing one's joy in public. der. mungatuko. cf. -nga-luka. caus. -ngatukisa (ngatukisize) to cause to rejoice publicly

-ngayana (ngayani or ngayanile) v.i. to jabber to speak incoherently. (often used when speaking of a dying person) der. mungayani. syn. -yahana -wayana -yambutuka. rel. -ngayanela (ngayanezi) to go and jabber somewhere: Zwa fa, u yo ngayanela koo, get out go and jabber somewhere else caus. -ngayanisa

ngayanisize) to cause to talk non sense: Ki buswala bo nwile bo bu ku. ngayanisa cwalo kapa cwa–i? is it the beer you drank that is making you talk nonsense like this or what? red. -ngayana-ngayana (ngayana-ngayani) to speak inco-herently

ngazi n. blood cf. mali.

ngele (li-) n. the seventh cervical vertebra (protuberant) fig. greedi-ness: Wena u na ni gnele hahulu, how terribly greedy you are! cf. noci.

ngele2! inter;. of impatience or irri-tation: Ngele! zazi ni ka ku utwa hape u bulela cwalo, ki peto u shwile, damn you! next time I hear you speak like that I ll kill you!

-ngemuna (ngemuzi) v.t. to explain something in a convincing manner. cf. -nepa.

-ngemuna2 (ngemuzi) v.t. to buy at the store and pay cash. cf. -leka.

ngenda (li- or bo-) n. Luyana. a visi-tor guest stranger. (from -enda)

-ngendenga (ngendengile) v.t. to work hard.

-ngenyuka (ngenyukile) v.i. to go downhill to descend speedily. der. mungenyuko cf. -shetumuka -ndandumuka. fig. to be cross to get very angry to lose one's temper rel. -ngenyukela (ngenyukezi) to descend somewhere; fig. to be angry with someone. caus. -nge-nyukisa (ngenyukisize) or -nge-nyuna (ngenyuzi) to cause to de-scend speedily; fig. to provoke someone's anger. int. -ngenyuke-lela (ngenyukekezi) fig. to comple-tely lose one's temper. ref. -inge-nyukisa (ingenyukisize) fig. to allow oneself to lose one's temper: U. sike wa ingenyukisafa litaba za li-nolwani, do not lose your temper over trifling matters.

-ngetanga (ngetangiie) v.t. to do a  work that exceeds one's strength; to participate in work being done by insufficient numbers; to work slowly. caus. -ngetangisa (ngetangi-size) to help someone to do a work which exceeds his strength.

ngete (bo-) n. so-and-so somebody a certain person. syn. mukete.

ngete-ngete (bo-) n. as above.

ngeti (li-) n. mole. fi8. (1) detective; (2) a person with protruding upper teeth. syn. silufukwe.

ngilasi (li- or ma-) n. Eng. a glass glass pane; spectacles.

ngili (li-) n. wanhog. fig. a person with protruding upper teeth.

-ngilimana (ngilimani or ngilimanile) see -ngwilimana.

Ngilisimasi n. Eng. Christmas.

-ngituka (ngitukile) v.i. see -gintuka.

ngo (li-) n. (1) nose; lingo nostrils; ngo ya kulube. snout. (2) end; ngo ya lilundu, the bottom of a hill; ngo ya musindi, the end of a valley; ngo ya silabo, the upper end of a paddle.

ngolobani (li- or ma-) n. wheelbar-row; pram. -ngolongonda. (ngolongondile) v.i. see -ngulungunda.

-ngolomana (ngolomani) v.i. see -ngulumana.

ngoma (li-)n. Luyana. drum of any kind; by ext: dance with drums.

ngoma2 (li-) n. Iarge mukwa tree roots (the point where they are at-tached to the trunk.)

ngoma-ya-linosi (li-) n. beehive.

ngomalume (li-) n. Luyana a tradi-tional dance for men only; new moon dance.

ngomba (li-) n. Luyana. drummer. syn. mulizi mumbeti.

ngombe (ti-) n. Luyana. cattle. syn. komu.

ngombelulongo (bo-) n. Luyana. a fair righteous person.

ngombefungwa n. Luyana. cattle tied up to poles (where there is no kraal).

ngombemongo, adv. Luyana. back-wards.

ngombo (li-) n. divining basket. cf. taula, mutungu.

-ngomeka (ngomekile) v.t. to delay someone by talking too . much: U sike wa ni ngotneka, ni ya kwahule, do not delay me by talking too much, for I have a long way to go. syn. -ngotomeka rel. -ngomekela (ngomekezi) to explain everything at great length to someone. caus. -ngomekisa (ngomekisize) to cause to talk at length to someone. int. -ngomekelela (ngomekelezi) to ex-plain everything at great length to someone ref. -ingomeka (ingome-kile) to explain at length to some-one. ref. -ingomeka (ingomekile) to explain at length important mat-ters to each other.

ngondo, noun taken averbially: for a long time: A sa li ku ya ngondo. he has been away for a long time (from -ngondoka).

-ngondoka (ngondokile) v.i. to be absent for a long time. rel. -ngon-dekela (ngondokezi) to go and stay away for a long time. caus. -ngon-dokisa (ngondokisize) to cause someone to ~. int. -ngondokelela (ngondokelezi) to go for good.

-ngondola (ngondozi) v.i. to ring, to sound, to toll (speaking of a bell). syn. -lila. rel. -ngondolela (ngondo-lezi) to ring on account of: Mu-langu, o. so ngondolela cwana ku tahile lifu naa? why is the bell ring-ing for so long, is there a funeral? caus. -ngondolisa (ngondolisize) to cause to ring.

ngonga (li-) n. African Hawk Eagle. syn. mbande.

-ngongaela (ngongaezi) v.i. to walk  slowly with nonchalance with apathy. rel. -ngongaelela (ngongae-lezi) to walk somewhere noncha-lantly. caus. -ngongaelisa (ngongae-lisize) to cause to ~.

ngongi (li-) n. African Gong (pro-ducing two different sounds) used in the past by headmen to assem-ble people for public works or war. fig. Ieader: Ha ku yoliswa Ngambela, kamita ufiwanga ngongi, ku bonisa kuli ki yena ngongi ya sicaba, whenever a Ngambela is appointed to his office he is given a gong as a token of his leadership.

ngongo (li-) n. articulation (anat.) ngongo ya lizoho, wrist ngongo ya lihutu, ankle.

ngongola1 (li-) n. woodpecker. (from -ngongola).

ngongola2 (li-) n. black mamba (from -ngongola).

-ngongola3 (ngongozi) v.t. to strike to beat to hit der. ngongola. syn. -nata -ngotola. rel. -ngongolela (ngongolezi) to ~ for someone caus. -ngongolisa (ngongolisize) to cause someone to be beaten to help someone to beat. freq. -ngongaula (ngongauzi) to ~ re-peatedly. rec. -ngongaulana (ngong-aulani) to strike each other repeat-edly. ref. -ingongola (ingongozi) to hit oneself.

ngongolo (li- or ma-) n. empty tin (between solik and slik).

-ngongota (ngongotile) v.t. to knock at the door: Ni utwa mutu ya ngong-otafa sikwulo, I can hear someone knocking at the door. syn. -kokota. fig. to go and report at an oEce syn. -ma–ala. rel. -ngongotela (ngongotezi) to knock at some-one's door. fig. to report to some-one. caus. gongotisa (ngongotisize) to knock for a reason at someone's door. fig. to cause to report. freq. - ngongotanga to have the habit of. knocking fig. to report habitually

-ngongotela (ngongotezi) vt (1) to hammer to nail; to build syn. -ko-kotela; (2) to crucify rel. -ngongo-telela (ngongotelezi) to build for someone. caus. -ngongotelisa (ngongotelisize) to order; to help to build. int. -ngongotelelela (ngongotelelezi) to complete a building work ref. -ingongotelela (ingongotelezi) to put up a build-ing by one's own efforts.

-ngongweka (ngongwekile) v.t. to delay by talking too much. der. lingongwe. ref. -ingongweka (ing-ongwekile) to delay each other by endless talking: Batu bani ba sa li ku ingongwekafani ni he lu ba biza ha ba utwi! those people cannot hear us for they are engaged in an endless conversation!

-ngongwela (ngongwezi) v.t. to hold tightly syn. -swala.

ngongjo n. detour. (from -ngonjo-loka). syn. mupotoloho.

-ngonjoloka (ngonjolokile) v.i. to go round to make a detour. der. ngonjo. syn. -potoloha. fig. to di-gress from one's subject. caus. -ngonjolokisa (ngonjokkisize) fig. to cause to digress from one's sub-ject: Wena se si ku ngonjolokisa taba u nzo i ziba ki–i? what makes you digress from the subject when you know it so well?

ngopili! interj. wait (orig. ngo pili the nose first): Ngopili, nif te! wait let me go first!

-ngosoha (ngoshize) v.t. to sew tightly; to twist a rope tightly.

-ngotola (ngotozi) vt to strike to beat to hit. syn. -nata -ngongola. fg. to have sexual intercouse once with a person (once ever or once during the night). freq. -ngotauh (ngotauzi) to beat to strike repeat- edly: Ki ma–i ya sweli ku ngotaula kwani? who is cutting trees over there? ref. -ingotola (ingotozi) to hit oneself.

-ngotomeka (ngotomekile) v.i. (1) to adjure: U. sike wa ngotomeka mutu ka litaba za buhata, do not try to convince someone with lies. (2) to delay someone in talking too much. syn. -ngongweka. -ngomeka cf. -sondomeka. rel. -ngotomekela (ngotomekezi) to explain matters at length to someone. caus. -ngoto-mekisa (ngotomekbize) to cause to talk at length to someone. ref. -ing-otomeka (ingotomekile) to explain at length important matters to each other.

ngoweka (ngowekile) v.t. as -ngong-weka.

ngu (li-) n. sheep. fig. a good harm-less person. cf. ngombelulongo. -nguba (ngubile) v.t. as -kuba.

ngui or ngwiwi (li-) n. Glossy Ibis.

ngula (li-) n. see kula.

ngulawela (li-) n. shaved nape. fig. ngulawelaya lishewa, shaved nape like the unfeathered nape of a black Whydah (bird.).

-nguleka (ngulekile) v.t. to stab to spear (mostly big fish; crocodile or wild animal): A kutumana sina kwena ye ngulekilwe ka muwayo, he remained quiet like a crocodile which has been stabbed with a fishing-spear. syn. -taba. rel. -ngu-lekela (ngulekezi) to stab for a reason. ref. -inguleka (ingulekile) to stab oneself accidentally when fishing

nguli (li-) n. parable comparison: nguli ya mwanta litaswa, the para-ble of the prodigal son.

ngulu1 (li-) n. sweet potato. syn. sim-bukuma.

Ngulu2 n. original name of the Bulozi Valley.

-ngulumana1 (ngulumani or ngulums-nile) v.i. to be empty fig. (1) to be empty headed. (2) to sit aimlessly among others.

-ngulumana2 (ngulumani or nguluma-nile) v.i. see -ngwilimana, -windi-mana.

-ngulumeka (ngulumekile) v.t. (1) to give someone work greater than his strength: Ba mu ngulumekile musebezi wa sa koni, they gave him work which he is unable to do. (2) to use great means to perform a small work: Ba ngulumekile piza yetuna fa liso, mi ki tulaisi totunyi-nyani to tu bila mwate–i, they have put a large pot on the fire yet there is just a little bit of rice boiling in it. cf. -ngangameka. ref. -inguh-meka (ngulumekik) to undefake work too great for one's strength.

-ngulunda (ngulundile) v.i. (1) to dis-obey orders- (2) to live in a way which shows a strong desire for di-vorce (woman). syn. -mbalanda. der. Iingulunde, bungulunde. caus. -ngulundisa (ngulundisize) to incite someone to disobey.

-ngulundisa (ngulundisize) v.t. to nuin or to damage a tool in using it improperly: Silepe sa ka ba si ngu-lundisize hahulu, they have badly blunted my axe.

-ngulungela (ngulungezi) v.t. to cheat. dEr. simangulungwa, mungu-lungeli. syn. -puma, caus. -ngulung-isa (ngulungisize) to cause to cheat or to be impolite. rec. -ngulunge-bna (ngulungelani) to cheat each other.

-ngulungunda1 (ngulungundlle) v.i. (1) to feel one's way with the hand,.to grope, to poke about (chiefly in search of food): Ki ma–i ya ngu-lungunda mwa ndu? who is poking about in the house looking for food? (2) to be alone in a large  house which has very little furni-ture: Nduya ka kiyetuna haXulu, ha ni ngulungunda mwate–i inge kapeba, my house is very large-when I am alone in it, I feel like a little mouse. cf. -pupuleza. caus. -ngulungundisa (ngulungundisize) to cause to grope, to poke about.

-ngulungunda2 (ngulungundile) v.i. to thunder. rel. -ngulungundela (ngu-lungundezi) to thunder at a certain distance: Mwa utwa, pula ye se ÁI'o ngulungundela kwahule, ha i sana ku nela, it is now thundering miles away, so there will be no rain.

ngulungundu ! idioph. imitation of the sound made by a person or an object falling to the ground cf. Iukutu !

-ngulutisa (ngulutisize) v.t. as -ngu-lundisa.

-ngulya (ngulyile) v.t. to swallow. syn. -miza.

-ngulyana (ngulyani) v.i. to be un-certain, to hesitate. caus. -ngulya-nisa (ngulyanisize) to cause hesita-tion. ref. -ingulyanisa (ingulyani-size) to become irresolute.

-ngulyana2 (ngulyani) v.i. to wander about, to tramp. rel. -ngulyanela (ngulyanezi) to ~ in a certain place. syn. -shekaela. caus. -ngulya-nisa (ngulyanisize) to cause to ~ red. -ngulyana-ngulyana (ngulyana-ngulyani) to be without a fixed abode.

-ngulya-ngulya (ngulya-ngulyile) v.i. as -ngulyana.2

-ngumaela (ngumaezi) v.i. to walk alone (a sick or an old person). syn. -ngunyaela.

-ngumana (ngumani) v.i. to sit alone, silently. der. mungumani. (see -ungumana).

-ngumbwama (ngumbwami) v.i. to disappear (see -ngumbwikela).

ngumbwi! inter;. used for a thing disappearing suddenly (like the sun behind clouds or an object irs water). syn. ndumbwi! tupwi!

-ngumbwikela (ngumbwikezi) v.i. to disappear (behind the clouds or in water): Lizazi se li ndumbwikezi mwa malu, the sun has just disap-peared behind the clouds; komoki i ndutwikezi mwa mezi, the cup dis-appeared under the water syn.-ngumbwama, -tupwikela. caus. -ngumbwikeza (ngumbwikelize) to cause to disappear. int. -ngumbwi-kelela (ngumbwikelezi) to disap-pear completely.

-ngumbyauka (ngumbyaukile) v.i. to be agitated (like a liquid in a bucket carried by someone).

-ngumuka (ngumukile) v.i. to doze, to nod. syn. -ozela. freq. -ngumauka (ngumaukile) or-ngumoka (ngumo-kile) to be overcome by sleep. caus. -ngumaukisa ( ngumaukisize ) or -ngumokisa (ngumokisize) to cause slumbering. ref. -ingumau-kisa or -bgumokisa (ingumauki-size) to pretend to fall asleep: Mutu yo ha ozeli, u ingumokisafela, wa utwa ze lu bulela, this man is not asleep, he is only pretending to be, and he hears what we say.

-ngumuka2 or -nguumuka (nguumu-kile) v.i. to become dispersed. (as-ndumuka).

-ngunda (ngundile) v.t. to hem; to sew the edge of a mat, the rim of a basket, (etc.) der. mungundi, mung-undo. rel. -ngundela (ngundezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -ngundisa (ngundisize) to help someone to ~.  int. -ngundelela (ngundelezi) to ~ completely, to ~ to the end. ref. -ingundela (ingundezi) to ~ for one-self: Ki na ya ingundezi museme wa ka, hakuna ya ni ngundisize ona, I sewed the edge of my mat myself without anyone's help.

-ngunda2 (ngundile) v.t. to walk about; to search. der. Iingundamu-kulo, mungunda. caus. -ngundisa (ngundisize) to cause to ~. rec. -ngundana (ngundani or ngundanile) to walk to and fro (as a guard). red. -ngunda-ngunda ( ngunda-ngundile) to walk about nearby.

ngundu (bo-) n. someone who be-littles himself: Ku bulele ba ba bulela insi–i luna bo ngundu, let those involved in the matter speak and not we poor creatures (and not the likes of us).

ngundula (ngunduzi) v.i. to walk from one place to another: sitong-wani si lata hahulu ku ngundula mwa minzi busihu, the hyena is very fond of walking from one village to another at night. der. namung-und ve, cf. -ndunduya. rel. -ngundu-lela (ngundulezi) to walk towards. c us. -ngundulisa (ngundulisize) to cause to walk from one place to another.

-ngundumana (ngundumani or ngun-dumanile) v.i. to sleep. syn. -lobala. caus. -ngundumanisa (ngundumani-size) to caus to sleep. ref. -ingun-dumanisa (ingundumanisize) or -ingundumeka (ingundumekile) to pretend to fall asleep. syn. -ingu-mokisa.

-ngundunganya (ngundunganyize) v.t. (1) to bring trouble to. to dis-turb: Yela banana, mu sike mwa ngundunganya likomu, hey! chil-dren do not disturb the cattle! (2) to upset people, to cause trouble or discord: U lu Sumani lu pila hande, cwale wena ha uf tile u tilio lu ngundunganya, we were living peacefully until you came, and caused discord amongst us. der. mungundungundu. syn. -Tllikanya, cf. -kataza.

ngunga (li-) n. Iarge gander.

-ngunga2 (ngungile) v.t. to cheat, to cheat in order to steal. der. iling-unga, mungungi, lingunga, syn. -puma.

-ngungana (ngungani or ngunganile) v.l. to be pressed, tightened, squeezed together. caus. -ngunga-nisa (ngunganisize) to cause to be squeezed together.

-ngunganya (ngunganyize) v.t. to join, to connect; to press, to tighten, to squeeze. syn. -ngung-eka, cf. -kopanya. rel. -ngunga-nyeza (ngunganyelize) to ~ for someone. caus. -ngunganyisa (ngunganyisize) to cause to ~. int. -ngunganyeleza (ngunganyelelize) to join tightly together. ref. -ing-unganyeza (ingunganyelize) to ~ for oneself: Ki na ya ingunganyelize taSuleye, I joined my table together by myself.

-ngungeka (ngungekile) v.t. as -ngunganya.

-ngungula (ngunguzi) v.t. (1) to elbow, to jostle. (2). to knock a canoe with a paddle when pad-dling. syn. -kuba, -nguba. rel. -ngungulela (ngungulezi) to jostle purposely: So ni ngungulela k’–i? why are you elbowing me? caus. -ngungulisa (ngungulisize) to cause to ~. req. -ngungaula (ngungauzi) to jostle obstinately; to show stub-bornness, obstinacy. der. mungung-auleni. rec. -ngungaulana (ngungau-lani) to jostle each other; to knee each other: Banana kamita ba ngungaulana hahulu ha ba bona kuli lico lifakauf ni ku buzwa, the chil-dren are always impatiently jos-tling each other when they see that the meal is ready.

ngungule, n. mwanja wa ngungule, dried cassava roots.

-ngungumeza (ngungumelize) v.t. to drink a lot quickly. cf. -nwa. rel. - ngungumeleza (ngungumelelize) to drink someone else's share. int. -ngungumeleleza (ngungumellize) to drink the lot quickly in order not to leave anything for another.

-ngunjangeta (ngunjangetile) v.t. to mend an old dress; to mend roughly. cf. -bka. rel. -ngunjange-tela (ngunjangetezi) to mend rather carelessly for another person. caus. -ngunjangetisa (ngunjangeti-size) to help to mend roughly int. -ngunjangetelela ( ngunjangetelezi) to complete a rough mending. ref. -ingunjangetela (ingunjangetezi) to make a rough mending for oneself

-ngunjunga (ngunjungile) v.t. Luyana. to hum a tune, to whimper. rel. -ngungjungela (ngun-Jungezi) to ~ somewhere: Zwa, u yo ngunjungela koo, go away and hum your tune elsewhere. caus. -ngunjungisa (ngunjungisize) to cause someone to ~. Se si ngun-jungisa mwanana yo ki tala, the ctila IS wnimpering because of hunger.

-ngunyaela (ngunysezi) v.i. to walk slowly, without strength. syn. -ndombysela. rel. -ngunyaeleb (ngu-nyaelezi) to walk slowly some-where. caus. -ngunyselisa (ngunyse-lisize) to cause to walk slowly. ref. -ingunyselela (ingunyselezi) to drag oneself along.

ngunyana (li-) n. Iamb; Ngunyanaya Mulimu, the Redeemer.

-ngunyuta (ngunyutile) v.t. to elbow, to jostle, to knock; to touch lightly or inadvertently. syn. -kuba, -ngungula. ref. -ingunyuta (ingunyu-tile) to knock or graze oneself on something.

-ngutula (ngutuzi) v.t. to kill (with a stick) cf. -bulaya rel. -nguXlela (ngutulezi) to kill on someone's behalf or for a reason. caus. -ngu- tulisa (ngutulisize) to cause to kill: Ki–i se si ku ngutulisize nja ya hao? why did you kill your dog? freq. -ngutaula (ngutauzi) to strike re-peatedly to strike to death.

nguya (li-) n. a thin little child; a thin calf. syn. munguya.

-nguya2 (nguyile) v.i, to sing a mono-tonous song; to compose a song. der. munguyi, linguya. rel. -nguyela (nguyezi) to sing for caus. -nguyisa (nguyisize) to cause to sing, to join someone in singing ref. -inguyisa (inguyisize) to be the cause of people singing: Na ha ni lati ku ing-uyisa batufa lika za linolwani, I do not like to effect the singing of people over small affairs.

-ngwaama (ngwaami or ngwaamile) v.i. to sit idly. cf. -ina. rel. -ngwaa-mela (ngwaamezi) to sit waiting. caus. -ngwaamisa (ngwaamisize) to keep someone waiting unduly. ref. -ingwaamisa (ingwaamisize) to delay oneself.

-ngwalumuka (ngwalumukile) v.i. to become wider, broader. cf. -atama. caus. -ngwalumukisa (ngwa-lumukisize) or -ngwalumuna (ng-walumuzi) to widen, to enlarge: Mu sike mwa ngwalumuna hahulu ndu ye mwa bupala, mulalo wa mina u kusufale, do not make this house too wide so reouce the width shown on your plan. rel. -ngwalu-munela (ngwalumunezi) to build a large house for someone: U ngwa-lumunezi munyan'a hae ndu yende, he built a very nice big house for his younger brother. ref. -ingwalu-munela (ingwahmunezi) to build for oneself a large house.

ngwangwalyu (li- or ma-) n. wind-pipe, trachea, larynx.

ngwangwalya! interj. expressing sudden disappearance: A sa li ku ya kwa bukuwa ngwangwalya! we have heard nothing about him since he leh for the line of rail: ku miza ng-wangwalya, to swallow rapidly without taking a breath.

-ngwanjula or -ngwenjuia (ngwen-juzi) v.t. to slash grass. der. mung-wenjuli, singwenjuliso, cf. -puma, -mweta. rel. -ngwenjulela (ngwenju-lezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -ng-wenjulisa (ngwenjulisize) to order or to help someone to ~ comple-tely.

-ngwangwasha (ngwangwashize) v.i. to walk shakily (old or sick person) syn. -njanjata.

ngwashangwasha (li-) n. a little beer remaining in a pot, tin, mug, etc.

ngwe (li-) n. Ieopard. syn. ndoo.

ngwee, n. dawn: Bu sile, ku li ngwee; the night is over, dawn comes

ngwee2 (li-) n. copper coin worth one hundredth part of a kwacha (Zambian money unit).

-ngweluka (ngwelukile) v.i. to be clear (sky) cloudless. der. ngweluu ! cf. -apuha. int. -ngwelukelela (ngwe-lukelezi) to be blue, absolutely cloudless: Kacenu ku ngwelukele-lezi, musipili wa luna u ta ba omunde; today the sky is comple-tely clear, so our trip will be a pleasant one.

-ngwenjeka (ngwenjekile) v.t. to sur-round in order to kill, to trap (game, birds, etc.,); to ambush (people) cf. -swasa. ngwenyama (li-) n. a greedy person. syn. –wanyama.

ngweshi (li-) n. tiger fish.

ngweshi2 (li-) n. the Litunga's per-sonal spears.

ngwe-ya-linzi (li-) n. kind of insect very similar to the house-fly which it often kills.

-ngwilimana (ngwilimani or ngwili-manile) v.i. to run very fast. syn. -mata, -landamana, -kitima. rel. -ng-wilimanela (ngwilimanezi) to run towards. caus. -ngwihnanisa (ng-wilimanisize) also -ngwilimeka (ng-wilimekile) to cause to run fast, to pursue.

ni, conj. and, too, also, with; along side: Mu zamaye fela ni nuka, just go along side the river; ku ba ni, to have, (to be with) cf. mi.

ni,2 pron. subj. and obj. first person, singular. 1: Ni bona mutu, I see someone; ba ni bata, they are look-ing for me.

niha, nihaiba, nihaili, conj. through, although: Niha ni kula, na sebeza, l am working although I am sick.

nihakuliewalo, conj. yet, still, how-ever, nevertheless. nihakusiewalo, conj. if it is not the case.

ninguka (ningukile) v.i. to have a narrow waist (woman).

-ningula (ninguzi) v.t. to tighten. fig. exp. Tala i ni ninguzi, I am hungry. (lit. hunger grasped me).

niti (li-) n. truth, veracity, sincerity; adv. exp. ka niti, truly, verily, really. syn. buniti.

nja (li-) n. dog. fig. stingy, avari-CiOUS person.

nja2 (li-) n. wooden needle used in thatching

njafu, n. food eaten by someone on the point of dying, or by warriors on the point of fighting.

njakati (bo-) n. Luyana. great eater (woman). cf. njalume.

-njakila (njakizi) v.t. to beat the third drum in a set of three. der. munjakili, kanjakili.

njakula (njakuzi) v.t. to eat, chew-ing noisily. syn. -makula. cf. -ca. freq. -njakaula (njakauzi) or-nja-kola (njakozi) to have the habit of ~.

-njaluka (njalukile) v.i. to remain standing. caus. -njalukisa (njaluki-size) to keep someone standing.  ref. -injalula (injaluzi) to remain standing purposely: Ki–i ha u inja-luzi cwalo wena ha u sebezi nji? why do you remain standing like this, have you nothing to do?

njalume (bo-) n. Luyana. great eater (man) cf. njakati.

njamala (li-) n. Eng. underwear, pyjama.

njamba (li-) n. Iarge bow-net. cf. lukuko.

njamulEda (bo-) n. wife disregarded by her polygamous husband.

-njanga (njangile) v.t. to accuse fal-sely. der. manjanga. syn. -tameleza. rel. -njangela (njangezi) to deliber-ately ~. freq. -njangaka (njanga-kile) or -njangaeka (njimgaekile) to often ~. ref. -injanga (injangile) to be responsible for being falsely ac-cused.

-nJangameka (ngangamekile) v.t. to lift and place on. cf. -kambeka.

-njanga-njanga (njanga-njangile) v.i. to try to do a thing above one's power: Ni njanga-njangafela, muse-bezi ki omutuna ha ni na ku u kona. I am just trying to do that work, but I will not succeed for it is too big for me. cf. -lika-lika. rel. -njanga-njangela (njanga-njangezi) to try every way to help someone. caus. -njanga-njangba (njanga-njangisize) to help someone who tries to do a thing above his strength.

-njangana (njanganl) v.i. to speak without ever coming to the point; to delay one's work by talking too much. der. Iinjang na. cf. -liangana. caw. -njanganisa (njanganisize) to delay someone by talking too much.

nJango (li-) n. wasps' nest.

njangwamuloti (bo-) n. Luyana. my-thical monster (see mwendalutaka or mwendanjangub).

-njanja (njanjile) v.i. to tremble, to shiver, to shake (from cold, fear or anger). syn. -n_,-mbwemb-weta. rel. -'njanjela (njanjezi) to tremble, craving for something. caus. -njanjisa (njanjisize) to cŒuse to ~.rec. -njanjelana (njanjelani) to shake with fury (speaking of two people on the point of fighting). ref. -injanjisa (injanjisize) to make or to allow oneself to shake with excitement etc: U sike wa injanjisa cwalo, sutelela kwa mulilo; come to the fire do not go on shivering like that.

-njanjamana (njanjamani) v.i. to stand in admiration. der. Iinjanja-mana. syn. -cimana. rel. -njanjama-nela (njanjamanezi) to stand with the purpose of admiring some-thing. caus. -njanjamanisa (njanja-manisize) to cause someone to stand and admire something

-njanjata (njanjatile) v.i. to walk shakily, like a sick or old person. syn. -ngwangwasha. caus. -njanja-tisa (njanjatisize) to cause some-one to

njanji (li-) n. rail, railway, railway line: Ni ya kwa njanji kamuso, I am going to the line of rail tomorrow. fig. a very strong person.

njanu (li-) n. Luyana. a greedy, ra-pacious person.

njapanjapa (li-) n. small pool, puddle, place covered with shal-low muddy water. syn. njapwatila.

njapwatila (li-) n. place covered with muddy, miry water. syn. nja-panjapa.

-njapwanga (njapwangile) or -cap-wanga (capwangile) v.i. to paddle very slowly and lazily. syn. -cap-waila.

njebwe (li-) n. poor, indigent person. syn. mufuzana, mubotana.

njee (li-) n. salt (spring-salt) syn. Iizwai. cf. mukele.

njefu (li-) n. water-nut. (fruit of an aquatic plant).

njekel (I; or ma-) n. sandy drift, ford.

njeke2 n. kind of grass.

njeke3 (li- or bo-) n. Whistling Teal or Tree Duck.

njeko (li-) n. bulbous root of a special kind of grass (much liked by wild-geese and domestic ducks).

njeleb (ma-) n. place behind a vil-lage constructed on a slope.

njenga (li-) n. kind of small fish.

-njenja (njenjize) v.i. to trot. cf. -lika. rel. -njenjela (njenjezi) to trot towards. caus. -njenjisa (njenjisize) to put a horse or an ox to a jog-trot.

njenje, n. nakedness, barrenness: Ku zamaya njenje, to walk undressed. syn- mapunu.

njenu-maeo (bo-) n. Luyana. person with protruding upper teeth. cf. ngeti.

njeshe, n. Luyana. as njenje.

njetumuko (li-) n. slope, declivity. syn. mundandumuko. (from -shetu-muka).

nji, conj. or, nji? interj. adv. is it so? it is not so? njikita, n. a great number of cattle.

-njikula1 (njikuzi) v.i. to hiccup. der. njikunjiku. cuas. -njikulisa (njikuli-size) to cause hiccups. freq. -nji-kaula (njikauzi) or

-njikola (nji-kozi) to have hiccups often.

-njikula2 (njikuzi) v.t. to hit with the arm. caus. -njikulisa (njikulisize) to cause to ~. rec. -njikulana (njiku-lani) to jostle each other. freq. -nji-kaula (njikauzi) or -njikola (nji-kozi) to hit repeatedly. red. -njiku-lanjikula (njikulanjikuzi) as freq.

njikunjiku, n. hiccups (from -nji-kulal).

njilela (li-) n. serous, watery matter coming out of a sore; resin.

njilikati (bo-) n. Luyana. unmarried woman. syn. namukuka.

njilulume (bo-) n. Luyana. unmar-ried man, bachelor. syn. Iikwasha.

njima (li-) n. Luyana. new base for a worn out mortar.

njimba (li-) n. Luyana. a round hut.

njimbela, n. beginning of the fiood: Ku fulaha mwa njimbela, to paddle over the tlooued plain.

njimbo, n. habit, manner; style.

njimi (li-) n. Luyana, cultivator, tiller, farmer.

njimikati (li-) n. Luyana. a woman who cultivates much.

njimo (li-) n. agriculture, cultiva-tion, husbandry: Mwa Bulozi hakuna njimo hande, Western Prov-ince is not the best place for agri-culture .

Njimwana~ n. November. (see: kweli).

-njinela (njinezi) v.t. Eng. to work as an engineer: Batu ba njinela sipolo sa njanji, those people are con-structing a new railway line.

njinga (li-) n. bicycle. syn. kanamu-tendele, mbasikolo.

njingatanyi (bo-) n. Luyana. so-and-so, somebody, a certain person. syn. mukete, ngete.

njinji (li-) n. kind of large fish.

njinjoa (li-) n. Luyana. cemetery, graveyard. syn. mayumbelo.

njinjo2 (li-) n. Luyana. small bell.

njoko. (li-) n. monkey.

-njokota (njokotile) v.i. to be boiling (speaking of small fish in a pot). der. sinjokotela. cf. -bila. caus. -njo-kotisa (njokotisize) to boil.

njolo (li-) n. honey-bird (Black -Th-roated Honey Guide); fig. guide.

njolomba (bo-) n. cheat, deceitful person. cf. mupumi -

njoma (njomile) v.t. to peck. rel. -njomela (njomezi) to peck some- where: Mu bone kuhu yeo i ta ni njo-mela mbututu, watch that hen, it might peck my baby caus. -njomisa (njomisize) to carelessly to allow a fowl to peck food. freq. -njomaka (njomakile) to go on pecking.

-njomba (njombile) v.i. to become stuck (ox wagon, car, etc.); to run off the rails. f’g. to be hindered in one's work. rel. -njombela (njom-bezi) to become stuck somewhere. caus. -njombisa (njombisize) to cause to ~: Ni njombisizwe ki mu-shabati, I got stuck because of the deep sand. rel. -njomba-njomba (njomba-njombile) to become stuck every now and then: Motaya ka i njomba-njombafela, se i supezi; my car keeps stopping all the time because it is getting old.

njombi (II-) n. tuft of hair on the fo-rehead. syn. sisumpila.

njombolo (li-) n. crow-bar.

-njombwaela (njombwaezi) v.i. to walk on stilts. der. manjombwseli.

njomot (li-) n. any hollowing hatchet with long handle.

njomo,2 n. good luck in hunting: Kacenu ki njomo, ni itopezi kulu, I am in luck today because I picked up a tortoise.

-njomona (njomozi) v.t. as -njoma.

njonga, n. beer, alcohol, any intoxi-cating drink. syn. bucwala, maipu.

-njongaela (njongaezi) v.i. to walk (speaking of a tall person). rel. -njongaelela (njongaelezi) to walk somewhere (used of a tall person when being jeered at).

njongonjongo, n. apex, top, summit. -njonjaula (njonjauzi) v.i. to type slowly. rel. -njonjaulela (njonjau lezl) to ~ for someone! Munna a ku yo ni njonjaulela ka–olo ka ka ka, kwa of si ya hao, friend, please type this short letter for me in your


-njonjola (njonjoz~) v.i. to explain in great detail. caus. -njonjolisa (njon-jolilsize) to elicit long explanations.

njonjolo, n. Luyana. barge.

-njonjomona1 (njonjomozi) v.t. to start hollowing out a wooden vessel, a canoe, etc., rel. -njonjo-monela (njonjomonezi) to for some-one. caus. -njonjomonisa (njonjomo-nisize) to help to ~. int. -njonjomo-nelela (njonjomonelezl) to ~ com-pletely .

-njonjomona2 (njonjomozi) v.i. as -njonjola.

njopu, n. Luyana. a damp, dewy place: Mu no fulisezanga likomu kwa njopu, keep taking the cattle tc a dewy place for grazing.

-njotomana (njotomani) v.i. to sit.

-njotomisa (njotomisize) v.t. to beat a drum.

njuelelo or njuwelelo (li-) n. fishing-basket. syn. sishuelo.

njuluti, n. discrimination. syn, ketululo.

njumbe (li-) n. piece of cloth joining the two ends of an Silozi kilt. syn. mu–ato.

njungo (li-) n. very small calabash containing 'lucky' medicine.

njungula (li-) n. very large pot or ca-labash.

-njungula (njunjuzi) v.i. to wriggle, to writhe: Ni tabile tapi, na i utwaya njunjula kwa muwayo: l have speared a fish for I feel it wrig-gling.

-njunjumeka (njunjumekile) v.t. to spear (a fish) ref. -injunjumeka (in-junjumekile) to hurt oneself with a fishing spear: Ki kale ni injunju-meka muwayo kwa lihutu, l have just hurt my foot with a fishing spear.

njwee! Inter;. experessing the idea of complete recovery: Ni ta mu alafa mane a folelele njwee! l shall nurse him until he has completely recovered .

nka!1 inter;. (1) to express a sudden fall: Na mu wisa na mu li nkafafasi! I knocked him down! cf. Iukutu. (2) to express that something is tied up tightly: Mu tame hahulu mu tEise nka! tie it up very tightly!

-nka2 (nkile) v.i. to be smelling; ku nka hande, to have a pleasant smell: ku nka hamunati, to have a pleasant taste, ku nka maswe, to stink. der. munko~ syn. -nunka. rel. -nkela (nkezi) to please or displease someone by one's smell: Libi lani li lu nkela maswe, that rotten fish over there stinks in our nostrils. caus.

-nkisa (nkisize) to cause to scent or to stink.

nkala (li-) n. crab, crawfish, crayf-ish.

nkalakata (li-) n. any large full grown creature. spec. exp. namani tuna a nkalakata ya munna; ya kwena; ya ndombe, etc., a very big man, crocodile, barble fish, etc. cf. nkuzi.

nkalankala (II- or ma-) n. tortoise shell containing medicines be-lieved to harm people (witchcraft).

nkambe (li-) n. Eng. camp. Boma.

nkau (li-) n. medicine taken to pro-tect oneself against any kind of harm (witchcraft). syn. tatu.

nkola (bo-) n. troublesome person, nasty person. (from -kola).

nkomwana (ma-) n. young calf al-ready weaned.

nkukwe (li-) n. cooked mealie meal prepared the previous day.

nkunankuna (bo-) n. child whose upper teeth appear first (such a child would be put to death in the past).

nkungulu (li-) n. Iarge bull elephant.

nkuwa, n. defamation, calumny, slander.

nkuzi (li-) n. a very large stout man. syn. singungwe, cf. nkalakata.

nkwana (II-) n. water pot (eathen-ware) fig. great beer drinker, a person reeking of beer.

nkwaya, n. (1) libeny, peace, free-dom: ku ca nkwaya, to live in peace (2) pleasure one feels when riding an ox.

nkwika (bo-) n. dirty, careless person.

nkwilimba (li-) n. domestic pigeon. fig. weak, feeble person.

nkwinini (li-) n. Eng. quinine.

noha (li-) n. snake (gen. name); in-testinal tape worm. fig. cruel, hard-hearted, ruthless, pitiless person .

nohonoho n. fatty and tasty relish (meat, fish, etc.,)

noi (li-) n. a person who tends to defecate near villages.

noka (li-) n. hip.

-nokela (nokezi) v.t. to instil: Ba ni nokezÀ mulyani mwa meto, they in-stilled medicine into my eyes; (by ext: to pour a liquid into a bottle, a calabash, etc.,) cf. -sela. rel. -noke-lela (nokelezi) to do a favour for someone by instilling medicine into another person's eyes; to pour a liquid into a bottle for someone ref. -inokela (inokezi) to instil medicine into one's own eyes.

nokushimba (bo-) n. Luyana. manner of sending a written mes-sage from one village to another (this used to be done without reward as a state duty).

nolobaki (li-) n. waist coat

-nolofala (nolofalile) v.i. to become easy; to ripen, to become soft rel. -nolofalela (nolofalezl) fig. to become open-hearted, merciful towards someone. caus. -nolofaza  (nolofalize) to make easy, to soothe, fig. to coax, to soften rel. -nolofaleza (nobfalelize) to soothe, to coax on someone's behalf. int. -nolofaleleza (nolofalelize) to make completely easy, to soothe com-pletely ref. a) -inolofaza (inolofa-lize) to soothe oneself b) inolofa-leza (inolofalelize) to make things easy for oneself.

nomai (bo-) n. uniucky, unfortunate person. syn. nalimai.

nombolo (li-) n. Eng. (from number ) brand, seal, trade mark, number fig. mark of baptism.

-nona (nonile) v.t. to collect fish from bow-nets. der. munoni, sino-nelo. syn. -okola. fig. to be a hanger-on, to live as a parasite. rel. -nonela (nonezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -nonisa (nonisize) to help to collect fish from bow-nets. int. -no-nelela (nonelezi) to lift up all the bow-nets. freq. -nonanga to fre-quently collect fish from bow-nets: Ku maswe ku nonanga makuko a ba ba–wi, it is a bad habit to take fish from other people's bow-nets. ref. -inonela (inonezi) to collect for oneself the fish trapped in bow-nets.

nonga, adv. straight, vertically: Ku yema nonga, to stand up straight like soldiers on parade. syn. zanana.

-nonga2 (nongile) v.i. to be very thin (through illness, starvation of misery) cf. -ota, caus. -nongisa i (nongisize) to cause someone thin-ness.

-nonga3 (nongile) v.t. to aim at, to take aim at der. munongi.

nongel (li-) n. main root of a tree, tap root

nonge2 (li-) n. dissatisfaction, dis-contentment, resentment.

nongolo (li-) n. Open-Bill stork idiom. exp. ku ipuza wa nongolo mwa libala, to be in difficulty not knowing what to do

-nonguluka (nongulukile) v.i. as -nonga.

-nonomoka (nonomokile) v.i. to grow up (child), to become adult

-nonoya (nonoyile) v.t. to pick up everything: Lisholi li nonoile tumbo-nyi to tu ne tu sEyezi mwa simu ya ka, a thief has picked up all the maize left in my field after the harvest-fig. to reveal everything, leaving nothing in the dark. rel. -nonoyela (nonoyezi) to pick up for some-one; to relate in detail to someone.

-nontomana (nontomani or nontoma-nine) v.i. to sit by oneself doing nothing: Wena u nontomanifela ha u beleki, ki–i? why are you sitting down doing nothing?

-nopa (nopile) v.t. to pick up; to find something previously lost. der. munopi, bunopi. fig. to give an as-sistance to an unfortunate person or to someone who has lost his way. rel. -nopela (nopezi) to pick up for someone; to find something previously lost by another person. caus. -nopisa (nopisize) to help to tuuza~:NÀ tokwile ya ka yo nÀ nopÀsa twa ka, l need somebody to help me harvest my millet. int. -nopelela (nopelezi) to live by always taking food from others: Mutu yo u pila lico za ku nopelela, ha na lico hande this person is living on food given by others and has none of his own (living from hand to mouth) int. -nopelelela (nopelelezi) to pick up everything (in harvesting) freq, -nopanga to be inclined to pick up things. red, -nopa-nopa (nopa-nopile) to pick up things hurriedly. ref. -inopela (inopezi or itopela (ito-pezi) to pick up things for oneself.

nosi, adj. alone: Ni li nosi, I alone; ba ziba taba yeo ba li nosi, they are the only ones who know of this matter.

noshiko (bo-) n. Iucky person: fig. exp. noshiko ndu ya butwa, a happy and prosperous house

nosiku (bo-) n. Luyana. person born during the night. syn. namasiku, mukosiku.

-notaa (notile) v.i. to be amuent.

-nota2 (notile) v.t. to take a pinch of snuff. der. munoto. rel. -notela (notezi) to pick up a pinch of snuff for someone. caus. -notisa (noti-size) to give a pinch of snuff. rec. -notisana (notisani or notisanile) to exchange a pinch of snuff. ref. -inotisa (inotisize) as rec. sp. exp. ku sa notÀsana;) to be on bad terms

notanga (bo-) n. Luyana. starter, be-ginner; founder of a family, of a dynasty, etc. (from -tanga)

-notela (notezi) v.t. Sotho. to lock. der. sinotolo. fig. to hold some-one's head in an arm-lock, to th-rottle. rel. -notelela (notelezi) to lock a door for someone; to lock a person in, or out: U mu notelele fande, lock him out. caus. -notelisa (notelisize) to help to lock. int.-notelelela (notelelezi) to lock up all the doors. inv. -notolola (notolozi) to unlock.

noti (tu-) n. stick used to kill fish when taking them out of a net one by one.

Notila (bo-) n. one of the royal barges.

notisi (li-) n. Eng. notice: kufa mutu notisi, to give notice to someone, to warn someone

notol (li-) n. iron insert of an anvil. syn. nyundo.

noto2 (li-) n. Eng. musical note.

noto3 Qi-) n. Eng. nought, arithmeuc. symbol (o), Zero, cipher.

notoko (li-) n. place covered with cattle dung.

notumbala (bo-) n. kind of bird (in the past, it was believed to be sacred and to cause the death of anyone who killed it).

nsi (li-) n. eyebrow.

nsu, adj. black. the feminine form 'swana' is used when speaking of {emale cattle and also of women. (this word 'swana' is the only femi-nine colour-adjective used to refer to women): Mubala o muswana kwa basali ki ona o munde kakuli ha u sa-belelwi ki ku supala kapili; as far as women are concerned, a dark black skin is preferable to a lighter one for it is a guarantee against looking old too soon.

-nsufala (nsufezi or nsufalile) v.i. Sotho. to grow dark: Ku se ku nsu-fezi cwale, it is already dark. syn. -fifala. fig. to be sad, sorrowful: Pilu ya ka i unsufezi kacenu, my heart is sorrowful today. rel. -nsufalela (nsufalezi) to be sad for a certain reason.

-nsufaza (nsufalize) v.t. Sotho, to darken, to spot: Mwanana yo u nsu-falize hahulu liapalo za ka, this child has badly stained my clothes.

nswe (li-) n. sweet sorghum.

ntafuno, n. mastication. fig. greedi-ness (from -tafuna).

ntambo (li-) n. strap, thong; rope.

ntimbwe (bo-) n. a person with an ugly face. idiom. exp. Ya ka saba li-lungwe ki ntimbwe, it is the person with an ugly face who fears dawn.

ntinyanazebe, n. (anat.) vital spot at the side of the head situated behind the ear lobe.

-ntinyuna (ntinyusi) v.t. to choke, to throttle, to strangle. syn. -kama.

nto (li-) n. thing, object. syn. sika,


ntozi (li-) n. very large earthen pot (made in the past by Nyengo  people) cf. ntuluma.

ntuluma (li-) n. very large earthen pot. syn. tuluma. cf. ntozi.

nubu (li-) n. tribute, present offered to a king or a very important person. (from -tubula2).

-nuha (nuhile) v.i. to guess, to con-jecture. der. munuhi, bunuhi. rel. -nuhelela (nuhelezi) to suspect: Ku maswe ku nuhelela mutu ka taba ya bubulai, it is bad to suspect some-one in a case of murder. caus. -nuhisa (nuhisize) to cause to con-jecture: Se si ku nuhisize kuli u zibe kuli komu ya hao i kwanu, ki sika ma–i? what made you guess that your cow was here?

nuka (li-) n. river.

nukana (li-) n. stream, small trib-utary of a river.

-nukula (nukuzi) v.t. to unsaddle, to unhorse; v.i. to walk crookedly (as one handicapped by venereal disease).

numbu (li-) n. calf of the leg.

numbuti (li-) n. kind of poisonous snake.

numwa (bo-) n. a brave, courageous man.

numwana (li-) n. messenger, mes-sage-bearer sent by a Kuta. cf. mu-lumiwa. (from -tuma).

-nuna (nunile) v.i. to become fat corpulent. der. mununo, sinuniso caus. -nunisa (nunisize) (1) to fatten; to add some oil or fat to relish. (2) to manure, to fertilize ref. -inunela (inunezi) to become corpulent by special care of one-self: Yi luna lu mu boni, u inunezi handende, we saw him too, he looks very well.

nunda (li-) n. inability to lift up the head, due to malformation, acci-dent or old age.

nundalile (bo-) n. Luyana. someone coming from far away; foreigner. syn. muzwahule, mulicaba, nyam-bangeti.

nundatului (bt} or li-) n. Luyana. dung-beetle

-nuneka (nunekile) v.t. to praise, to exalt. syn. -hmba, -bubeka. cf. -babaza. ref. -inuneka (inunekile) to admire or praise oneself. der. bui-nuneko.

nunga1 (nungile) v.t. to tie, to bind fig. exp. ku nunga mutu taba, to accuse someone falsely. der. Ii-nungo. rel. -nungela (nungezi) fig. to wrong by accusing falsely Ki kale ba ni nungela mwana ka litaba, now, here they are ‹ccusing my child falsely caus. -nungisa (nungi-size) to helpt to tie. int. -nungele-lela (nungelelezi) to tie many things together very fig. to bind someone with many false accusations. rec. -nungana (nungani) to make a mess of a rope, a string, etc.: Mihala i nungani maswe bakenisa likomu, ku tata ku i nungutula haisi ku ipuma fela: the cattle have made a mess of the ropes, which are difficult to untangle, so let us cut them. inv. -nungutula (nungutuzi) to untie.

-nunga2 (nungile) v.i. to be related to: Luna a lu sika nunga kwa mukowc wa bona, we are not of the same clan.

-nungahanya (nungahanyize) v.t. to sew together two pieces of cloth. rel. -nungahanyeza (nungahanye-lize) to - for someone. ref. -inung-ahanyeza (inungahanyelize) to sew for oneself using different pieces of material.

-nungeka (nungekile) v.t. to burn, to set ablaze, to fire syn. -tumbeka. rel. -nungekela (nungekezi) to set ablaze someone's property: Mwa bona kikale ba mu nungekela ndu ya hae! look, they are now burning down his house! caus. -nungekisa (nungekisize) to cause a fire; to help to burn: Se si ku nungekisize mulilo o. ki sika ma–i? what on earth made you start this fire: Amu to ni nungekisa kwa masita a ka, pula i tuha i nela; come and help me burn the wood heaps in my garden, for it is going to rain ref. -inungekela (inungekezi) to burn something by oneself.

nungu (li-) n. guide, leader syn. ndambo, mutwaleti.

-nungula (nunguzi) v.i. to give up ex-tremely reluctantly: Musali ha sa nunguzi bupilo bwa hae ku munna ku tata ku mu omeka; when a wife is determined to divorce her hus-band, it is very difficult to dissuade her from doing so.

-nunguluka (nungulukile) v.i. to become stale (food).

-nunka (nunkile) v.i. to be smelling. der. mununko, syn. -nka. rel. -nun-kela (nunkezi) to please or dis-please someone by one's smell. fig. exp. Musaliyani sa ni nunkezi, mane ha ni sa lata ni ku mu bonanga; that woman's bad character really of-fended me, and I cannot even bear to look at her caus. -nunkisa (nun-kisize) to cause to scent or to stink fig. to give a small share of any kind of food red. -nunka-nun-kisa (nunka-nunkisize) fig. to share parsimoniously food with others: Ha ba sika bafa hande lico, ba ba nunka-nunkisize fela kwa milomo; they did not feed them properly, but just gave them a bit of food. ref. inunkela (inunkezi) fig. exp. Ki mwa ka inunkela hape ni sa mufi se-si–wi, bake–isa mukuywe wa hae; l shall never give him food again as long as he lives, because of his in-gratitude.

-nwal (nwile) v.t. to drink; to ab-sorb: Mubu ki kale u nwa mezi, the soil has aiready absorbed the water has already absorbed the water. der. munwi, bunwi, sino, SiRWiso. fig. exp: Hani lati kuli ba ba–wi ba ni nwe mooko ba sa lati ku sebeza; I do not like people who do not like work to live at my expense, rel.-nwela (nwezi) to drink in or from: ku nwela mwa komoki, to drink from a cup; to take for oneself what belongs to others: U ni nwezi mabisi a ka, ha ne ni li siyo, he drank my milk while I was absent. caus. -nwisa (nwisize) to give a drink to, to help to drink: ku nwisa mukuli, to help a sick person to drink; rel. -nwiseza (nwiselize) to temper (steel), to water (plants). int. -nwelela (nwelezi) to drink all. spec. exp. ku nwelela cimo mezi, to drink much water before starting a journey. stat. -nweha (nwehile) to be nice to drink. ref. -inwisa (inwi-size) to drink without the help of someone (sick person).

-nwa2 (nwile) v.i. to be beaten, to get into the goal (ball) caus. -nwisa (nwisize) to score (football); to win a game: Ba lu mwisize, ne lu sina balahi hande; they won because we did not have good players

-nwela (nwesi or nwelile) v.i. to dive, to plunge, to disappear under water. rel. -nweiela (nwelezi) to look for something under the water. caus. -nwelisa (nwelisize) to dip in water, to immerse.

nwela or nwela (li-) n. serval cat.

-nwena (nwenile) v.i. to starve. syn. -lapa. caus. -nwenisa (nwenisize) to cause starvation.

-nwisa (nwisize) v.t. to win to score (football, basketball, cricket. etc.).

nya, adv. no, syn. awa, batili.

-nyaa (nyaile) v.t. to pour a little water on bran in order to make stamping easier; to pour some  water on flour when making bread. cf. -nyanyeza.2 rel. -nyaela (nyaezi) to ~ for someone.

-nyabeka (nyabekile) v.t. to leave things carelessly syn. -yabeka.

nyabikola (bo-) n. Mbunda. beloved senior wife

-nyafwita (nyafwitile) v.i. (1) to be full of maggots. (2) to stir (like fish in very shallow water) (3) to go to and fro (people, cattle in great num bers)

-nyaka (nyakile) v.t. to look at at-tentively, to gaze, to examine. syn. -tatuba. rel. -nyakela (nyakezi) to examine for someone. caus. -nya-kisa (nyakisize) to cause to stare at. int. -nyakelela (nyakelezi) to examine very attentively. ref. -inyaka (inyakile) to admire one-self. der. buinyako.

-nyakalala (nyakalalile or nyaka-lezi) v.i. to be very glad, happy, joyful. der. nyakalalo, munyaka, si-nyakanyaka. syn. -taba,-wabelwa. rel. -nyakalalela (nyakalalezi) to be very happy about someone or something: Ba nyakalalezi mwana habo bona, they enjoyed very much the visit of their relative

nyakalalo (li-) n. joy, gladness, joy-fulness, happiness. (from: -nyaka-lala, cf. tabo.

nyakayoya (bo-) n. Luvale. vaulter

-nyakula (nyakuzi) v.i. to try to untie itself by kicking (as a cow tied up by the legs) fig. to kick against the husband's authority (a woman wanting divorce). caus. -nyakulisa (nyakulisize) to cause a cow to untie itself. freq. -nyakaub (nyakauXi) to kick about frenziedly.

-nyala (nyezi) v.t. to marry (man; pass. -nyalwa, to get married (woman). der. munyali, munyaliwa, linyalo, sinyaliso. rel. -nyalela (nya-lezi) to marry somebody's daugh- ter or sister; to marry into a parti-cular family: Ku tata ku nyalela ba-fuzana, it is very hard to marry into a very poor family. caus. -nya-lisa (nyalisize) to give in marriage; to help someone find a wife stat. -nyaleha (nyalehile) to enjoy a suc-cessful marriage (woman): Mwana ka u nyalehile hande. my daughter is happily married. rec. -nyalana (nyalani or nyalanile) to get mar-ried (speaking of both man and woman): Ba nyalani kale bani, people have been married for a long time. red. -nyala-nyala (nyala-nyezi) to marry frequently ref. -inyalela (inyalezi) to marry accord-ing to one's own will: U. inyalezimu-sali wa sipulumuki, mi ha ba utwani; he married a flighty wife and they do not live peaceably.

-nyaluha (nyaluhile) v.i. Sotho. to stand up quickly, to sum up der. manyalu, syn. -nanuha, -yema.

nyamaluyoyo, n. Luyana. food which someone stole and which might cause him troubie: Kacenu lu icezi nyamaluyoyo; today we ate some food which we had no right to take, so we can expect trouble

-nyamatala (nyamatalile) v.t. to touch, to seize, to catch, to grasp, to hold, to grip: Hakuna ya kona ku mu nyamatala yani, u tata hahulu, nobody dare catch that man, be-cause he resists very strongly. syn. -swala, -yoyomana.

nyambaeti (bo-) n. Luyana. person without fixed residence, nomad; vagabond. (from -yambaela) syn. muyambaeli.

nyambangeti (bo-) n. Luyana. person coming from far away, foreigner. syn. nundalile, muzwa-hule, mulicaba.

Nyambe, n. Luyana. God, Divinity syn. Mulimu.

nyambwanaleka, (noun taken ad-verbially) in disorder, carelessly: U sEile libyana za hae nyambwanaleka. he left his belongings in disorder; U sŸle bana ba hae nyambwanaleka, he left his children without any means for living.

nyame-nyame! interj. said of a thing disappearing suddenly: Lika za ka li ile nyame-nyatte! my things di-sappeared suddenly.

-nyamunya (nyamunyize) v.i. to creep.

-nyana (nyanine) v.i. to fade, to~ wither, to wilt (flowers); to lan-guish; to be rickety (a child).

nyana,2 n. beginning of pregnancy. syn. nyenganyenga.

-nyanda (nyandile) v.i. to suffer, to be in difficulty, to be miserable. der. munyandi, manyando, likando, nyandiso. syn. -shupeka, -sheta. rel. -nyandela (nyandezi) to suffer for a reason: Ku nyandela musebezi o sina. mali, to suffer, working for low wages. fig. to long for, to crave for: Ni nyandezi kuli ni mu bone. kono ni palezwi ku mu Arnar - , I was long-ing to see him, but I could not find him. caus. -nyandisa (nyandisize) to torment, to oppress, to ill-treat, to persecute. int. -nyandelela (nyande-lelezi) to be in great difficulty: Mu-botana u pila ku nyandelela ka za ku ca kamita, a poor person is always meeting hardships living at subsis-tence level. rec. -nyandisana (nyan-disani) to torment each other. rec. -inyandisa (inyandisize) to worry oneself, to torment oneself.

nyandiso (li-) n. ill-treatment, op-pression, persecution. (from -nyanda).

nyandi (bo-) n. a name applied to a deceased person, the late: Nyandi Akakambama, the late Akakam-bama. syn. mutalahali, –ulukundi cf. Imutakwandu.

-nyandima (nyandimile) v.i. to gleam, to shine (due to application of grease etc.) Mwanana yo u itombwekile hahulu mafula. pata ya hae kEye nyandima; this child used too much vaseline, his face is gleaming.

-nyanganya (nyanganyize) v.i. to be shaking, to be moving. caus. -nyanganyisa (nyanganyisize) to shake, to move: Mu sike mwa nyanganyisa tafule. mu ka bulaya ze fate–i, do not shake the table, or you will break the things on it.

nyangela, n. crowd, multitude: Mu zibise nyangela kaufela ba kopanefa Kuta, tell everybody to gather at the court; public, common: Ki mo i hupulela nyangela. it is the opinion of the common man, it is public opinion.

-nyangumukelwa ( nyangumukezwi ) v.i. to feel comfortable (near the fire after having been cold) cf. -fu-tumalelwa.

nyanisi (li-) n. Eng. onion.

-nyanyama (nyanyami or nyanya-mile) v.i. Mbunda. to be clever; to make prompt decisions.

-nyanyeka (nyanyekile) v.i. to walk noiselessly (in order to be unob-served).

-nyanyeza1 (nyanyelize) v.t. to spur on, to urge forward (when riding an animal).

nyanyeza2 (nyanyelize) v.t. to sprin-kle water, to moisten, to wet cf. -nyaa.

-nyanyiliketa (nyanylliketite) v.t. to try hard, to convince someone, to try again and again, to continue to any course. cf. -kaliketa.

-nyanyuka (nyanyukile) v.i. to walk tiptoe, to tread lightly, to avoid burning sand, prickles, etc., der. Ii-nyanyu, tunyanyu. fig. to shun  danger, to beware of a dangerous thing caus. -nyanyukisa(nyanyuki-size) to cause to ~. fig. to warn, to inform of a danger. freq. -nya-nysuka (nyanyaukile) or-nyanyoka (nyanyokile) to walk as on burning ground.

-nyapa1 (nyspile) v.t. to pinch, to nip. syn. -–apa. rel. -nyspela (nya-pezi) to pinch on someone's behalf. caus. -nyspisa (nyspisize) to cause someone to be pinched. rec. -nyspana (nyapani) to pinch each other freq. a)-nyspanga to have the habit of pinching; b) -inyspaka (inyspakile) to nip again and again. ref. -inyspaka (inyspakile) to pinch each other frequently.

-nyapa2 (nyspile) v.i. to feel pain in the stomach or bowels. syn. -–apa. c us. -nyapisa (nyapisize) to cause a twisting action of bowels or sto-mach making someone feel pain.

-nyapa3 (nyspile) v.i. to go on foot: Na tile a nze a nyapa ka mahutu, he came on foot caus. -nyspisa (nya-pisize) to cause to ~: Se si mu nya-pisize ka mahutu ki ku siwa ki mota bake–isa bucakolwa, he had to vaik as he was left by the bus because of his drunkenness. ref. -inyspisa (inyspisize) to cause oneself to go on foot.

Nyata, n. jupiter (planet)

-nyatela (nyatezi) v.t. to give finger-prints. fig. to perform a civil mar-riage. der. munyatelisi, syn. -cata. caus. -nyatelisa (nyatelisize) to finger-print. ref. -inyatelisa (inyate-lisize) to give one's finger prints without the help of anyone

-nyateta (nyatetite) v.t. to call someone's attention or to warn him of danger (by touching him with a finger or by winking) rec. -nyatetana (nyatetani) to wink at each other. ref. -inyateta (Inyate- tile) as rec.

-nyauba (nyaubile) v.t. to show off in order to attract attention. der. nalinyawe, linyawe. syn. -keuba. rel. -nyaubela (nysubezi) to show off in order to attract someone's atten-tion: Na ni kaizel'a hao u sike wa ni nyaubela cwalo, I am y—ur brother so do not bother to show off like this. caus. -nyaubisa (nysubisize) to make a show (mostly of one's clothes). rec. -nysubelana (nyaube-lani) to show off reciprocally in order to attract each other's atten-tion

nyaulu (li-) n. habit of changing one's thoughts or manners (from -yauluka) fickleness.

-nyaza (nyazize) v.t. to blame, to disapprove, to criticise. der. mu-nyazi, nyazo, buinyazo. rel. -nya-zeza (nyazelize) to blame someone about something: Ki kokunde ku nyazeza mutu ka sa si fosize, it is good to reprimand someone for his mistakes caus. a) -nyazisa (nya-zisize) to cause a person to be blamed; b)-nyaziseza (nyaziselize) to despise, to belittle stat. -nyazeha (nyazehile) to be reprehensible int. etat.

-nyazahala (nyazahalile) to be bla-meful. rec. -nyazana (nyazani or nyazanile) to blame each other. freq. -nyazanga to be inclined to reprimand: A ki hande ku no nya-zanga mutufa linto za linolwanifela, it is not good to reprimand some-one all the time for trifling mat-ters. ref. -inyaza (inyazize) to repent, to apologize; Ni inyazize ku yena, kono u sa ni zuma maswe, al-though I apologized he is still cas-tigating me fig. to feel unwell: Bo me ba inyaza kacenu, my mother is sick today

nyazi (li-) n. concubine, paramour (man or woman) cf. mulikani.

nyazo (li-) n. blame, disapproba-tion, reprehension (from -nyaza).

-nyefa (nyefile) v.i. to be discour-aged, disheartened, depressed to be disappointed caus. -nyefisa (nyefisize) to discourage, to dis-hearten, to depress.

-nyefula (nyefuzi) v.t. to blaspheme; to be abusive, to- revile, to speak badly of; to swear (at). der. munye-hli, bunyefuli, myefulo. syn. -nenauna or nenona. rel. -nyefulela, -(nyefulezi) to ~ for some reason. caus. -nyefulisa (nyefulisize) to cause to ~. rec. -nyefuhna (nyefu-lani or nyefulanile) to ~ each other. freq. -nyefulanga to be in-clined to ~ ref. a) -inyefula (inye-fuzi) as rec. freq. b) -inyefaula (inyefauzi) to ~ each other con-stantly; c)-inyefulisa (inyefulisize) to give people cause to revile onself: Ki wenaya inyefulisa batu ka ku tokwa likute, you are asking for insults because of your lack of po-liteness.

nyefulo (li-) n. insult, blasphemy, abuse of language (from -nyefula).

-nyeka (nyekile) v.i. to fluctuate; to move forwards and backwards when paddling (like canoes in rapids) der. manyekanga. freq. -nyekaela (nyekaezi) to be very agi-tated (water)

-nyela (nyelile) v.i. to relieve one-self, to defecate.

nyeliso (li-) n. Sotho. contempt, sneer.

-nyema (nyemile) v.i. to be sulky, to be vexed, to keep rancour der. bu-nyemi, cf. -twima. rel. -nyemela (nyemezi) to ~ against caus. -nye-misa (nyemisize) to vex someone, making him angry int. -nyemelela (nyemelezi) to be extremely vexed. rec. -nyemelana (nyemelani) to be bitter against each other. red. -nyema-nyema (nyema-nyemile) to be easily sulky: Ku tata ku pita ni batu ba ba nyema-nyemafela, it is hard to live with people who are always sulky ref a) -inyemela (inyemezi) to cross with each other; b) -inyemisa (inyemisize) to show one's dissatisfaction by being sulky: U. sike wa inyemisanga ha u bona baenyi, do not sulk whenever you see visitors

nyemboka, n. fly-switch cf. muhata.

-nyembula (nyembuzi) v.t. to offer repeated gifts to people accompa-nying a bride to her husband's home. der. munyembu, caus. -nyem-bulisa (nyembulisize) to enable someone to ~: Ha ni na mali a ku nyembulisa, haisi a malobolofela, l have no money to distribute on the way, I have only the money for the dowry.

nyembuluko, n. habit of changing one's manners or thoughts. (from -yembuluka).

-nyembunya (nyembuyize) v.i. to have propensity to vomit. caus. -nyembunyisa (nyembunyisize) to provoke feeling to vomit: Ni cile tapi ye sika buzwa, mi ya ni nyembu-nyisa; I ate insufficiently cooked fish, and I feel as though I am going to be sick. ref. -inyembunyisa (inyembunyisize) to pretend to feel like wanting to vomit: MusalE yo u inyembunyisafela ha sika yema mwa hae; this woman is just pretending to want to vomit, she is not preg-nant

-nyendaela (nyendaezi) v.i. to swing; to sway to and fro under the influ-ence of alcohol, to feel dizzy, giddy, to have vertigo, to have a swimming in the head. cf. -zingu-luka. der. manyendaela, caus. -nyendaelisa (nyendaelisize) to cause to ~

-nyendauka or -nyendoka (nyendau-  kile or nyendokile) as -nyendaela.

nyenganyenga, n. beginning of preg-nancy. syn. nyana.

-nyengela (nyengezi) v.t. to commit adultery: to fornicate. cf. -soma.

nyengo (li-) n. kind of very poison-ous snake. (mamba family).

-nyenuka (nyenukile) v.i. to be kept waiting a very long time. cf. -liyeha. caus. -nyenukisa (nyenuki-size) to keep waiting: Aa ilo ni ye-nukisa fela kwa sipatela, mi ha ba sika ni fa mulyani; they kept me waiting a very long time at the dis-pensary and they did not give me any medicine. ref. -inyenukisa (inyenukisize) to wait. to delay oneself: Mu sike mwa inyenakisa mwa lizazi. mu ta kula; do not wait in the sun or you will be sick.

-nyenya (nyenyize) v.t. to despise, to condemn, to look down on: to feel repugnance, aversion. syn. -kenda. rel. -nyenyela (nyenyezi) to despise on account of: Ni mu nyenyezi mikwa ya hae bumaswe; I feel an aversion for him because of bad behaviour caus. -nyenyisa (nyenyi-size) to be loathsome, to be despi-cable: to disgust. rec. -nyenyana (nyenyani) to despise each other, to feel mutual antipathy. freq. -nyenyanga to be inclined to dis-dain. ref. -inyenya (nyenyize) to despise oneself.

nyewanyewa (li-) n. agitation due to the expectation of an important visitor agitation due to a disaster. cf. Iiuluta.

-nyikwa (nyikilwe) v.t. to disgust: Nama i se i ni nyikwa kwa pilu cwale, meat is beginning to be ab-horrent to me now: Ni se ni nyi-kilwe ki bupilo bwa lifasi! I am fed up with living in this world! rec. -nyikwana (nyikwani or nyikwanile) to experience mutual disgust: Batu ha ba nyikwani mwa ndu ya bona, ha ba pilisani hande, musali sa bata tu-kuluho; when people experience tual antipathy in their home, they do not take proper care of each other and the wife is soon looking for divorce.

-nyikula (nyikuzi) v.t. to hit with the fist or elbows. (see -nyikula2)

nyingatanyi, n. so-and-so. such-and-such, a thing (particular person or thing not needing to be specified): Ha ni bulela kuli nyinga-tanyi ki kuli ni timelezwi libizo la hae, when I say so-and-so, it is be-cause I forgot his name

nyinyani, adj. (1) small, little, short, tiny: of small importance: Ki taba yenyinyanifela, it is just a trifling matter; (2) few: Batu ki ba banyi-nyani ha ba na ku kona musebezi people are two few to do the work -nysisa (nyisize) v.t. to beat in a fight to knock down an opponent syn. -simeha. rel. -nyiseza (nyise-lize) to beat somebody on some-one's behalf. caus. -nyisisa (nyisi-size) to cause, to help to beat. rec. -nyisana (nyisani or nyisanile) to severely beat each other. ref. a)-inyisa (inyisize) as rec. b) -inyisisa (inyisisize) to act in a way which calls for a thrashing, (child).

nyo (li-) n. vulva. anat syn. Iitoci.

nyoko (li-) n. bile, gall.

-nyokola (nyokozi) v.t. to strangle, to choke, to throttle. syn. -kama fig. exp: Tala kacenu i ni yokozi maswe, the hunger nearly killed me today

-nyolwa (nyolilwe or nyozwi) v.i. to be thirsty. der. Iinyolwa. rel. -nyo-lelwa (nyolezwi) to long for, to desire ardently, to hanker after.

-nyomaeta (nyomaetile or nyomate-tite) v.t. to follow persistently. der. munyomaeti. caus. -nyomaetisa (nyomaetisize) to cause to follow someone persistently.

-nyoma-nyoma (nyoma-nyomile) v.i. to walk about in search of some-thing der. munyoma-nyomi. syn. -nyonya.

-nyomoka (nyomokile) v.i. to be showing (petticoat, etc.); hanging down on one side (skirt, etc.)

-nyongamena (nyongamezi) v.i. see-inyongamena.

nyongaminwe, n. overwhelming. Ku ba mwa to be overwhelmed.

-nyonya (nyonyile or nyonyize) v.i. to walk about in search of some-thing. syn. -nyoma-nyoma. der. mu-nyonyi. caus. -nyonyisa (nyonyisize) to cause to wander about: Kuhu i nyonyisa twana twa yona mwa maca-cani, the hen is scratching about in the bush with her chickens.

-nyonyongana (nyonyonganisa) v.i. to have the colics, stomachache. caus. -nyonyonganisa (nyonyonga-nisa) to cause colics.

nyoo, n. madness, insanity.

-nyota (nyotile) v.i. to make a special click (no vocal sucking sound) expressing disgust or dis-dain. rec. -nyotela (nyotezi) to maice that click with a special in-tention: So no mu nyotela na ezi-ze–i? what did he do to make you click like that? caus. -nyetisa (nyo-tisize) to disgust. freq. -nyotaka (nyotakile) to constantly make the click of disapproval.

-nyuka (nyukile) v.t. to rumple, to soften (a skin) der. munyuki. syn. -suha. fig. to tame, to break in, to subdue, to master, (animal or man) rel. -nyukela (nyukezi) to rumple for someone or to tame int. -nyukelela (nyukelezi) to rumple to the finish; to tame thor-oughly. rec. -nykana (nykani or nyukanile) fig. to subdue, to master each other. syn. -tapsiana, -tambisana.

-nyukuka (nyukukile) v.i. to come out; to be pulled out, extracted, uprooted. syn. -kumuha,-tukuka.

-nyukula (nyukazi) v.t. to pull out a thorn, a tooth; to root up (cassava, etc. ) syn. -kumula. rel. -nyukulela (nyukulezi) to ~ for someone freq. -nyukaula (nyukauzi) to ~ re-peatedly; Masholi ba nyukauzi mwanja wa ka, thieves have up-rooted a lot of my cassava

nyundi (li-) n. kind of small rodent living near water.

nyundo (li-) n. iron insert of an Afri-can anvil. syn. noto1.

-nyunga (nyungile) v.t. to shake; ku nyunga toho. to shake one's head: ku nyunga sEhwana, to shake a cala-bash, etc., freq. -nyungaka (nyung-akile) to shake persistently. red. -nyunga-nyunga (nyunganyungile) to shake repeatedly: Mu sike mwa nyunga-nyunga mukuli mu mu tuhele a pumule, do not go on shaking the patient, leave him to rest.

-nyungana (nyungani or nyunganile) v.i. to be agitated (people): Sicaba sa nyungana si itukiseza ndwa; the nation is stirred up for it is getting prepared to face war. caus. -nyung-anisa (nyunganisize) fig. to frighten: Tau ya nyunganisa batu ka ku to kena mwa mafulo a bona; the lion has frightened the people by entering their camp.

nyungu (li-) n. Luyana. Iarge ear-then pot.

-nyungumuna (nyungumuzi) v.t. to shake rel. -nyungumunela (nyungu-munezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -nyungumunisa (nyungumunisize) to help to ~. ref. -inyungumuna (inyungumuzi) to shake itself dry (a dog) to shake its mane (a lion. etc.) syn. -ipukumuna, cf. -itutula.

-nyuntula (nyuntuzi) v.t. to nibble, to nibble at something, (meat, fish,  etc ) to pick at

-nyunyeka (nyunyekile) v.t. to set afire, to set ablaze. syn. -cisa, -tum-beka. rel. -nyunyekela (nyunyekezi) (mutu, ndu) to set ablaze some-one's house. caus. -nyunyekisa (nyunyekisize) to cause a fire, to cause a conf’agration freq. -nyu-nyateka (nyunyatekile) to start fires in many places at a time.

-nyunyeka2 (nyunyekile) v.t. to land a canoe smoothly.

nyunywani (li-) n. (generic name) blrd.

-nyunyumana (nyunyumani or nyu-nyumanile) v.i. (1) to stay a short time somehwere (2) to sit sadly (on an occasion of mourning)- (3) to shelter oneself after getting wet

nyuyele, n. Eng. New Year, (or as a salutation, Happy, New Year)

nzalu (li-) n. kind of date-palm

nze, aux. v. indicating continuation in action: Ku nze ku ya, we are going on.

-nzeluka (nzelukile) v.i. (the sun) to be very hot. syn. -lenguka.

nzi or nzinzi (li-) n. f’y

nzie or nziye (li-) n. Iocust syn. mwambwa-likumbila.

nzila1 (li- ormi-) n. path, way, route, track fig. manner: U tuXele linzila za hao, li maswe; stop this bad habit of yours.

nzila2 (li-) n. kind of illness related to superstitious beliefs rudioto, n. Ieft. hand side: Lizoho &2 nzohoto (or la nzohoto). the leh hand; A mu ine ku la nzohoto, sit on the left

nzwana (li-) n. calabash-pipe.


„, –, apart from the palatal sound as in the word now, letter n has a velar nasal sound as ng in sing . A special symbol marks out this sound (–).

-–abeka (–abekile) v.t. to grasp, to hold tightly.

-–abula (–abuzi) v.t. to beat, to kill. syn. -–ata. rel. -–abulela (–abulezi) to kill for someone freq. -–abaula (nabauzi) to beat to death.

–aka (li-) n. medicine-man, African doctor. syn. singanga.

–ake (li-) n. pangolin.

-–ala (–alile) v.i. to sulk, to go away sulking, to sulkily refuse or boy-cott food. syn. -pupumuka. rel. -–alela (–alezi) to go away sulky: Musal'a ka u–alezi habo, my wife has gone off in the sulks to her parents. caus. -–alisa (nalisize) to cause to be sulky. red. -–ala-–ala (–ala-–alile) to sulk over trifling matters: u –ala-–alafelafa lika ze sina tuso; you sulk so easily, but for no reason. ref. -i–alisa (i–alisize) to cause oneself to be sulky: U sike wa no i–alisanga ha u bona lico, do not be in the sulks when you look at the food.

–alelwa (li-) n. great anguish, great distress (from -kalelwa). cf. butata.

-–aluha (–aluhile) v.i. to flee, to leave because of bad treatment. rel. -–aluhela (–aluhezi) to leave one's place for another because of bad treatment. caus. -–aluhisa (–a-luhisize) to deliberately cause someone's departure.

-–ama (–amile) v.t. to eat (co’loq ) syn. -ca.

–amatwa (li-) n. small bundle (grass. bark, etc. )

–amba1 (li-) n. t;ibute (money or equivalent)

–amba2, n. state of having buck-teeth; Mutu wanamba, a person with buck teeth.

–ambamo (li-) n. ascent, acclivity incline. (from -kambama).

–ambeko (li-) n. anything given gratis by a seller to encourage his customer to buy some more or be- cause he has bought a lot- a thing offered on top of a bargain (from -kambeka). syn. paseb.

–ame-n me, n. deliberate hesita-tion; ku eza– ame–ame, to keep for oneself what ought to be given to somebody else.

–amuha (–amahile) v.i. to expand, to dilate.

-–amula (–amuzi) v.t. to cause someone to stretch out by choking him.

–amula (li-) n. (1) vest (2) sleeveless blouse (for women).

–amuluha (namuluhile) v.i. to be ex-tendable, elastic.

-–amulula (–amuluzi) v.t. to extend, to stretch.

–ana (li-) n. upper part of the but-tocks below the coccyx.

-–ana-–ana (nana–anile) v.i. to be il-Imannered, uncivil, to think much of oneself, to be self-centred der. si–anana. syn. -anaena. rel. -–ana-–anela (nana–anezi) to be uncivil with someone. caus. -–ana–anisa (–ana–anisize) to cause to show off.

–andal (li-) n. doe lechwe antelope.

~nda2 (ii-) n. baby's motion (excre-ment) syn. matea. fig. exp. –anda-ta-lukeke (yellow colour).

–andaleza (li-) n. Iamp-stand.

–andu (”i-) n. place where iron ore is dug out.

ianei (bo-) n. person who does not like evil, who forbids and fights against it.

–anya1 (II-) n. bug.

-–anya2 (nanyize) v.t. to knock down, to beat.

-–anyuka (nanyukile) v.i. to enjoy a very deep sleep.

-–a–a1 (–a–ile) v.t. to hold back, to brake: Ku –a–a tumo ya pizi, to hold fast a horse's bridle.

-–a–a2 (–a–ile) vPi. to quarrel, to dis- pute, to wrangle. der. ma–a–az-wana, bu–a–eli. rel. -–a–ela (–a–ezi) to persist in contesting something: (/ tuhele ku –a–ela poro-loto ye sf ya hao, stop arguing about a pencil which does not belong to you. caus. -na–isa (–a–isize] to cause someone to contest or wrangle rec. -–a–isana (–a–isani) to quarrel with each other. int. -–a–e-lela (–anelezi) to persist, to be ob-stinate.

–a–alwa, n. way of catching fish during the dry season in grass-cov-ered ponds. (women): litapi za –a-–alwa, fish killed in that way (from -ka–ala).

-–a–auka (na–aukile) v.i. to walk in a funny manner because one is im-peded by undersized trousers. fig. to be on the point of fighting caus. -–a–aukisa (–a–aukisize) to cause to walk in a funny manner. fig. to cause to be on the point of fight-ing. spec. exp. U. sike wa –a–aukisa toho ya hao cwalo, u ka kula; stop crying in rage like this or you will become ill

-–apa (–apile) v.t. & v.L as -nyspa.

–asi (li-) n. triangle notch made at the end of a paddle blade in order to make easier paddling in grassy waters; Silabo sa –asi, forked paddle

–ashu, n. manner in which a person overcomes another: U mu natile hahulu ku mu sfya ki wa –ashu; he beat him very severely and left him for dead. (from -kashula).

–asunasu, n. taken adverbially. without relish: Na ha ni lati ku ca buhobe –asu–asu, I do not like to eat buhobe without relish.

-–ata1 (–atile) v.t. to beat with a stick; to kill by throwing some object: Mushimani u –atile nuyny-wani ka li–omo, the boy killed a  bird with a clod of earth. syn. -–abula. rel. -natela (–atezi) to beat for someone. rec. a) -–atana (–atani or –atanile) to exchange blows; b) -–ataulana (–ataulani) to exchange blows repeatedly. freq.–ataka (–atakile) or-–ataula (–atauzi) to beat repeatedly, to beat to death.

–ata2 (li or ma) n. bundle, sheaf.

– ta,3 adj. many, numerous, several, much: Batu ba ba–ata, many people; buloto bo bu–ata, a lot of wheat.

–ati (li-) n. pancreas, (anat.)

–atu–atu, noun taken adverbially, as –asu–asu.

–aya, n. freshness (of meat, fish, etc. ,): Litapi ze a li sikafuta kale, li sa li –aya, these fish are still fresh.

–e, (li-) n. kind of deadly snake.

–ela1 (li-) n. earthen funnel for bellows.

–eb2 (li-) n. children's hide-and-seek.

–endelo, n. Luyana. manner of walking with a certain intention.

-–eneha (nenehile) v i. to be envious. syn. -shwa-muna. rel. -–enehela (ne-nehezi) to be envious of some-thing. caus. -–enehisa (–enehisize) to cause envy.

–engeti (li-) n. reflection; con-science, remorse, torment: Na ha ni na –engeti mwa pilu, ni ha kula ki ko ni sa isi: although he is ill l have no sympathy for him. (from -keng-ela).

-–eta (–etile) v.i. to pass by. rel. -–e-telela (–etelezi) to pass by in order to take by surprise. caus. -netisa (–etisize) to cause to pass by: Se si mu –etisize nzila yani ki ku sabisa litapi za lwezi. he is making a detour over there because of the fish he is carrying.

–etana (ma-) n. Luyana. foreigner. syn. muiete.

–ibi (li-) n. otter.

-–inda (–indile) v.t. to beat with the r,St.

–indi (li-) n. fist. syn.nondo.

–o! interj. expressing dryness: Ha lu yo kumbuluka mwa lisima se li –o! When we had a look at the well, it was dry! fi~g. exp. Mwanana yani u omile, u li –o! that child is awfully thin

–obyo (li-) n. eyelash.

–oci (li-) n. first vertebra (atlas).

–ohola, adv. Iast year.

–ehola-tuh, adv. the year before last.

–oka1 (li-) n. kind of bownet.

–oka2 (li-) n. Iarge draining ditch.

–oko (li-) n. porridge cooked with milk. fig. a wolf in sheep's cloth-ing

–okolwa (li-) n. elbow.

-–ola (–ozi or olile) v.t. to write: Ku– ola buka, to write a-book; ku –ola pina, to compose a song. der. muioli, mu–do, mu–ido, liholo, si–oliso. rel. -–olela (–okzi) to write to. caus. -–olisa (–olisize) to order or to help to write. m. -–ole-lana (–oleWni) to correspond. freq. -–olanga to have the habit of writ-ing. red. -–ola-nola (–ola-–olile) to give occasionally written news. ref. -i–olisa (i–olisize) to register or enrol

–olamenyi (II-) n. Luyana. remain-der, leavings: Ba ni zwisizeSa muse-bezi, kono ku sa na ni –olamenyi fate–i, they have sacked me, but there are still things remaining to be discussed; Mutu u puluhiie hande kono ku sa na ni –olamenyi, ndu ya mwana i sa pala; the woman has safely delivered, but the placenta still remains to come out. (from -kolamena).

–olano (li-) n. race, competition, match; hunt (with dogs): Kacenu ki –olano, lu ka bona nja ye lubilo, today is a hunt with the dogs, we shall s~ee which is the swiftest.

–ole, n. insensibility of the heart, heartlessness.

–olo (li-) n. nipple of the breast, teat.

–olonde (li-) n. spinning-top, peg-top. fig. exp. Likomu li tapa –ol– –o-londe, li boni linyonga, the cattle are swimming . in a ring because they have seen a mud-sucker fish which signifies the approach of crocodiles. see linyonga

–olotwa (li-) n. piece of wood used to tie dogs which would cut through ordinary rope with their teeth.

-–oma1 (–omile) v.t. to refuse to give. syn. -tima, -nota, cf. -fala

–oma2 (li-) n. ball, African hockey: ku lunga –oma, to start a game of ~. ku kola noma, to play a game of ~.

–omba (li-) n. Iarge buck antelope.

–omba2 (li-) n. the last child in a family, the last born

–ombdo, n. buhobe without relish.

–omboti (li-) n. person in charge of a royal grave. syn. nameto, mushei.

-–omela (–omezi) v.t. to button, to fasten up, to clasp (a knife). inv. -–omolola (–omolozi) to unbutton, to unfasten, to unclasp. fig. to hold someone's head in an armlock. syn. -cobela. rec. -–omelana (–ome-lanl) to hold each other by the neck. ref. -i–omela (i–omezi) as rec.

-–ompola (–ompozi) v.t. to take a portion from a dish of buhobe. der. si–ompoliso. cf. -–wata. rel. -–om-polela (–ompolezi) to ~ for some-one. int. -–ompolelela (–ompolelezi) to take a large portion from a dish of buhobe: U –ompolelezi buhobe kaufela, he has helped himself with nearly all the buhobe

–ondo (li-) n. fist. syn. –indi.

–ondwatuya (bo-) n. imaginary aquatic monster believed to erode the bank of a river.

–ongo, n. yawn; ku shaa– ongo, to yawn.

–ongolo (li-) n. empty snail shell syn. kupa.

-–onoleha (–o–olehile) v.i. to show dissatisfaction, to grumble. der. mu–o–olehi,–o–oleho, cf. -bilaela, -tongoka, -honona.

–onoleho (li-) n. dissatisfaction, grumbling. (from -–o–oleha).

-–ota (–otile) v.t. to refuse to give: Ba ni –otile kwa busunso bwa bona. they have refused to share their re’ish with me. syn. -tima,

-–oma. ioto (li-) n. arm-lock.

–uli (li-) n. tempest. hurricane.

–uba-–uba (bo- or li-) n. Rufus-bel-lied Heron.

–ulub ti (li-) n. Luy na. an old person (man or woman)

–ulubeti (li-) n. divine promise (from -kulubeta) cf. sepiso.

–ulukati (li-) n. Luyana. an old woman.

–ulukundi (bo-) n. Luyana. progemi-tor of a family (after two or more generatory) the late (so-and-so): Mweli wa Ngambela –ulukundi. the eldest son of the late Ngambela. syn. nyandi, mutalahali cf. imutak-wandu.

–ulule1 n. month of December.

–ulule2 (li-) n. kind of insect (dark brown and winged. usually seen in December only).

–ululume (li-) n. Luyana. an old man.

–uluwa (li-) n. old dog with long ex-perience in hunting.

–umbi (li-) n. cormorant (–umbi ye nsu, reed cormorant or long-tailed cormorant; –umbi ye sweu, white-  breasted cormorant.)

–umbili n. group of peop’e rising suddenly because of fear or sorrow (also said of cattle afraid and coming together). cf. maefe-efe.

–umbimulilo n. very ’arge fire being a source of intense heat.

–undupula (li- or ma-) n. torrentia’ rain and thunder storm.

–ingu1 (li-) n. White Stork (Locust Bird). fig. someone who always goes where he sees food.

–ungu2 (li-) n. Wood Ibis.

–ungwe (li-) n. Luyana. kind of small fish. syn. mubundu2.

–u–ulo (li-) n. reputation: Yena u ile –u–ulo ya busholi. he has the repu-tation of being a thief.

-–u–una (–u–unile) v.i. to murmur to mumb’e caus. -–u–unisa (–u–u-nisize) to cause someone's mur-muring

tnu–uta (–u–utile) v.i. to whine. (dogs).

-–usa (–usize) v.t. to denounce to inform against to report badly. der.–uso. syn. -biha.

–uso (li-) n. denunciation. delation. accusation (from -–usa).

–ute (li-) n. Luyana. curse. maledic-tion: Mutangana yani u shwile –ute ya mahe, that young man has been cursed by his mother syn. sikuto.

–utuluti n. bias any special infiu-ence that sways the mind.

–waa ! idioph. (the sound of) a child's cry. a bees-swarm.

-–wsela (nwsezi) v.t. to scrape a hide in order to soften it. der. mun-~waeli si–waeliso. rel. -–wseleb (–waelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -–waelisa (–wselisize) to help to ~ ref. -i–wselela (i–waelezi) to scrape a hide belonging to oneself.

–walakati (II-) n. wife originating from a village different from that of her husband.

–walani (li-) n. decoration on a wall or fioor made by smearing.

-–walaula (nwalauzi) v.t. to scratch repeatedly cf. -–waya. Kaze i mu nwalauzi the cat has scratched him. rel. -i–walaula (i–walauzi) to scratch oneself: Mbututu u i–wa-lauzi, ki ha lila, the baby has scratched himself that is why he is crying.

–walula (–waluzi) scratch ref. i–waIuls

-–wamuka (–wamukile) v.i. not to be given what one expected: Ni –wamukile ni ka ka kana, I came back with empty hands.

-–waana (–wasnile) v.i. to cry to yell (baby) syn. -–waula. caus. -–wasnisa (–wasnisize) to make cry.

-–wa–uluka (–wa–ulukile) v.i. to be very thin to be nothing but skin and bones to be emaciated cf. -ota. caus. -–wa–ulukisa (–wa–ulukisize) to cause thinness: Se si mu awa–u-lukisize cwalo ki lipilaelo za mwan-a hae; it is anxiety about her child that made her so thin

–wanyama (li- or ma-) n. an avari-cious greedy close-fisted person. syn. mutimani.

–wanyl (II-) n. fish-eagle (African Sea Eagle). fig. avaricious person.

-–wa–waila (–wa–waile or –wa–wai-lile) v.i. to walk away disappoin-tedly: Ba –wa–wailafela ha ba sika Sumana sesi–wi. their bearing shows disappointment. for they did not find anything.

-–wata (–watile) v.t. to take a por-tion or a part of something (food fiour etc.) der. mu–wati si–watiso. c . -–ompola -sempula. idbm. exp. Ha ufa munnau –wate kwa teni, when you give to a man keep a little for yourself. rel. -–wateb (–watezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -nwatisa (–watisize) to help to ~.  A muyo ni –watisa kwa mbonyi, pula se li fa-kauf; help me to take in my maize for the rain is coming int. -–watelela (–watelezi) to take the whole bit by bit. red. -–wata-iõwata (–wata-–watile) to take small por-tions again and again.

-–waula (–wauzi) v.i. to cry lo yell (baby) syn. -–wasna.

–wawawa (bo-) n. Hadadah Ibis

-–waya (–waile) v.t. to scratch (people) cf. -–walula. ref. -iiõwaya (i–waile) to scratch oneselfi

-–weha (–wehile) v.i. to disappear in fear to leave unobserved

–welula n. current in a river.

-–wenyumuka (Žwenyumukile) v.i. to pass unobserved unnoticed; to hide oneself.

–wi! adj. one other a cenain some: nto ili–wi, one thing; taba ye–wi, another matter Ni mu boni mwa sibaka sesi–wi, I have seen him in a cenain place; Ba ba–wi ha ba i lati, some people do not like it; ye–wi ni ye–wi, each,

–wi! inter;. expressing the sound of a person falling down: A mu wisa fafasi, a mu li –wi! he knocked him down so !



o pronounced as in go.

o! interj. of surprise; indeed! oh!

o dem. pron. (class mu-mi) first and second degree: This this one. Museme o. ni u lekile maabani, I bought this mat yesterday

o rel. pron. obj. (class mu-mi) which: Muhata o nif lwe kilXlena, the fty-switch which I have been given by the Litunga.

-oba1 (obile) v.t. (1) to bend Kamuso ni ta oba siongo sa ka, tomorrow I shall put up my shelter (lit bend the sticks for my shelter); (2) to fold: ku oba mufu, to fold the legs and arms of a dead or dying person. syn. -beta. fig. Luyana to put to death. rel. -obela (obezi) to put up a shelter for someone. caus. -obisa (obisize) to help someone to put up a shelter. red. ~eba-oba (oba-obile) to build a shelter quickly and without much care.

-oba2 (obile) v.t. to bone cooked ing-uana-meat. der. Iooba.

-ohma (obami or obamile) v.i. to be bent, stooped, to be leaning over the road. caus. -obamisa (obami-size) to bend: Kota i obamisizwe ki pula, the tree has been bent by the storm.

ofisi (liW or ma-) n. Eng. oEce.

olbo! Inter;. of wonder, of surprise, of grief; oh !

-oifa (oiTile) v.i. to check, to control one's feelings out of cOunesy: Yena ni ha bulela ni ba bahulu, ha off; he shows lack of respect even when he talks to old people.

-oka (okile) v.t. Luyana. to betray. der. muoki. syn. -beteka. reii. -okeb (okezi) to betray with a definite purpose.

-okameb (okamezi) v.t. Sotho, to  reign above, to be above, to be superior to, to dominate to super-vise der. muokameli.

-okola (okozi) v.t. to take fish out of bow-net. cfi -nona.

-ola1 (olile) v.t. to sit by the fire, to bask in the sun: Ku ola kambalala, to bask in the sunshine (especially during winter time). c . -yotamena. fig. exp. Ku oia mutu simutilo, to ap-proach closely a person of high rank. caus. -olisa (olisize) to cause to bask: Se si mu olisa mulilo musi-hali cwana ki kuli wa kula; he is sit-ting near the fire at midday be-cause he is not well.

ola2 (olile) v.i. to be the most be-loved (speaking of a child) der. moola, loliso. caus. -olisa (olisize) to love one more than others. to treat a child better than others.

-olela1 (olezi) v.t. (1) to gather sweepings: Ku olela m¿akala. to gather sweepings. (2) to take from a pile (food stock): ku olela mabele, namundalangwe, to take from a stock of corn, pumpkins, rel. -ole-lela (olelezi) to gather or take from for someone. caus. -olelisa (oleli-size) to help to gather sweepings or take food from a stock. int. -ole-lelela (olelelezi) to gather all the sweepings or take away a stock of food: Masholi ba olelelezi namunda-langwe wa ka kaufela, thieves have taken away all my pumpkins.

olela2 (olezi) v.t. to inhale the smoke of medicinal burning roots. syn. -yotela. cf. -yokomwena, rel. -olelela (olelezi) to ~ in a certain place. caus. -olelisa (olelisize) to make someone to ~.

-oloka1 (olokile) v.L to be straight, to be venical: Mukolo ki omunde ku oloka, a good canoe is a straight one. fig. to be of commanding ap-pearance.

-oloka2 (olokile) v.t. to eat the first fruit. (see katamu). syn. -tamuna. pass. -olokwa, (olokilwe) to be sat-isfied. caus. -olokisa (olokisize) to share out the first fruits.

-olo!a1 (olozi) v.i. to paddle in unlson.

olola2 (olozi) v.t. to choke. to th-rottle so as to cause swooning. syn. -kama, -ndimbela. rel. -ololela (olo-lezi) to choke on someone's behalf. caus. -ololisa (ololisize) to assist in choking a person.

olonji (li- or ma-) n. Eng. orange.

-oma (omile) v.i. to get dry. to wither. syn. -kambuka. fig. to faint. caus. -omisa (omisize) to expose in the sun. fig. to kill. int. -omelela (omelezi) to become dried up, to be quite dry. fig. to faint, to suffer from epilepsy (kanono); ku omelela luna–ali, to be paralysed. cf. -welela. ref. -ikomisa (Ikomisize) to dry oneselfs (with ‹ towel, in the sun, at the fire, etc.)

-omana (omani or omanile) v.i. to speak angrily for a-very long time, to quarrel der. komano, syn. -lokota, -tatauka. rel. -omanela (om-anezi) to quarrel over something: Ba omanela nama, they are quar-relling over meat. caus. -omanisa (omanisize) or -omanya (omanyize) to scold someone (see -omanya). freq. -omananga to have the habit of quarrelling. red. -omana-omana (omana-omani) or (omana-omanile) to be inclined to quarrel.

-omanya (omanyize) v.t. to scold, to be abusive, to slang. der. komanyo. syn. -kalimela, -taseza. rel. -oma-nyeza (omanyelize) to ~ for some-one; to ~ purposely. caus. -oma-nyisa (omanyisize) to cause some-one to be rebuked. freq. -oma-nyanga to have the habit of ~. ref. -ikomanya (ikomanyize) to scold each other angrily.

-ombaa (ombile) v.t. Luyana. (1) to land a fishing net, to pull a net to the shbre, (2) to walk in water in search of tortoises. der. Iiomba.

-omba2 (ombile) or -omba-omba (omba-ombile) v.t. to soothe, to lull, to console, to comfort; to ap-pease an angry person. der. siom-baombiso. cf. -shemba-shemba. fig. exp. ku omba moyo, to kill.

-ombala (ombalile) v.i. to become quiet, to cool down after having been angry. cf. -kuza. caus. -omba-lisa (ombalisize) to quieten, to ap-pease, to soothe.

-ombama (ombami or ombamile) v.i. (’) to go into the water (people, cattle, etc.) Likomu li se li ombami fa nuka, the cattle have already gone into the river; (2) to become soft: Mbonyi ye i ombami kale, mu i site cwale: this maize is soft now, so pound it.

-ombeka (ombekile) v.t. to steep, to put in water, to immerse, to dip, to soak: Ku ombeka mwanja, to soak cassava. der. Iiombekelo. syn. -put-weka. rel. -ombekela (ombekezi) to steep for someone. caus. -ombekisa (ombekisize) to help to immerse. int. -ombekelela (ombekelezi) to immerse the whole lot: Ba ombeke-lezi mwanja kauSela, they have soaked the whole of the cassava. inv. -ombola (ombozi) to take something soaked out of water. fig. to save someone from drown-ing: U pilezifa linala, kambesi na ku mu ombola; he had a narrow escape and would have drowned if I had not taken him out of the water. red. -ombaula (ombauzi) to take out of water one thing after another.

-ombela (ombezi) v.i. to become calm (river): Kacenu ku kuzize, nuka i ombezi, there is no wind today, the river is calm.

-omboka (ombokile) v.i. to get out of water, to move away from a flooded place, to land after swim-ming. der. Iiomboko, maombokelo. syn. -tatuha, kanduka, cf. -fuluhela. rel. -ombokela (ombokezi) to land in a cenain place. caus. -ombokisa (ombokisize) or -ombosa (ombo-size) to take out of the flooded plain- ku ombokisa likomu, to take the cattle to the forest at the be-ginning of the flood.

-omboloka (ombolokile) v.i. to go away stealthily. syn. -shosboloka. rel. -ombolokela (ombolokezi) to disappear somewhere furtively. caus. -ombolokisa (ombolokisize) to take away a thing funively: Ki–i seo so ombolokisa? ni ku boni! what are you taking away so stealthily? I have seen you!

-omeka (omekile) v.t. to take and hold firmly: Sika se u si omeke hande sika shwa, hold this thing firmly, or it will break; Ila ufumani musebezÀ u omeke hande, when you find a job, stick to it; Musaliyo ha ni sa kona ku mu omeka, u palile. l can no longer make this wife sub-missive, she has gone astray. syn. -kona..

-onda1 (ondile) v.t. to pay the dowry sionda. der. sionda, maondela. syn. -lobola. pass. -ondiwa (ondil ve) to become engaged by the payment of the sionda: lfa ni sika ondEwa, ha u lata wa ni nyala; if you like you may marry me, for no sionda has yet been paid for me. rel. -ondela (ondezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -ondisa (ondisize) to fix the amount of a sionda: Na ha ni lati ku ondisa mwanaka buima bwa mali, I do not want to ask for a heavy dowry for my daughter. int. -ondelela (onde-  lezi) to pay the whole dowry. re . -ikondela (ikondezi) to pay one's own dowry.

-onda2 (ondile) v.i. Luyana. to sleep (baby).

-ondek la (ondelezi) v.i. to take a long time doing something; to stay a long time where one has been sent to to loiter. cf. -liyeh. caus. -.ondelelisa (ondelelisize) to delay someone.

-ondeka (ondokile) v.i. Luyana. to be absent from home for a long time. syn. -cona. cf. -Iyongobela. rel. -ondokela (ondokezi) to stay a long time away. at or in: U ondokezi mwa ku nwa buswala, he has been away a long time drinking beer. caus. -ondekisa (ondokisize) to keep someone waiting a long time to delay someone.

-onga1 (ongile) v.t. Luyana. to mend a fishing-net. der. muengi. rel. -ongeb (ongezi) to ~ for someone. c us. -ongis (ongisize) to help someone to ~.  int. -ongelela (onge-lezi) to finish completely the mending of a net.

-onga2 (ongile) v.t. Luyana. to cheat to deceive. der. muongi siongiso. syn. -puma -pelemeka -belemeka.

onge (li-) n. skin disease which dis-colours the skin.

onge2 (li-) n. Luyana. Iechwe ante-lope. syn. Iiz vii.

-ongola (ongozi) v.t. (1) to end to finish: Ha na ku bu ongola bufumu bwa ndatahe, he will not be able to get through his father/s wealth. syn. -op. (2) (when used on its own) to finish pounding stamping: Ni ongozi, ni yo tapa cwale; I have finished stamping I am going to bathe now.

-ongomana (ongomani or ongoma-nile) v.i. to become bent with age: Mutu yani sa ongomani mukokoto, that man over there is already bent with age. der. mongomani. caus. -ongomanisa (ongomanisize) to cause to ~. Butuku bu mu ongoma-nisize mukokoto, illness has bent his back.

-ongomeka (ongomekile) v.t. to delay someone by talking too much. cf. -ngongweka.

-onjaela (onjaezi) v.i. to walk slowly without strength or in grief. c. -ndombyaela -shashangela. rel. -on-jaelela (onjaelezi) to walk slowly towards u onjaelezi kwa sipatela, he dragged himself along to the hos-pital. caus. -onjaelisa (onjaelisize) to cause someone to drag himself along: Ki ku kula ko ku mu onjaelisa cwalo, it is sickness that causes him to drag himself along like that- rel. -onjadiseza (onjaeliselize) to ac-company a person somewhere who is too w-ak tQ walk alone: Ki ma–i ya ka onjaeliseza mukuli yo kwa hae? who will help this person home?

-onya-onya (onya-onyize) v.t. (1) to rub (washing) (2) to shake (as a lion with its victim), (3) to kill.

opa1 (opile) v.t. to hit someone's head with a stick. der. muopi.

opa2 (opile) v.i. to ache to be smarfing: Ku opa mwa toho, to have headache. caus. -opisa (opisize) to cause headache.

-opela (opezi) v.i. & v.t. to sing; kopano ya baopeli, choir. der. muo-peli muopelisi muopelelo.rel. -ope-kb (opelezi) to sing for. caus. -ope-lisa (opelisize) to conduct a choir. freq. -opelanga to have the habit of singing. ref. -ikopelela (ikopelezi) to enjoy oneself in singing.

-ota1 (otile) v.i. to become thin. to grow lean; to waste away. caus. -otisa (otisize) to cause to waste away: Unomwaha batu ba ta otiswa ki tala, people will waste away this year because of hunger.

ota2 (otile) v.t. to twist to spin: Ku ota muhala, to make a cord. der. muoti. rel. -oteb (otezi) (muhala) to make a cord for someone. caus. -otisa (otisize) to help someone to make a cord. ref. -ikotels (ikotezi) (muhala) to make a cord without anybody's help.

-ota3 (otile) v.t. Sotbo. to punish to strike to beat.

-otelwa (otezwi) v.i. to live an easy life to have ample means to have plenty: Ya otezwi uSetuha sikaba, he who has plenty often lacks charac-ter and so becomes dependent on others.

-otoba (otobile) v.i. Luyana. to be soft gentle.

otoloha (otolohile) v.i. to become stretched or straight.

-otolola (otolezi) v.t. to stretch out to straighten flg. exp. ku otolola If zoho, to give; ku otolola mutu, to throttle to choke. cause. -otololiõsa (otololisize) to help to stretch out. ref. -ikotolola (itololosize) to help to stretch out. ref. -ikotolola (iko-tolezi) to stretch oneself out: Na ikotololelafa bucwa–i, he was Iying full length on the grass.

oya1 (oyile) v.t. (mwenge) to slob-ber to dribble (at the mouth).

oya2 (oyile) v.t. Luyana. to finish the weaving of a fishing net. syn. -nugunda cf. -onga. flg. exp. ku oya musipili, to come to the end of a journey.

oyo (1Z) n. Iong needle used in making mats.

-oyoka (oyokile) v.i. to become weak to faint on hearing very bad news.

-oyonga (oyongile) v.i. Luyu~. to speak slowly in a low voice.

-ozela (ozezi) or ozelŸe) t.i. to slumber, to doze. der. muezeli, slo-zela. rel. -ozekla (ozeizi) flg. to ignore offenders: Yena u sweli ku ozelela batu ba ba mu eza bumaswe; he has the habit of ignoring people who wrong him. eaus. -ozelisa (oze-lisize) to cause to ~. freq. -oze-langa to be inclined to doze. ref. -ikozdisa (ikozelisize) to simulate dozing: Lu tokomele ku bulela ze-maswe, mutu yo wa ikozelisa, let us avoid being slanderous, for this man is listening although he is pre-tending to doze.


 p. pronounced as in English.

pa! idEph. imitation of sound of something breaking: crack!

-psa (palle) v.i. to wade: Likomu se li paa fa mupao, the cattle are al-ready crossing thc ford. der. mupao, cf. -hwa.

pabalelo (li-) n. care, carefulness thrift: Pabalelo ya mubili, hygiene, pabalelo ya mali, saving, economy. (from -babaleb).

pabazo (li-) n. Sotho. admiration, praise. (from -b b z ).

paca or p cab! idioph. imitation of  sound of something entering the water: Mukolo wa li pacalafa mezi, the canoe splashed into the deep water- LizwEi ni lona la lu sfya, la li pacalafa nuka, the lechwe left us and dived into the water.

-paceka (pacekile) v.t. to lower a canoe into the water.

nafa (li-) n. horsewhip riding-whip. flg. a very thin person.

-pafweka (pafwekile) v.t. to throw something into water (large object).

-pahama1 (pahami or pahamile) v.t. to copulate (cattle) to ri{ie. der. mupahami. caus. -pahamisa (paha-misize) to put on horse back. re . -ipahamisa (ipahamisize) to mount a riding animal

-pahama2 (pahami or pahamile) v.i. & v.t. to ascend to go up to climb up; to be high: ku pahama lilundu, to ascend a mountain; ku pahama fa lilundu, to go to the top of a mountain ¥ Lilundu li pahami hahulu the mountain is very high. der. mu pahami pahameb bupahamo. cfl -kambama. flg. to rise in honour; to fight. rel. -pahamela (pahamezi) to climb somewhere fl8. to be above others. caus. -pahamisa (pahami-size) to cause to start a journey: Se si ku pahamisa mushitu busEhu cwana ki sika mafii? why are you pushing through the forest when it is so late? flg. to raise a person above others. to promote; to exalt spec. exp. ku pahamisa linzwi, to raise one's voice ref. -ipahamisa (ipahamisize) flg. to pretend to be above others; to exalt oneself.

pahamelo (li-) n. steps stairs ladder. (from -pahama).

-paheka (pahekile) v.t. to hang up to suspend. cf. -kambeka. rel. -pa-hekela (pahekezi) to ~ for some-one: A ku ni pahekele baki ye kwa sikwalo, hang my coat up on the door caus. -pahekisa (pabekisizeJ to hand up something to be hung: Mu ni litele ni to mi pahekisa mabala ao; wait I shall pass up these wall-plates to help you. inv. -pahulula (pahuluzi) to take down; ref. -ipa-heka (ipahekile) to raise or lift one-self up: A mu bone mwananayo, bati ki kale a ipaheka fa sipula! gosh! look at this little child he has just managed to lift himself up on the chair.

-paila1 (pailile) v.t. to strike with the palm of the hand to slap in the face.

-paila2 (pailile) v.t. (1) to splash to besmear (2) to take water in the mouth and spit it in a sore eye.

-pailela (pailezi) v.t. to pray to an-cestors to worship the dead. der. mupaileli sipaileliso pailezo. syn. -yumbangeta. cfl -sheya. rel. -paile-lela (pailelezi) to pray to ancestors in favour of someone. red. -pailela-pailela (pailela-pailezi) to rely on ancestor-worship on all occasions ref. -ipailelela (ipailelezi) to seek for oneself the help of ancestors in praying flg. -ipailela (ipailezi) to protect oneself against any kind of spells with medicines bought from witchdoctors.

pailezo (li-) n. offering made to an-cestors. syn. sipaileliso. (from -pai-lela).

-paka1 (pakile) v.t. to witness to give evidence to attest der. pakl bupaki cf. -tiisa. rel. -pakela (pakezi) to witness in favour of s˜meone. caus. -pakisa (pakisize) to lead someone to give evidence: Wena, se ne si ku pakisa taba ya buhata ki sika ma–i? what made you give false evidence? rec. -pa-kelana (pakelani or pakelanile) to give evidence according to mutual agreement: Kuta if umani kuli ne ba pakelana ka buhata, the court de-cided that the men had given false evidence on mutual agreement. fres;. -pakanga to habitually give evidence. ref. -ipakela (ipakezi) to give evidence in one's own favour: Ala ni koni ku ipakela, Kuta i bize fela lipaki za ka; I cannot defend myself let the court ca’l for my witnesses.

-paka2 (pakile) v.t. to fasten a door; to bolt. der. mupaki sipakiso flg. to be satiated to have one's fill. rel. -pakela (pakezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -pakisa (pakisize) to enjoin someone to fasten a door: Se si ku pakisize kwa ndu u nzo ni bona kini? what made you bolt the door when you could see me? inv. -pakulula (pakuluzi) to unfasten to unbolt. ref. -ipakela (ipakezi) to lock onself inside.

pakala-|~kala ! idisupb. cxpressing the rush of the last moment when people start a journey: Ne lu li ba lobala, ha lu yo kumbuluka i seili pakala-pakala fa mitiyo ya bona, se bafunduka;,we were thinking that they were going to sleep when all of a sudden they started packing up and were ready to go.

-pakamisa1 (pakamisize) v.t. to carry hurriedly a heavy load.

-pakamisa2 v.t. to cause a person to hurry up.

pakana (li-) n. space between two houses or yards. syn. pul vans.

pakani (li-) n. ¥dv. still motionless: ku yema pakani, to stand still: A yema pakani, a kunupa kwalata, he stood motionless and short a sable antelope.

-pakata1 (pakatile) v.t. to carry under the arm. "8- to be insepara-ble (people).

-pakata2 (p katile) v.i. to be lame, to limp, to hobble. syn. -toza, -cu–uta.

-pakata3 (pakatile) v.i. to sprout ears (maize) syn. -comola.

-pakatisa (pakatisize) v.t. to cause to hasten or hurry up, to urge people to work: Mu sike mwa lu pa-katisa cwalo, ha lu li-mashini; we are not machines, so do not push us on like this.

-pakela (pakezi) v.i. to rise very early. der. mapakela. adv. exp. ka mapakela, very early in the morn-ing. syn. -meneka, -pumbuka, -shi-tuka. rel. -pakelela (pakelezi) to rise early in order to go some-where: Kamuso ni pakelela mwa mu-shitu, tomorrow I shall go early to the forest. caus. -pakelisa (pakeli-size) to cause to rise early; to awaken someone early: A{u pumule cwale ni ka mi pakelÀsa kamuso; now have a rest, I shall wake you up very early tomorrow. freq. -pa-kdanp to wake up early regu-larly.

paki (li-) n. witness.

-pakka (pakicize) v.t. Eng. to pack, to wrap.

-pakisa (pakisize) v.i. Sotho. to make haste, to be quick.

pako, n. Sotho. repentance. (from -baka).

-pakuka1 (pakukile) v.i. to stand up suddenly in order to go (important people): Ka bunyemi muatuli a pakuka a zwa mwa kuta, the judge being very cross, stood up sud-denly and left the court.

-pakuka2 (pakukile) v.i. to be opened (umbrella).

-pakula1 (pakuzi) v.t. to open an um-brella. rel. -pakulela (pakulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -pakullsa (pa-kulisize) to help to ~.

-pakuh2 (pakuzi) v.t. to take buhobe out of a pot and serve it. der. sipa-kuliso or sipakulo.

 pakula3 (pakuzi) v.i. to puff to become inflated to swell (cobra)-Mbumbe ha i pakula ya sabisa, it is frightening when a black cobra puffs out. der. pakula.

pakula4 (li-) n. black cobra. (from -pakula). syn. mbumbe.

pala1 (li-) n. Zulu. impala antelope. (Rooibock).

pala2 (li-) n. herdboy's horn used for calling cattle. fig. exp. pala i lilile, freedom emancipation has been proclaimed.

-pala3 (paliFe) v.i. to be impossible: Kwa pala, it is impossible; Ku palile, it has not been possible.

-palskata (palakatile) v.i. to thun-der. der. - mambalakata fig. to speak angrily. caus. fig. to provoke an angry speech.

palali (li-) n. immigration compul-sory immigration. fig. calamity: Munomwaha ki palali bakefiisa tala, the present year is calamitious be-cause of famine. (from -falab3.

palebo (li-) n. flight hasty depar-ture (also b kho). (from Xbsleh‡).

-palelwa (palezwi) v.t. to be unable to da something. det. mupalelwl mapalelwi bepalelwL rel. -pale-ielwa (pale1ezwi) (1) to rely on someone when in difficulty: Ku pa-klelwa ku mwunana yomunyinyani, to rely on a small child when in diEculty; (2) to be overcome by fatigue or illness somewhere: Mukuli u palelezwi mwa nzila, the patient was overcome by fatigue on the way. c us. -palelisws (psk1i-sizwe) to be hindered by: Ni paleli-sizwe ki ku tokwa mali, kabe ni na ni itekezi kwa nama; I also would have bought some meat if I had money. rec. -palelwana (palelwani ˜r palelwanile) to disagree with one another; to be unable to live together. freq. -palelwanga to fail all the time: Wena u palelwanga lika ze bunolo, you always fail to do easy things. ref. -ipaleielws (Ipao lezwl) to be completely incapable !

-paliaela (paliaezi) v.t. to walk having lost the path. syn. -poliana.

-paliams (paliami or paliamile) v.t. to tred upon mud or dung. etc. to walk carelessly. syn. -p valyama.

palisa (li-) n. flower. fig. a hand-some woman

-palisa2 (palisize) v.t. to copulate (dogs).

-palisana (palisani or palisanile) v.i. to be of equal strength.

palo1 (li-) n. hatchet. (from -fala).

palo2 (li-) n. number. Lipalo; arith-metic figures reckoning ac-count. (from bala).

-pamala (pamazi or pamalik) v.i. to have one's fill to be satiated. syn. -kula.

-pampela (pampezi) v.t. to put a lot of buhobe on a plate or dish rel. -pampelela (pampelezi) same mean-ing: U pampelezi buhobefa mukeke ulimunwi, she put all the buhobe on one plate.

pampili (li- or ms-) n. Eng. paper sheet of paper. syn. pepa.

-pampumuka (pampumukik) v.i. to peel to come off (bark skin etc.) Kota yani i omile, mi se i pampu-muka makwati; that tree over there is dead and its bark is already coming off; Mukeke wa ka u pam-pumukile, my plate has its enamel removed

-pampumuna (pampumuzi) v.t. to peel to take off (bark); to remove enamel from plate or mug (as a result of dropping)

-pamula (pamuzi) v.t. to catch something before it falls to the ground. fk. to steal. caus. -pamulha (pamulisize) fig. to cause to steal m. fl8. -pamZana (pmulani or ps- mulsnile) to fight (speaking of two peoples).

-pamweb (pamwezi) v.t. to strike water with a paddle to frighten fish and make them go to the net.

-pana (panile) v.t. Eng. to inspan. der. mupJni sipani. syn. -bofa. rel. -paneb (panezl) to inspan for some-one. caus. -panisa (panisize) to help to inspan. int. -panelela (panelezi) to inspan all oxen at one's dis-i posal. inv. -panulula (panuluzi) to outspan

-panda (pandile) v.t. Eng. to pound to stamp unsoaked malze. der. mu-pandl cf. -sits. rd. -pandela (pan-dezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -p n-disa (pandisize) to help to ~.

-pandana (pandani or pandanile) v.i. to be dispersing to spread about to be scattered: Linyunywani ha li safumanwafakaufi li se li pandani; the birds are scattered and we can no longer find them nearby. cf. -hasana. rel. -pandanela (pandanezi) to be dispessing in certain direc-tions. caus. -pandanisa (pandani-size) to cause the dispersion of.

-pandeb (pandezi) v.t. to put medi-cine in a horn.

panga (li-) n. Eng. bank.

panga2 (li-) n. smatl section of a field left unploughed.

-panga3 (pangile) v.t. to construct to make. der. mupangi bupangL syn. -nganga; cf. -yaha. tel. -pangela (pangezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -pangisa (pangisize) to help to ~. der. fig. -pangans (pang nl or pang-anile) to make a mutual agree-ment: Ne lu pangani kuli lu ka ya hamoho, kono ki kale a limbulula, we had agreed to go together, but he dropped my company. inv.-pangulula (panguluzlt or -pangutub (pangutuzi) to take to pieces, to pull down a building. ref. -ipangela (ipangezi) to ~ for oneself.

-pangala (pangalile) v.i. to refuse to listen, persisting in obtaining a di-vorce (woman) caus. -pangalisa (pangslisize) to incite a woman to abandon her husband: ku n~aswe ku pangalisa musal-a mutu, it is di-shonest to incite a woman to di-vorce her husband. int. -pangale-lela (pangalelezi) to abandon one's husband.

pani (li-) n. Eng. pan, frying pan.

-panisha (panishize) v.t. Eng. to punish, to chastise. der. panishi. syn. -ota.

panishl (li-) n. Eng. punishment. (from -panisha).

-pankata (pankatile) v.i. see -pan ta.

panoX, n. generosity. (from -f na.).

pano2, adv. entirely; musEhali wa pano, the whole day; MusEhali wa pano ki ku lwanisa mutu ya sina mulatu; you spend the whole day reproaching someone who has done no wrong.

pauti (li-) n. sirap: lukanda lwa panti, leather belt, lipanti za ku tamisa likubo, leather straps.

-panyeha (panyehile) v.t. to hang, to suspend. (as -paheka).

-psnata (panatile) v.i. to limp, to be lame. syn. -cufiuta, -toza. CJUS. -pafiatisa (pafiatisize) to cause someone to limp.

PapaX n. Eng. or Mulena Papa, the Pope.

-papa2 (papiie) v.i. to become sour (beer). caus. -papisa (papisize) to cause to ~: Bueazala bwa hao bu pa-pisizwe ki ku tokwa mumela. it is a lack of malt that caused your beer to become sour.

-papab (papalil) or ;ap bna (pa-pahni or ppalanile) v.i. to wriggle about (as a fish taken out of the water). syn. -papalika.

 papalika1 (papalikile) v.i. to stagger to reel. syn. -tantalika. rel. -papali-kela (papalikezi) to stagger some-where. caus. -papalikisa (papaliki-size) to cause staggering. ref. -ipa-palikisa (ipapalikisize) to pretend to stagger: U ipapalikisafela ha sika kolwa u na ni mukwa omuinwi, he is not drunk he is just purposely pre-tending to stagger.

-papalika2 (papalikile) v.i. as -papala.

papali (li-) n. play game amuse-ment; sports. (from -bapala).

-papamala (papamalile) v.i. to shrivel, to shrink, (skin, paper cloth). fig. to suffer from difficul-ties. caus. -papamalisa (papamali-size) to cause to shrink.

papano (li-) n. difference; dis-agreement discord: Hakuna papano mwahali a lika ze zepeli there is no difference between these two things. syn. fspano. (from-f pna).

papanyo (li-) n. comparison simili-tude. (from -f panya).

-papab (papatile) v.t. Eng. (1) to pat U papata nja ya hae ku i sabisa ku iuma batu, he is patting his dog to prevent it from biting people-(2) to prepare clay for moulding. By. ext. to strike to bit with the hand.

papati (li-) n. bream.

-papaula (papauzi) v.t. to strip the hide of animals to flay, to devour (of birds of prey). fig. to beat severely. cf. -buwa. rel. -papaulela (papaulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -papaullsa (papaulisize) to help to ~.

papaw (li-) n. offer for sale; ad-vertisement. (from -bapaza).

-papeh (papezi) v.t. to build a shel-ter with branches. der. sipapela. fig. to protect (as in putting branches over a killed animal). rel. -papeleb (papekezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -papelisa (papelisize) to help to ~.  ref. -ipapelela (ipapelezi) to ~ for oneself.

papiso (li-) n. comparison. (from -bapisa).

pasa (li-) n. Eng. pass passport.

-pasar (pasize) v.t. to oyerwhelm. pass. -pasiwa (pasizwe) to be over-whelmed: Ni pasiwa ki misebezi bunata, I am overwhelmed by many jobs.

-pasa2 (pasize) v.i. Eng. to pass an examination. rel. -paseza (paselize) to pass (transfer) from one class to another. caus. -pasisa (pasisize) to promote or upgrade someone.

Paseka n. Greek. Passover. Easter.

pasela (li-) n. thing added to a bar-gain thing offered on the top of a bargain (from -paselela). syn.– ambeko.

-paselela (paselezi) v.t. to give something extra with goods etc. just sold: Ba banwi mu baf le pasela na ha mu ni paseleli kwatehi kini? you have given others something extra with their purchases what about me? der. pasela.

-pashaela (pashaezi) v.i. to walk with difficulty.

-pasumuka (pasumukile) v.i. to wake up suddenly. cf. -pundumuka. caus. -pasumukisa (pasumukisize ) or -pasumuna (pasumuzi) to waken up somebody suddenly; to waken up somebody by thrashing him.

paswa ad;. brown with white spots. (cattle) (referring to female cattle paswana).

pata1 (li-) n. face forehead. idiom. exp. ku zamayafa pata ya mutu, to precede someone.

pata2 n. Iuck. good luck: U na ni pata, he has good luck (in gÀtting 3g )

-pab (patile) v.t. to hide to con- ceal. der. mupati muipati buipato maipato buipati syn. -sheweka -shwateka. fig. to bury. rel. -patela (patezl) to be secretive with some-one: Mwan'a ka u sike wa ni patela so ezize; my child do not hide from me what you did, to withhold in-formation or be secretive for someone. rec. -patelana (patelani or patelanile) to keep secrets recip-rocally. caus. -patisa (patisize) to help or to cause to ~. stat. -pateha (patehile) to be hidden to be con-cealed: Mukolo wa luna u patehile hande our canoe is well hidden int. iatelelela (patelelezi) to keep for ever a secret from someone. int. -stat. -patahala (patahezi or pa-tahalile) to be concealable freq. -patanga to be inclined to do things secretively. inv. -patulula (patuluzi) to bring to light what is hidden to reveal: Hakuna se si patilwe, se si sike sa patululwa, there is nothing hidden which won t have to come to light one day red. -pata-pata (pata-patile) to tend to do things secretively. ref. -ipata (ipatile) to hide oneself; rel. -ipatela (ipatezi) to hide something for oneself: A mu nife kanama kaka kani ko ne ni ipatezi maabani, do bring me my little bit of meat from where I hid it yesterday.

-patahanya (patahanyize) v.t. (1) to tie many things together. (2) to hold things in both hands (3) to kill two fishes with one spear or to kill two animals with one shot. (4) to accumulate (S) to hold several offices (usually at the same time): Ni patahanyize misebezi yemi–ata, I am overwhelmed with work.

pataka! interj. expressing the sud-denness with which someone awa-kens from a dream: Ha ni yo li pataka na bona muloi wa mata, sik- walo sa ka si wile! when I suddenly came out of my dream I saw my door on the ground and the sor-cerer running away.

-patalala (patalalile or patalezi) v.i. to dawn (to grow light or to become evident): Lu ka funduka masa ha ka patalala, we start our journey at dawn. syn. -sa, -yandu-luka.

-patalaza1 (patalalize) v.t. to scatter, to make known.

patalaza2, adv. frankly. openly: Ku bulela patalaza, to speak openly.

-patama (patami or pktamile) v.i. to lie fiat. caus. (1) -patamisa patami-size) to cause to ~ ¥ to level: Ku pa-tamisa mubu, to level the ground. (2) -patameka (patamekile) to level.

pata-pata (li- or ma-) n. sandals, tropicals.

pate1 (li-) n. bedding.

pate2 (li-) n. meal mealie used to make uncooked mash.

-pateha (patehile) v.i. to be busy, to be overworked. der. mipateho. cf. -swaleha. caus. -patehisa (patehisize) to keep someone busy. ref. -ipate-hisa (ipatehisize) to make oneself busy; to pretend to be busy: U ipa-tehisa za buhata, ha na sa eza, he pretends to be busy while he has nothing to do.

-pateka1 (patekile) v.t. to put some-thing between one's legs: Ha bona linja li matela ku yena, a saba ku li nata, a pateka mulamu wa hae; when he saw the dogs running to him he was afraid to beat them and so he hid his walking stick be-tween his legs.

-pateka2 (patekile) w.t. to give gene-rously. fig. to rain abundantly, to soak in, to wet.

-patela1 (patezi) v.t. to surround in order to take by surprise, to belea-  guer, to besiege, to blockade.

-patela2 (patezi) v.t. to put on skins for the liomboko ceremony (paddl-ers); to put on skins for a dance.

patelo (li-) n. space in the centre of a village, public place.

vtin (patisize) v.t. to take by sur-prise, to catch unawares.

-patisana (patisani or patisanik) v.i. to be narrow (gate, space between houses, yards. etc.); to lack space, room: Mwa ndu ya ka ku patisani hahulu, libyana ki ze–ata; in my house we need more space for there is too much furniture.

pato (li-) n. kind of domestic goose (mute).

vtoka (patokik) v.t. to go and meet someone expected. syn. -ka-hnyeza. caus. -patokisa (patoki-size) to accompany someone going to meet an expected person.

-patula (patuzi) v.t. Luyana. to cut. to break a string. syn. -puma. freq. -pataula (patauzi) or -patola (patozi) to cut into pieces.

-pahbh (p tuiuXile) v.i. to come to light; to come evident. see-pata. Taba ya hao i se i patuluhile, your case is already known by everyone.

-patuib (patuhzi) v.t. to bring to light. to reveal (see -pata).

-p za (pazize) v.t. to scarify. to vac-cinate, to incise. der. mupJzi, pzo, sip ziso, mupazezo. cf.: -taka rel. -pazez (psuelize) to ~ for some-one. c us. -paz~ (p zisize) to help to ~. int. -pazeleza (pazelelize) to cover the body with scarification. rec. ozana (pazani or paz nile) to make scarifications on one an-other. freq. -pawanga to be inclined to scarify. inv. -pawlula (pawhzl) to incise old scarifications in order to enlarge them. red. ¥) -p za-p z (paza-pauize) to make light inci- sions; b) -pazaka (pazakile) to make deep incisions in many places on the body. ref. -ipaza (ipa-zize) to scarify oneself.

-pazima (psuimile) v.i. to twinkle, to glitter, (sun, stars, water). cf. -benya. caus. -pazimisa (pazimisize) to cause glit(ering.

pazo (li-) n. scarification, incision. (from -paza).

-pawh (pazubile) v.i. to split; to burst as under: Mu ngongotele hande libala, li ka pazuha. nail the plank carefully otherwise it will split. cf. -hahuha. int. -pawhelela (pazuhelezi) to split, to burst thor-oughly. freq. -pazauha (pazaubile) to be torn to pieces. cf. -landauka.

-p wla (p wzi) v.t. (1) to split, to chop: Mu pazule likota, chop the fire-wood. (2) to operate, to make an operation: Ni ka ya kwa sipatela ba yo ni pazula; I shall go to hospi-tal to undergo an operation. (3) to tear into pieces (cloth. paper, etc ) syn. -shanona fig. (1) to pass through a village, to cross a coun-try: Nzila ya Nanikelako, i pazula Mulenenifahali; the way to Nani-kelako passes through the Capital (2) to rise (sun, moon, etc.): Lizazi li pazuzi a lu zamaye–i cwale; it is sunrise, let us go now (3) to germi-nate: Lipeu za luna li se li pazula, our seeds have germinated. der. mupazuli, sipawliso. rel. -pawlela (p zukzi) to chop for someone. fig. to rise: Lizazi li lu pazulezifa naka, sunrise found us on the river. caus. -p zulisa (pazulisize) to order or to help to chop. int. -pazu-lelda (pazuleizi) to chop every-thing.

peba (li-) ¥. mouse.

-pecb (pecuzl) v.t. to add sugar to any kind of beer in order to make it strong. der. sipecu, sipeculelo, si-peculiso,

peka (ma-) n. Eng. a metre or there-abouts of cloth (also lipeka).

peku! interj. expressing the accom-plishment of an action: Na mu bona a nata kanyunywani, a ka li peku! 1 saw him hitting a bird and down it came!

-pekula1 (pekuzi) v.t. to purify with medicines.

-pekula2 (pekuui) v.t. to hit, to kill (birds, hares, etc.)

pelekelo n. (la Pelekelo) Saturday (meaning the day on which wages are paid). see -beleka.

pelekiso (li-) n. way in which some-one is employing workers: Pelekiso ya hae kwa batu imaswe, the way in which he deals with workers is reprehensible. (from -beleka).

peleko (li-) n. paid employment. (from -beika).

pelela (li-) n. Eng. pearl.

pelesa (li-) n. riding horse or ox; pack-animal.

-pelemeka (peiemekile) v.t. to cheat, to deceive. der. mupeEmeki, bupe-lemeki. syn. -belemeka, -puma, -onga.

-peletela tpeletezi) v.t. Eng. to spell. caus. -peletis (pektisize) to teach spelling.

peli, ¥dj. two: libuka zepeli, two books.

-peluka (pelukile) v.i. to dance sipelu. der. sipelu. rec. -peikana (pelukani or pelukanile) to dance closely together (two people) fig. (1) to fight: U ka bona lu ka pelu-kana zazi lelihwi, mane yomuhwi a holofale, you will see, one day we shall come to blows and one of us will be hurt. (2) to get deteriorated

-pembei (pembezi) v.i. to walk about to perambulate.

-penda (pendiBe) v.t. Eng. to paint (house painting) (2) to vaccinate, to inoculate: Likornu li pendilwc maabani, the cattle were inocu-lated yesterday. der. mupendi, bF pendi, mupende, sipendiso. ef. -basa. rel. -pendeb (pensizi) to ~ for someone. caus. -pendisa (pe di-size) to order or to help to ~. ref. -ipendela (ipendezi) to paint for oneself: Ki na ya ipendezi ndu ya ka, I painted my house without any help.

pene1 (lis) n. Eng. slate pencil;pene ya enge, pen, fountain pen.

pene2 (li-) or ma-) n. Eng. penny.

pene e! interj. (1) expressing the state of being flooded: I se ili munda owk, kuli penenc! it is the tlood season now, there is water everywhere! (2) unlocked: ku sfya kwa ndu pcnene! to leave a house unlocked.

-pengaub (penpuzi) v.i. to walk fast, hurrying because of fear. rel. -peng ulda (penpuizi) to ~ in a cenain direction. cgus. -penpulis (pengaulisize) to cause to ~.

-pengub (penguxi) v.t. to fight. rec. -pengulana (pengulani or pengula-nile) same meaning. ref. -ipengul (ipenguz~) same meaning: Kacenu lu ka pengulana, today we sahil come to blows.

-penuka (penukile) v.i. to be turned up. (hat brim).

-penula (penuzi) or -penuna (penuzi) v.t. to turn up (the brim of a hat).

peo, n. ecc, imposition, laying on (of hand) (from -beya). peo ya mazoho ordination.

pepa1 (1K) n. Iime, chalk.

pepa2 (ma-) n. Eng. paper, sheet of paper. syn. pampili.

-pepa3(pepik) v.t. (1) to give binh (2) to carry a child on the back. der. mupepi, mupepisi, lupepo. syn. -  shema cf. -zwala. pass. -pepwa (pe-pilwe) to be born: Lizazi la ku pepwa, birthday. cf. -simwa rel. -pepela (pepezi) to give children to someone: MusalEye ne ni nyezi na ni pepezi twana totulalufeela: my first wife gave me three children only. spec. exp. Ku pepela mwa mabu, to give binh to children who die in-fancy or childhood. caus. -pepisa (pepisize) to attend someone giving birth; to lift up a child onto someone's back. inv. -pepulula (pe-puluzl) to take a child down from one's own or somebody else's back.

-pepela (pepezi) v.i. to wave (flag) to flap (birds). to float about in the air (leaves). caus. -pepelisa (pepeli-size) to cause to ~: Moya u pepelisa matali mwahalimu, the wind is blowing the leaves high in the sky

-pepeza (pepelize) v.t. to attract Aamorously) to seduce; to ensnare. der. mupepezi.

-peta1 (petile) v.t. to repeat to recite. der. mupeti mupetisi. rel. -petela (petezi) to recite for some-one. caus. -petisa (petisize) to make people repeat something by hean or after one.

-peta2 (petile) v.t. Sotho to achieve to accomplish to finish comple-tely der. mupeti peto petahalo. syn. -feza. rel. -petela (petezi) to achieve for someone caus. -petisa (petisize) to cause to accomplish to make perfect. stat. peteha (pete-hile) to be completed; to be per-fect: mutu ya petehile, a perfect man int. -petelela (petelezi) to bring to complete and perfect end: Lu se lu petelezi musebezi wa luna, we have completely and satisfac-torily finished our work. Int. -stat. -petahala (petahezl or petahalile) to become accomplished: lWulelo u petahalik, the plan was realized.

petahala (petahalile) v.i. to become accomplished (see -peta2).

petahalo (1o) n. accomplishment fulfilment. (from -petahala)

peto n. accomplishment: Ki peto it is finished that is all. (from -pet‡2)

petubelo (lis) n. rebellion revolu-tion. (from -fetuha).

petuho (li-) n. change. (from -fetuha)

petulo (IF) n. translation (from -fetula).

petulu or petulo n. Eng. petrol.

peu (li-) n. seed. fig. progeny post-erity cf. toze.

peuk (li-) n. European axe. cf silepe.

pf! or ph ! ixterj. expressing that food is finished: ku li pf! no more left !

pi! interj. expressing the sudden ga-thering of people animals birds etc. Na lu yo kumbuluka mano–u seilf pi, fa komu ye ne bolezi mwa nahe–i! all of a sudd`en we saw the vultures swoop down on the cow rotting in the veldt.

picu! interj. expressing sudden di-sappearance: Wahesu u ezize picu! ha ni sa ziba ni kwa keni, my friend disappeared suddenly and I do not know where he has gone

-picuka (picukile) v.i. to dodge. der. mupicuki. cf. -pima rel. -picukela (picukezi) to dodge someone for a reason. caw. -picukisa (picukisize) to cause to dodge int. -picukelela (picukelezi) to completely elude: U ni picukelezi, na sa lati ku zamaya ni na, he completely eluded me because he did not want to go with me. m. -picukana (picukanl or pi-cukanile) to avoid each other: Kanti mu picokani cwa–i ni mu-haenu7 how did you manage to avoid each other? freq. a) -picu- kanga to elude frequently; b) -pi-cauka or -picoka (picaukile or pico-kile) (1) to shirk: ku picauka muse-bezi, to eschew work. (2) to meander: Lyambai ki nuka ye pi-cauka hahulu, the Zambezi River meanders very much; Ni liyehile bake–isa mukwakwa ku picoka, I am late because the road meanders about.

pifo (II-) n. kind of small rodent.

-piha (pihile) v.t. (1) to discuss to debate to argue: ku piha ka–i, to quarrel; (2) to bet. der. sipiho. syn. -kanana. rel. -pihela (pihezi) to argue about something; to pretend to do something: Mutu yo u pihela ku feza botolo ya wisiki; this man boasts that he can drink a full bottle of whisky at one go. c us. -pihisa (pihisize) to cause contra-diction. rec. -pihisana (pihisani or pihisanile) to exchange strong ar-guments; to bet -pihelana (pihelanl or pihelanile) same meaning. freq. -pihanga to be used to arguing: Wena u pihanga ze sina tuso, you are used to arguing about nothing all the time.

-pihekla (pihelezi) v.l. & v.t. to insist to endeavour to persevere to strive for. der. pihelelo. syn. -hn-damena -tiseza. caus. -pihelelisa (pihelelisiize) to cause persever-ence.

pihelelo n. perseverence in-sistance endeavour. (from-pihe-lela) syn. tiisezo tundameno mutun-dameti.

piho (li-) n. report. (from -biha).

-pika (pikile) v.t. to cause pain in the side (pneumonia syn. -taba. pass. -pikwa (pikilwe) to feel pain in one's side: Ni pikilwe hahulu kacenu, I have a terrible pain in my side today. stat. -pikeha (pike-hile) to feel as though stabbed in one's side

piki1 (li ) n. EnB. pick-axe.

piki2 (li-) n. Ioop.

-pikita (pikitile) v.t. to rub. (med): Ku pikita mutu mulyani, to rub someone with medicine (ointment etc.) der. mupikitl. syn. -sindula. flg. to make someone feel pain. rel. -pikitela (pikitezi) to rub on someone's behalf: A ku yo ki ni pi-kitela mukuli wa ka, please go and rub my patient with the ointment. c us. -pikitisa (pikkisize) to help to rub. rec. -pikitana (pikitani or piki-tanile) to rub each other (when taking a bath). int. -pikiteleb (piki-telezi) to put ointment on the whole body. ref. -ipikita (ipikitile) to rub oneself.

-pikuluha (pikuluhile) v.i. to roll to turn to tumble: Lifasi li pikuluha ka bunya, the earth rotates very slowly. der. pikuluho. rel. -pikulu-hela (pikuluhezi) to roll towards. caw. -pikulwa (pikulusize) to roll to turn: Ku tata ku pikulusa liewe le-lituna, it is difficult to roll a large stone.

pikuluho n. rotation. (from -piku-luha).

-pila (pilile) v.i. & v.t. to live: U. pila cwa–ai? how are you? Ni pila bupilo bo butata, I am leading a hard life. der. bupilo mupilisi ma-pilelo. syn. -yoya. rel. -pilela (pilezi) to live for to live with the help of: ku pilela za lifasi, to live a wordly life; ku pilela ku mutu, to live with the help of someone. caus. -pilisa (pilisize) to give life; to treat well, to nourish, to sustain; to heal- to save from danger. int. -pi-lelela (pilelezi) to come safely out of a very serious sickness. rec. -pi-lisana (pilisani or pilisanile) to care for each other or one another: ku pilisana hande, to care a great deal

 for each other, ku pilisana maswe to lack mutual understanding. red -pOa-pila (pila-pilile) to live avoid-ing difficulties. ref. -40isa (ipili-size) to live by oneself to be self-reliant to be self-sufficient to be materially independent.

pil elo (li-) n. discontentment dis-appointment; doubt perplexity; recrimination complaint (from -bOaeb).

pili1 (1) adj. first; former: lizazi la pili the first day. (2) adv. I for-merly before first firstly. Pililika ne li a'pile, formerly goods were cheaper than at present. (3) prep. before in front fapili a, fapil'a kwapili a, kwapil'a; Fapil'a mutapi wa litou ku zamayanga kamita nkungulu, there is always a large bull elephant walking in front of | the herd: pili ku wena, pili2 hao: before you.

pili;2 (1; ) n. penis. syn. -suko ne nba.

pilu (li-) n. (1) heart: Ni katazwa ki pilu kacenu, today I am suffering from palpitations. (2) core: pilu ya kota, the core of a tree. (3) pilu ya peu, the germ of a seed. fig. exp. pilutata, courage good temper patience;pilu tomoha: mercy, com-passion sympathy; Piluyensu, sad-ness; pilu-seta, envy; pilu-telek or pilu-tuna, patience; pilu zepeli, (I ) insincerity dissimulation; (2) hesi-tation; pilu-yemaswe, bad temper impatience, irritableness, pilu-kulu, wickedness pilu ye shwile, bad temper.

-piluka (plhkile) v.i. to become dis-coloured to fade: Lisila la ka la piluka, the colour of my material is fading. fig. to have a capricious character. caus. -pilukisa (piluki-size) ’o cause to fade to discolour. int. -pilukelela (pilukelelezi) to wash out.


-pima1 (pimile) v.t. to shirk to elude to escape. cf. -picuka. rel. -pimda (pÇmezi) to avoid: Na a ni bonifo ka pimeia taba ye, i ku sweli: I cannot see how you will avoid punish-ment for the case is going against you. caus. -pimisa (pimisize) to help to avoid (danger).

-pima2 (pimile) v.t. to take measurements (suit); to make a land survey. c us. -pimisa (pimi-size) to assist to ~. (see likanya).

-pimpa-pimpa (pimpa-pimpile) v.t. to give avariciously, with subse-quent regrets. der. mapimp pimpi. c us. -pimpa-pimpisa (pimpapimpi-size) to cause to ~.

pina1 (li-) n. song hymn; tune; dance. (from -bina).

-ina2 (pinOe) v.t. Eng. to pin to clip.

-pindula (pinduzi) v.t. to lift up: Xu pindula meto, to turn up the eye lid. rel. -pindulda (pindulezi) to ~ for someone: A mu ni pindulele mushi-mani lEito, mu zwise kokwani ye mu keni; please turn up the boy's eye lid and take out the insect which is in his eye.

-pindhmuka (pindumukile) v.i. to turn over when Iying down; to roll. cf. -pikuluha. e

-pindumuna (pindumuzi) v.t. to roll: ku pindumuna kota, to roll a log. der. mupinthmuni. cf. -pikulusa. rd. -pindumunela (pindumunezi) to roll towards; to roll for someone. caus. -pidumunba (pindumunisue) to help to roll.

pini (li-) n. Eng. pin nursery pin; brooch.

-pinya (pinyize) v.i. to let wind nois-ily to fart rel. -pinyeza (pinyelize) to cause embarrassment by letting wind noisily. fig. exp. ku sa pinyeza mwa mba, to speak out frankly. tsus. Sinyisa (pinyisize) to cause flatulence. fig. to throttle.

pio (li-) n. kidney.

pipi (li-) n. Eng. pipe. (for smoking).

pipii! interj. expressing nauseous loathsome kind of odour: ku li pipEi! it stinks!

-pipita (pipitile) v.i. to get purulent. caus. -pipiffsa (pipitisize) to cause purulence.

pisinjsi (li-) n. Eng. business.

pita (li-) n. sternum (anat*) brisket.

-pitiEna (pitihani or pitihanile) v.i. to be overcrowded to lack space to be huddled up: Batu ba pitihani hahulu, hakuna ko nif ta, it is over-crowded and I cannot get through. der. simpiti. syn. -titihana. caus. -pitihanya; (pitihanyize) to press together. to huddle to put too close together: Ku maswe ku pitihanya malapa; it is bad not to leave enough space between houseyards.

-pitika1 (pitikile) v.i. (1) to sleep rest-lessly due to illness or pain. syn. -alabana. (2) to move disorderly (like barble fish in shallow water) (3) to walk with difficulty (like a fat person). caus. -pitikisa (pitiki-size) to cause to ~.

-pitika2 (pitikile) v.i. to turn over on the ground (like a horse a dog etc.) caus. -pitikisa (phikisize) to cause to ~: PiziyanisesEipitikisa cwalo ki ku lata ku bapala; that horse is rolling over like that be-cause it enjoys playing. syn. -ala-bana.

pitikoti (li-) n. Eng. petticoat.

piza pizana pizani (li-) n. pot (ear-then pot), cooking pot.

pizi (li-) n. horse; pizi ya mwa nahefii, zebra.

pizo (li-) n. call, calling, invitation: Ku na ni pizo ya sicaba kwa Mule-ne–i there is a public call to go to the Capital. (from -biza).

po! inter;. crack ! (sound made by a dry piece of wood when breaking).

poba (pobile) v.t. to break open.

-poboka (pobokile) v.i. to be broken at the bottom: Piza ya ka i pobokile kwa lilaho, my pot is broken at the bottom.

-pobokela (pebokezi) v.i. to fall through {litindi), to fall right through.

-pobola (pobozi) v.t. to wound with a stick (usually on the head). syn. -pwacula. Kl. -pebolela (pebeEzi) to anger someone by wounding with a stick. frq. -pobaub (pohazi) to strike severely with a stick; ku po-baula ka macwe, to stone. rec. ~ baulana (pobaul ni or pabauhnile) to strike each other severely on the head. ref. -ipobaula (ipDbauzi) as rec.

-poboza (pobolize) v.i. to enjoy life having all what one needs.

pofu1 (li-) n. cape eland.

pofu2 (li-) n. cyst: Pofu i ni melilefa li–wele ni tokwile ya ni zwisa yona, a cyst has grown on my knee and I need someone to cut it out.

-pofwsela (pofwsezi) v.i. to cough harshly (as an old person).

pofwateka (pof vstekile) v.t. to throw down repeatedly (when wrestling).

poho (li-) n. bull; male. fig. impor-tant, clever person.

poh vana (li-) n. young bull.

pokoto (li- or ma-) n. Eng. pocket.

polepole, adv. slowly, carefully: Ha mu fta mwa tolopo mu zamaise mota polepole, when you go into town, drive carefully.

poll (li-) n. kafffir corn blackened by drought before being ripe.

poliso1 (li-) n. corruption. (from -boh).

poliso2 (li-) n. recovery. healing (from -fola).

-polokota (polokotile) v.i. to be stiff  (like a hide or a newly starched cloth).

-polofita (polofitile) v.t. Eng. to pro-phesy. der. mupolofita, bupolofita.

polofiti (li-) n. Eng. profit, gain.

-polola (polozi) v.t. to clean, to polish (walking stick, curios, etc.) to rub in the hands (grains, fruits, etc.) der. sipololiso. cf. -shokona.

-polyana (polyani or polyanile) v.i. to walk out of the path (in thick bush) syn. -pulyana, -palyaela. caw. -polyanisa (polyanisize) to cause people to walk through thick bush: Wena ha u ndambo hande, u lu poly-anisafeela; you are certainly not a good guide, because you take us through bush.

-polyomeka (polyomekile) v.t. to in-trude: Wena ki–i ha u polyomeka mutu ya si ka memEwa? why do you bring in someone who has not been invited? ref. -ipolyomeka (ipolyomekile) to rush in, to burst in: U n'o sa lukeli ku ipolyomeka fela u sa ngongoti; you had no right to rush in without first knocking at the door.

polyoo! inter;. expressing the act of intruding suddenly, unexpectedly into a house. syn. Iekete!

pombwe (li-) n. baboon.

-pomoka (pomokile) v.i. to bleed profusely (at the nose) to have ab-normal menses. syn. -pwacuka fig.

-pompa (pompile) v.t. Eng. to pump, to inflate- to give a clyster. fig. to enjoy drinking, to drink too much. der. mupompi, pompi. rel. -pompela (pompezi) to pump for someone. caus. -pompisa (pompisize) to help to pump. stat. -pompeha (pompe-hile) that which can be pumped: Njinga ya ka i pala ku pompeha, my bicycle cannot be pumped up. Inv. -pompolola (pompolozi) to deflate.

pompi (li-) n. Eng. pump, syringe; pipe (water pipe); tap. fig. drunk-ard. (from -pompa).

ponahalo (li~) n. appearance, vision, view: Sibaka seha si na ponahalo hande ya mezi a munda, from this place there is no open view of the flooded plain. (from bona).

ponahazo (li-) n. (1) exhibition: Ni isa nja ya ka kwa ponahazo ya limu-nanu, l am taking my dog to the exhibition of domestic animals; (2) emblems. symbol: Ndembela ki po-nahazo ya naha, the flag is the symbol of a nation.

pondo (li- or ma-) n. Eng. pound sterling, sovereign.

-pondola (pondozi) v.i. to be di-rected backwards (horns of cattle): Komu yani i pondozi hande, that cow has horns gracefully pointing backwards. der. mupondo-lelo. syn. -lema.

-pongana (pongani or ponganile) v.i. to become incapable of work due to old age, infirmity or drinking: Mutu yo sa ponganisizwe ki matuku ku kopanya ni micomibi, this man has become impotent through ill-ness and drinking. caus. -ponganba (ponganisize) to cause unfitness. int. -ponganelela (ponganelezi) to become completely unfit. ref. -iponganisa (iponganisize) to be re-sponsible for one's own unfitness: U iponganisize isali wena, it is your own fault if you are worn out.

poniso (li-) n. exhibition, show; sign. cf. sisupo. (from -bona).

ponkisi (li- or ma-) n. Eng. box.

pono (li-) n. sight, view, scenery; vision. (from -bona).

poo! interj. expressing coolness and (figuratively) quietness, stillness: Mezi a maliha a bata a li poo! water is very cold in winter; nifumani mwa hae kwa bata ku li poo! I found nobody in the village, it was abso- lutely quiet.

popo (li- or ma-) n. Eng. pawpaw. sny simpubila.

-ponponga (popongile) v.t. to break stalks (as cattle in a maize, kaffir corn field). rel. -popongela (po-pongezi) to destroy someone's crop in grazing in a corn field: Likomu li ni popongezi mbonyi ya ka mwa simu, the cattle destroyed my maize when grazing in my field. int. -popongelela (pongongelezi) to eat and completely destroy a corn field.

popotwani (II-) n. skin worn by men long ago. (as a kilt).

-posa (posize) v.t. to throw, to dart, to fling, to sling. der. muposi, siposo. syn. -nepa. fig. to cast a spell. rel. -poseza (poselize) to throw against. caus. -posisa (posi-size) to cause to throw. rec. -posana (posani or posanile) Fig. to cast a spell on each other. freq. a) -posanga to have the habit of th-rowing. fig. of casting spells; b) -posaka (posakile) to throw repeat-edly; ref. -iposa (iposize) as rec.

-posita (positile) v.t. Eng. to post, to mail. der. poso. rel. -positela (posi-tezi) to post for someone; to mail to someone. ref. -ipositela (iposi-tezi) to post one's own mail: U sike wa yo posita li–olo le, ni ka ipositela lona, do not post this letter, for I shall post it myself.

posoa (li-) n. Eng. post mail; post office; (from -posita).

poso2 (li-) n. fault, mistake, blunder. syn. foso. (from -fosa).

-posopa (posopile) v.i. & v.t. Afrik. to be careful; to take care of . syn. -tokomela.

-pota (potile) v.i. to visit, to go round visiting. der. mupoti, bupoti, mapotelo. cf. -lekula. rel. -potela (potezi) to visit someone. caus. - potisa (potisize) to accompany someone for a walk. rec. -potelana (potelani) to visit each other. freq. -potanga to make a habit of visit-ing. red. -pota-pota (pota-potile) to go for a walk. ref. -ipotela (ipotezi) to walk or go for a walk by oneself: Kacenu ni yo ipotela kwa Mongu, today I shall take a walk to Mongu.

poto (li~) n. Eng. iron pot, three-legged pot. fig. a healthy person.

-potobha (potolohile) v.i. & v.t. to make a detour; to go round a thing. der. mupotoloho. syn. -ngon-joloka, cf. -tinguluka. fig. not to go straight to the point when talking. rel. -potolohela (potolohezi) to make a detour in a certain direc-tion: Potolohela kwanu, come round this way. caus. -potolohisa (potolohisize) to cause to go round, to take round. red. -poto-loha-potoloha (potoloha-potolohile) not to go straight.

potoloto (li-) n. Afrik lead pencil.

pu! idioph. kuli pu! refers to the sound made by anything falling down. cf. twi!

puci! inter;. expressing annoyance for one's forgetfulness: Ba ni swa-lele ni libezi, pua'! I have comple-tely forgotten, please excuse me!

-puelela (puelezi) v.t. to paddle in the rear of a canoe for someone hunting or fishing in the prow. der. mupuelell.

puho, n. admiration. (from -buha).

puisano (li-) n. Sotho. conversation. (from -bua).

puka1 (li-) n. dew. fig. exp. Bufumu ki puka wealth is nothing but dew.

-pukai (pukile) v.t. to sip, to drink. der. mupuki, mupukelo, sipukiso. rel. -pukela (pukezi) to drink some-thing intended for someone else: Ki mani ya ni pukezi tfi ya ka? who  has drunk my tea. caus. -pukisa (pukisize) to help to ~: Mu pukise mukuli mufukulo wa hae, help the patient to take his light food. stat. -pukebs (pukehik) drinkable. int. -pukekla (pukelezi) to drink the whole amount. red. -puka-puka (puka-pukile) to drink a small quantity. ref. -ipukisa (ipukisize) to be able oneself to drink: Mukuli wa luna sa kona ku ipukisa mufukulo our patient is now able to ta!ce some light food himself.

vkula (pukuzi) v.t. to take off a worn piece of cloth in order to re-place it by a new one. fig. to bit off (dogs, etc.) rel. -pukulela (pukulezi) to ~ for someone. cau& pukulisa (pukuliisize) to help to ~. fig. to cause to bite: Ki wena ya ni pukuli-size np, it is your fault that the dog came for me.

tkums (pukumile) v.i. to rustle (Icaves).

-pukumana (pukumani or pukuma-nile) v.i. to be sitting in a way which bothers others. caus. -puku-manisa (pukumanisize) to cause to ~.

-pukuta1 (pukutile) v.t. to pump bel-lows der. mupukuti, mapukuta. rel. -pukutela (pukutezl) to ~ for someone. caus. -pukutisa (pukuti-size) to order or to help to ~.

-pukuh2 (pukutile) v.t. to rub in order to remove dirt, to cleanse: ku pukuta likatulo, to clean shoes-ku pukuta mutu, to wash someone. syn. -pikita, -sindula. cf. -kolopa. rel. -pukutela (pukutezi) to wash, to cleanse for someone. caus. -puku-tisa (pukutisize) to help to rub. ref. -ipukuta (ipukutile) to wash oneself thoroughly.

-pukuta3 (pakutile) v.i. to be too large, to be oversize: Bulukwe bwa ka bwa pukuta, my trousers are too large for me.

-pukwala (pukwalile) v.i. to be weedy; to be hairy.

pula1 (li-) n. rain; lightning: Pula kacenu u nelile hahulu, the rain has been heavy today; Pula i lengile mutu mabani manzibwana, a man was struck by lightning yesterday evening; pulaya simbwewewe, heavy ha!l storm;pulaya lilolo, persistent ram.

-pula2 (pulile) v.t. to thresh corn. syn. -tanala. fig. to thrash some-one: ku pula mutu, to beat some-one. der. mupuli, sipuliso. rel. -pulela (pulezi) to thresh for some-one. caus. -pulisa (pulisize) to order or to help to thresh. stat. -puleha (pulehile) maize, etc. ready for th-reshing: Mabele a omile a puleha hande, dry com is good for thresh ing. int. -publela (pulelezi) to com-pletely thresh. freq. -pulaka (pub-kile) fig. to strike repeatedly. ref. -ipulela (ipulezi) to thresh for one-self.

-pula3 (pulile) v.t. to eat raw cassava, carrots, etc. syn. -pulukuta.

pulalti (liu) n. Eng. plate, dish.

-pulama (pulami or pulamile) v.i. Luyana. to forget. syn. -libala.

pulana (li-) n. space between rocks in rapids; space between house-yards. syn. pakana.

pulanga (ma-) n. Eng. plank, syn. Iibala.

pulao (li-) n. murder. (from -bulaya).

pulayano (li-) n. bloodshed. fig. great misunderstanding (from -bulaya).

puletl (li-) n. Eng. play, game fig. nuisance: He ni lati lipulei, 1 do not like nuisance.

pulelo (li-) n. saying, word: Hakuna pulelo ya bulezi, he did not say a single word. (from -bulela).

-pulena (pulenile) v.t. Eng. to plane. der. puleni. syn. -beta.

puleni (li-) n. Eng. wood-plane. (from -pulena).

puli (lil-) n. goat.

pulu (lis or ma-) n. ox, bullock. fig. a man unable to beget, to procreate; a woman unable to bear children.

-puluha (pulubile) v.i. (1) to be safe, to escape dangerã to escape death. (2) to successfully give birth. syn. -punyuha.

pulukelo (lis) n. box in which valu-able goods are kept; a safe. (from -buika).

-puluka (puikile) v.i. Luyana. to re-member. syn. -hupula.

puluko (lil-) n. rescue; salvation, re-demption. (from -buluka).

-pulukusha (puikushiize) v t. to look for, to search in darkness. ref. -ipu-lukusha (ipulukushize) to look for money, etc. to enable one to buy something or pay a fine: Ni sa yo ipulukusha shangwe ku ba batela mali a bona, it is all right sir, I am going to look for the money in order to pay the fine.

-pulukuta (pulukutile) v.t. to eat raw cassava, carrots, etc. syn. -pub. fig. to slander.

pulukve (li-) 1l. round object; ball used in a girls game.

-pululeza (pululelize) v.i. to go through: Ha muf ta mwa minzi, mu pululeze Sela mu sike mwa lula, when you come to the villages just pass through, do not stop. cf. -fite-leb. fi8. to speak frankly.

pululu! interj. expressing (1) the colour of the rain falling close by: ku ize pululu! it is all grey with rain. cf. setee (1) (2) the greyness of hair: Bai sa li pulutu kwa toho: gosh ! he is aiready completely grey haired !

-puluma (pulumile) v.i. to roar (lion der. mupulumelo, cf. -bopa. rel. -pu- lumela (pulumezi) to roar some-where: Tau kacenu ne i pulumela kwa wiko, today a lion was roaring somewhere to the west caus. lumis (pulumidze) to cause to roar.

-pulumulia (pulumukile) v.i. to become mad, insane: Np ye pulu-muka, a rabid dog. der. sillulumuki, _lumuki. syn. -tanya. rel. - 1> mukel (pulumukezi) (1) to show one's madness by leaving the ordi-nary way of life: Mushimqn 'a ka u ilo pulumukela mwa mushitu, my servant went to the forest showing signs of madness; (2) to consider someone to be dim: Ki–i ha u ni pu-lumukela cwalo wena, ha u na likute? why do you not show re-spect to me, are you crazy? caus. -puhmukis (puhmukisize) or (pulu nuzi) to cause mad-ness: Batu ba ba–ata ba pulumu-kiswa ka ku taa milyani yemaswe, `many people suffer from madness caused by witchcraft medicines. int. vlumukelela (pulilmukelezi) to become mad with no hope of recovery. ref. -ipulumukisa (ipule mukisize) or -ipulumuna (ipulu-muzi) rtg. to make a fool of one-self: U sike wa no ipulumukisanga cwalo, ku lwananga ze sina tuso; do not make a fool of yourself by fighting over trifling matters.

-pulus (pulusize) v.t. to rescue, to save. der. mupulusi. ref. -ipulusa (ipulusize) to save oneself.

pulv a! interj. expressing sudden escape: Kakaze ka zwa mwa ndu ka li pulwa! the cat is escaping from the house!

pulsnna (ma-) n. a young bull.

-pulyana (pulyani or pulyanik) v.i. see -polyana.

-pulyana-uulyana (pulyana-pulya-  nile) v.i. to pass through thick bush.

pulya-pulya ! or pulyaka-pulyaka ! (ni utwa ~) idioph. imitating the sound made when something is passing through thick bush.

-puma (pumile) v.t. to cheat to de-ceive to delude to beguile to betray. der. mupumi bupumi mu-pumelo sipumiso. syn. -onga. -bele-meka -pelemeka. rel. -pumela (pumezi) to ~ on behalf of some-one. caus. -pumisa (pumisize) to cheat: to promise being unsure of one's ability to fulfil that promise: Ku pumisa mutu sika u sa mufi.vona ku maswe it is bad to cheat some-one by m‡king a promise knowing that one will be unable to keep it stat. -pumeha (pumehile) fig. to enjoy good living: Ku pumeha kwa mwanana ki ku ca hande, a child is happy when living comfortably. rec. -pumana (pumani or pumanile) to ~ each other. freq. -pumanga to ~ very often red. -puma-puma (puma-pumile) to cheat playfully. ref. -ipuma (ipumile) to deceive oneself; to speak vainly: Wena u ipumafela, za hao ki za buhata, you are just deceiving yourself you know you are Iying.

-puma2 (pumile) v.t. to cut off to amputate; ku puma ka sikele, to clip; nzila ye puma, short-cut. der. mupumi sipumiso. cfi -lema. fig. (1) to decide or conclude a case decide on it (2) to set off for war Na ni pepilwe silimo se ba puma ndwa ya LuvalŽ, I was born in the year when they set off against the Luvale cf. -kema -tema. rel. -pumela (pumezi) to cut for some-one: A ku ni pumele kwate–i kanama ka ka tunanyana, cut for me a rather large piece of meat. caus. -pumisa (pumisize) to help to cut. stat. -pumeha (pumehile) to be easily cut off or broken off. fig. exp. Xu pumeha-moyo, to breathe one's last. int. -pumebla (pumelezi) to cut completely; to take a short-cut red. -puma-puma (puma-pumile) to cut off a part: Mu sike mwa pumelela bucwani, mu puma-pume totunyingyanifela, do not cut all the grass but only some of it. ref. -ipuma (ipumile) to cut oneself: Ni ipumile munwana ka chapu, l cut off one of my fingers with an axe. flg. exp. ku ipumela lucwa–i, to end a quarrel to be of equal strength

-pumata (pumatile) v.t. to keep something in the mouth: MusalEyo se si sa mu bulelisi hande, ki kuli u pumatile mubula, this woman cannot speak well because she has a mubula fruit in her mouth rel. -pumatela (pumatezi) to keep in the mouth for: Ni boni– wanyi i puma-tezi bana ba yona-lico, l saw a fish-eagle giving beakfuls of food to its young. caus. -pumatisa (pumatisize) to give someone a thing to keep in the month: Nako u mu pumatisize mulyani wa mazambo, the doctor gave him some tablets to suck for his scurvy.

-pumba1 (pumbile) v.t. to rush head first against to butt (animals) rel. -pumbela (pumbezi) to ~ someone giving concern to another: Komu i ni pumbezi mwan'a ka, the cow has butted my poor child! caus. -pum-bisa (pumbisize) to cause to butt. rec. -pumbana (pumbani or pumba-nile) fig. to fight (people).

-pumba (pumbile) v.t. to draggle to dirty. red. -pumba-pumba (pumba-pumbile) to ~ in many places: U sike wa pumba-pumba mwanana mwa maluli, do not dirty the little child in the dust. ref. -ipumba (ipumbile) to dirty oneself.

-pumbama (pumbami or pumhmile) v.i. to get to be in the ground: Li-notolo za ka li pumbami mwa mu-shabati, my keys are buried some-where in the sand. fig. to resist firmly when wrestling taking sup-port on the ground. der. sipum-bami.

-pumbeka (pumbekjlÀ) v.t. to put in the ground to bury. der. mupum-beki. rel. -pumbekela (pumbekezi) to bury for someone. caus. -pumbF -kisa (pumbekisize) to help to bury. int. -pumbekelela (pumbekelezi) to bury everything to bury for good. freq. -pumbekanga to be accus-tomed to burying: Ki nto yende ku no pumbekanga matakala; it is a good habit to bury sweepings inv. -pumbula (pumbuzi) to take out of the ground to dig up to unearth. (see -pumbula) ref. -ipumbeka (ipumbekile) fi8. to bury oneself to make oneself disappear into the ground: Ba ipumbekile mwa mukoti ha ba sika zwa kale, they are stili underground and as yet have shown no sign of surfacing.

-pumbuka (pumbukile) v.L to come out of the ground. fig. to rise early syn. -pakela -shituka meneka. rel. -pumbukela (pumbukezi) fig. to rise early in order to go somewhere: Kamuso ni ka pumbukela kwa litema la ka, tomorrow I shall rise early to go to my garden in the forest. syn. -pumbushaka rel. caus. -pumbukisa (pumbukisize) fig. to cause to rise early. int. -pumbukelela (pumbuke-lezi) to be completely uprooted.

-pumbub (pumbuzi) v.t. to take out of the ground to dig up to un-earth. der. mupumbuli. fi8. (1) to bring to light: Ba pumbuzi litaba za lifu la Kamwengo; they brought to light hidden matters concerning Kamwengo's death; (2) to run fast syn. -shitula. rel. -pumbulela (pum-bulezi) to dig up for someone. caus. -pumbulisa (pumbulisize) to order or help to dig up. stat. -pum-buleha (pumbubhile) that which can be unearthed: Kotaye ha i koni ku pumbuleha, this tree cannot be uprooted. int. -pumbuilelela (pumbu-lelezi) to completely uproot.

pumbulu! inter;. expressing a sudden falling: U wilefafasi, pum-bulu! suddenly he fell down.

-pumbushuks (pumbushukile) v.i. to wake up (from a dead sleep); to get up (when thrown to the ground) rel. -pumbushukela (pum-bushukezi) to rise early in order to go somewhere. syn. -pumbuka. rel. fig. caw. -pumbushukiss (pumbu-shukisize) to cause to wake up early. -pumeha (pumehile) v.i. see -puma2. stat.

-pumeka (pumekile) v.t. to pour a great quantity of water: Mu sike mwa pumeka mezi ama–ata mwa bu-sunso, do not pour too much water in the relish.

-pumela (pumezi) v.t. to cut hair syn. -kuta. fig. to kill someone in order to give efficacy to a medi-cine solicited from a witchdoctor: Mutu yo u tambile mulyani omaswe. mi u pumezi ku mwan'a hae; this man bought witchcraft medicine and killed his child to make it po-werful. caus. -pumelisa (pumelisize) fig. to order to kill so as to give power to a witchcraft medicine.

-pumenena (pumenezi) v.i. Luyans. to acknowledge the royal salute der. -pumenoko ! caus. -pumenisa (pumenisize) to order to ~.

-pumenoko ! inter;. expressing the acknowledgement of a royal salute: Agreed! Acknowledged!

-pumula (pumuzi) v.i. to rest to take a holiday. der. pumulo. rel. -pumu-  lela (pumulezÁi) to take a holiday at a place. caus. -pumulisa (pumuli-size) to give rest. to relieve from wor~k. to give a holiday. int. -pumu-ieida (pumulelezi) to retire from work. ref. ,i_ulisa (ipumulisize) to give oncself a rest. cf. -ishu, -ikd

pumub (1>) n. a rest. holiday: La Pwnulo, Sunday. sy b _ cf. Sabata (from _^).

-pumvneb (pumvnezi) v.i. to play in water. to enjoy bathing. cf. -puwana.

pumwaa! pilmwa! iõnterj. imitating the sound made in playing in water

-punda (pundile) v.t. (1) to cut bushes syn. -teteb (2) to sow: ku punta mauza mwa litema, to 50W millet in a forest garden. syn. ~la. dir. mupundi. rel. -puckla ( - -dezi) to sow for somcone. caus. -pundisa (pundisize) to order or to help to sow. int. -pundeleb (p nde-kzi) to sow the whole garden. ref. -  ipun kla (ipundezi) to sow for oneself.

-pundeb (pundezi) ¥.i. to look healthy, to put on weight after ill- ness, etc., cf. -nuna

pundula (punduzi) vl. to throw someone down (when wrestling).

-pundumuka (pundumukile) v.i. to pop out, to pop off; to rise sudden- lyk to wake up suddenly. der. si- pundumukela. cf. -pasumuka, fig. to leave somewhere and go home: Lu lwanile ni musal'a ka maabani. mi u pundumukile ku ya habo; my wife and I had a fight yesterday and s›e run to her parents. caus. -pundumu- kisa (pundumukisize) or -pundu- muna (pundumuzi) to cause to ~. int. -pundumukeleb (pundumuke- kzi) to leave suddenly and not return.

-pundum~ (pundumuzi) v.t. to startle and raise suddenly: Ni pun-dumuzi kanga sanon~io, I suddenly raised a hare. fig. exp. ku pundu-muna taba; to raise a case, to get into trouble.

-pundunga (pundungile) or -pun-dungela (pundungezi) v.t. to level the ground before sowing. fig. exp: ku pundungela taba. to destroy evi-dence der. mupundungeli. fig. to despise, to scorn, to slight; to shake (as a lion with its victim). int. -pundungelela (pundungeiezi) to carefully level the ground every-where. rec. tndungelana (pun-dungdani or pundungebnile) fig. to wrestle.

pundu-pundu! idieph. imitating the sound made by a frightened animal rising suddenly: Ha lu yo kumbuluka mutobo se li pundu-pundu! before we had time to real-ize it. the reed buck had already sprung off!

-punp (pungile) v.t. to put things together, to cover with a blanket. cf. -puta. bt. -pungeleb (pungelezi) or _geieza (pungelelize) to cover completely. red. -punga-punia (punga-pungiie) to gather quickly different things together fÇ. to hold someone tightly when wres-tling. ref. -pungdela (ipungelezi) cover oneself completely (in a blanket, sheet, etc).

punya (punyi2e) v.t. to bore, to pierce, to perforate: ku punya tapi, to gut. der. mupunyi, sipunyise. syn. beh. fig. to reveal: ku punya liku-nutu, ku punya litaba, to reveal se-crets; mete a punya hande, sharp eyes. rel. vnyeza (punyelize) to bore for someone: ku punyeza mutu mifnyana, to put handles on to tools for someone. filg. to speak frankly to someone. c w. -punyisa (punybize) to help to perforate. Ä4. to make someone reveal se-crets. stat. -punyeha (punyehile) to become pierced, etc.: Sitombo sa hae si punyehile, his abscess burst. fig. to come to light, to be re-vealed: Taba ya hae ki kale i pu-nyeha, there is no secret any more about his case. int. vnyeleiez (punyelelize) to drill the lot. (handles, etc.) flg. to reveal all se-crets. rec. tnyezana (punyesani) fig. to bring to light one another's secret affairs.

-punyuha (punyuoela (punyuhezi) to escape in a certain way: U punyu-hezifokunyinyani, he had a narrow escape. caus. -punyubisa (punyuhi-size) or -punyusa (pimyusize) to help to escape, to save from danger. int. -punyubelela (punyuhe-lezi) to be quite safe. ref. -ipunyusa (ipunyusize) to manage one's own escape, to save oneself.

punyuhe (li-) n. escape, rescue, de-liverance. (from -punyuha).

PU (IF) n. Sethe. Ianguage, dialect; word, saying. (from -bua).

pupe, n. creation: pupo ya lE0asEt the creation of the world. (from -bupa).

-pupula (pupuzi) v.i. to try to fly away when caught in a snare. fig. to strive hard in order to free one-self from a situation: U sa pupula mwa mulatu wa hae, he is still strug-gling to pay off his fine. syn. -cucula. caus. -pupulisa (pupulisize) to trap: Kacenu ni pupulisize linyu-nywani ze talu mwa katwa, today I caught three birds in a snare.

-pupuieza (pupulelize) v.t. to feel one's way with hands or feet, to walk like a blind man, to grope: ku pupuleza munyako, to try to find the door in the dark. syn. -babata, cf. -pupulika. fi8. to suspect, to be suspicious: Wena u pupuleza fela taba ye, ha u na hande niti ya yona; you are just suspicious about this matter, you do not really know the truth.

-pupulika (pupulikile) v.i. to search for one's way in the dark, to writhe (as an animal, fowl etc im-mediately after the killing). cf. -pu-puleza, syn. -pupulikana. fig. not to come to the point.

-pupulikana (pupulikani or pupulika-nile v.i. to writhe. syn. -pupulika. rel. -pupulikaneb (pupulikanezi) to run somewhere head first.

-pupu~b (pupumalile) v.i. to run swiftly (riding animal) cf. .likita. rel. -pupumabb (pupumaiezi) to gallop to.

-pupumuka (pupumukile) v.i. to sulk. to go away sulking. syn. -–ala. rel. -pupumukela (pupumukezi) to go somewhere being in the sulks. caus. -pupumukisa (pupumukisize ) to vex someonej to make someone leave angrily. ref. -ipupumukisa (ipupumukisize) or -ipupumuna (ipupumuzi) to simulate vexation in order to find a reason for going home: U sike wa no ipupumukisanga ni mo ku sina bufosi, do not simu-late vexation where there is no reason for it.

-puputa (puputile) v.t. to break up clods when cultivating, (to harrow) 4 to beat severely. syn. -titika. rel. -puputela (puputezl) to ~ for someone. fig. (1) ku puputela likomu to hit cattle in order to drive them quickly. (2) ku puputela musali, to divorce one's wife. caus. -puputisa (puputisize) to help to break up clods in a field. int. -pu-putelela (puputelezi) to finish breaking up clods in a Hleld rec. -puputana (puputani or puputanile) fig. to beat each other severely, to  fight. ref. -ipupuh (ipuputile) fig. as rec.

-puputeha (puputehile) v.i. to become thin, lean, emaciated: Mubili wa hae mazazi a so pupute-hile, kabakala ku sa pila hande: she looks very thin these days because she is not enjoying good health. syn. -tulubana; cf. -eta, -fekela.

-pus (pusize) v.i. to be weaned (calf). der. mupuseza or mupu-sezwva. cf. -kvva. rel. -puseza (puse-lize) fig. to be made to repent by thrashing: Kacenu u ta pusezwa, u bakele busholi bwa hao; today you will be thrashed so that you may repent of your habit of stealing. int. -puseleza (puseklize) to be totally weaned, to be weaned for good.

puse (li-) n. government. manner of governing; administration, manner of administrating: Kacenu se lu li mwa puso yenca ya Zambia, today we are under Zambian ad-ministration; Munna,vo ha na puso hande mwa ndu, this man does not properly administer his home. (from -busa). sny mubuse.

-puta (putile) v.t. (1) to fold ku puta mufu the arms and legs of a dying or person deceased der. muputi. rd. -putela (putezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -putisa (putisize) to order or to help to ~. stat-puteha (putehile) to become folded- to become as-sembled: Batu ba putehile ka bu–ata, people have assembled in great numbers. int. -putelela (pute-kzi) to ~ completely. fig. to cheat, to deceive: Mulekisi u ni putelezi the trader cheated me. rec. -putana (putani or putanile) to shrivel: Mukata u putani, the hide has shriv-elled, to become twisted: Muhala u putani, the rope is twisted. Inv. -pu-tulula (putuluzi) to unfold fig. to reveal secrets: U sike wa putulula li-kunutu za munn'a hao, do not reveal your husband's secrets red. -puta-puta (put -putile) to fold, to gather quickly. ref. -Iputa (iputile) to fold one's legs.

-putahna (putahani) v.i. to run swiftly. (from -puta).

-putaka (putakile) v.i. to be in a hurry. der. muputaki, putake, puta-kise. syn. akufa. rel. -putakela (pu-takezi) to hurry to . caus. -putakisa (putakisize) to hurry up someone: lla mu ni putakisa cwalo na itulela; I shall refuse to do anything if you go on hurrying me like this.

putakise, n. urging manner. (from -putaka).

putake, n. haste, hurry, rush. syn. sik vashu. (from -putaka).

-puteha (putehile) v.i. to come to-gether, to assemble, to meet, to congregate, to rendezvous. der. putehe. syn. -kepana. rel. -putehela (putehezi) to meet somewhere to-gether caus. -putehisa (putehisize) to call together, to bring together.

putehe (li-) n. assembly, meeting, church meeting, conference; society. syn. kepane. (from -puteha).

-putekla (putelezi) v.t. to cheat, to deceive, to bluff, to trick, to dupe der. muputeleli, cf. -puma. rel. -pu-telelela (putelelezi) to offend a person by cheating another: Mu sike mwa ni putelelela mwan-a ka buhobe bwa hae; do not deprive my child of his share of buhobe. ref. -iputelelisa (Iputelellsize) to be re-sponsible for being deceived by others: Ki wena ya iputelelisize batu ka butoto bwa hao, if you have been duped by others, it is because you asked for it by your stupidity.

puti (1S) n. duiker. fig. the denizen of the woods: Batu ba mishitu ki liputi, ba saba mezi; people of the forests are like duikers, they fear the water

-putukela (putulezi) v.t. to take a calf rejected by its mother and have it fed by another cow. fig. exp. Musali ha koni ku putulela mwana ku munna usili, a mother cannot impose a child on a father who is not his own.

-putuluha (putuluhile) v.i. to put on weight, to recover from illness: Mubili wa hae so putuluhile, ha u sa swana inge sapili, his body is a pic-ture of good health, it does not even resemble what it was before. -putuila (putuluzi) v.t. to unfold. der. putuile. fig. to reveal secrets. rel. -putululela (putululezi) to unfold for someone, fi8. to reveal someone's secrets in front of him. caus. -putululisa (putululisisize) to help to unfold fig. to cause some-one to reveal secrets. int. -putulule-lela (putuilelelezi) to unfold com-pletely, to spread out completely. fig. to reveal all secrets, to bring all secrets to light. rec. -putululana (putululani or putululanile) to reveal each other's secret.

putulule (li-) n. unfolding. fig. reve-lation, explanation. (from -putu-lula).

-putuma (putumile) v.t. to chase; to send away, to dismiss. syn. -shenja. caus. -putumisa (putumisize) same meaning. ref. -iputuma (iputumile) or -iputumisa (iputumisize) to pursue.

-putumana (putumani or putumanile) or putumanine) v.i. (1) to be stag-nant: Mezi a putumani fela ha zamai, the water does not flow, it is stagnant; (2) to sit in water, to bathe (3) to be lukewarm for lack of fire. syn. -mbembemana. fig. to be mentally deficient.

-putwama (putwami or putvamile) v.i. to enter into water in order to bathe. syn. -mbwambwama.

-putwateka (putwatekile) v.t. to throw a weaker person repeatedly to the ground.

-putweka (putwekile) v.t. to put in water, to soak. syn. -embeka, -tup-weka, -mbwambweka.

-puwa (puwile) v.i. to walk in water.

-puwana (pu vani or puwanile) v.i. to swim; to dive in deep water during the flood season. cf. -pumwsela.

-puya (puyik or puik) v.i. to leak. syn. -btal.

puyeb, n. respiration. (from -buyeb).

puze (li-) n. (1) question, query; (2) interrogation mark (?) (from -buza).

puzwa, ¥dj. grey (in reference to male cattle); puluzwana, grey (in reference to female cattle).

-pv acamana (pwacamani or p vaca-manine) v.i. to be nat (nose); to fall flat, to subside (roof) syn. -mby ta-mana, cf. -pyatamana.

-pwaca (pwacile or pwacise) v.t. to crush. sir. sipwacise. syn. -pyata. fig. to beat: Ba mu pwacize ka mulamu, they beat him with a stick. rel. -pwaceb (pw cezi) crush something belonging to someone Ki ma–i ya ni pwacezi piza ya ka? who crushed my pot? caus. -pwa-cisa (pw cisize) to help to crush. int. -pwacelela (pwacelezi) to crush completely. freq. -pwacaka (pwaca-kile) or -pwacaula (pwacauzi) to crush completely by striking again and again.

-pwacuka (pwacukile) v.i. (1) to pour: Pula kacenu i pwacukile hahulu busihu, it poured down a lot last night. (2) to get broken: Piza i pwacukile kakuli ne ba i bipezi mumela, the pot shattered into  many pieces because they had let soaked grain ferment in it fig. to have abnormal menses. syn. -pomoka)

-wacula (pwacuzi) v.t. to beat and cause bloodshed. syn. -pobola.

-pwaka! interj. down ! (mostly used in the expression: ku wa pwaka! to fall down.)

-pwakama na pwakamani or pwaka-manile) v.i. to sit (speaking of a very fat person); to sit idly, listles-sly. fig. to enjoy great riches, to be ewalthy. syn. -mbwambwama cf. -pwapwama.

-pwalyama (pwalyami or pwalya-mile) v.i. to tread upon mud, or dung, etc., to walk carelessly. syn. -paliama.

-pwalyeka (pwalyekile) v.t. to stab severely. cf. -taba, - vankula. fre4 -pwankaula (pwankauzi) to stab in many places.

pwapawa! interj. expressing the im-possibility of doing a thing: Ha u plaezwi u bulelefela ku li pwapawa! if you cannot do it do not insist, just say it is impossible. cf. -pala. -pwapwama (pwapwami or pwapa-wamile) v.i. to enjoy great riches, to be wealthy. cf. -mbwambwama. fig. -pwakamana.

-pwatuka (pwstukile) v.i. to be torn (blanket, etc.); to be breached, (wall, etc.,) fig. to be very deep (sore, etc.,) freq. -pwahuka (pwa-tuakile) to be torn or breached in amny places; fig. to have many deep sores.

-pwatula (pwatuzi) v.t to stab; to kill. cf. -taba, -fukuza. heq. vva-taula (pwatauzi) to stab in many places

-pwecala (pwecalile) v.i. to sit idly, lazily.

-pwecuka (pwecukile) v.i. to lean on one side: Sishete sa ka si pwecukile, my granary leans on one side. syn. -tebuka.

-pwekesha (pwekeshize) v.i. to walk swiftly. rel. -pwekeshela (pvveke-shezi) to walk swiftly somewhere. caus. -pwekeshisa (pwekeshisize) to cause to rush somewhere.

-pwenka (pwenkile) v.i. to be tired, to be exhausted (as in the cileke game see cileke).

pya! inter;. expressing the sound made in crushing something.

-pyata (pyatile) v.t. to crush, to pul-verize; to crash. fig. exp.: ku pyata lito, to shut one eye; ku pyata pilu, the soothe. syn. -boma, cf. -tuba. stat. Ppyateha (pyatehile} in the process of being ciushed; ye pya-teha, breakable. fragile

-pyatamana (pyatamani or pyatama-nile) v.i. to be very flat (nose). syn. -mbyatamana; cf. -pwac mana.

pyatiti ! inter;. Luyana. expressing the importance of a successful catch (fish): Ku f ta fa lilindo za mandui ku li pyatfti! mi ku li pipEi! when we arrived at fishermen's shelters, we saw an enormous quantity of fish and . . . and there was a great smell of it! cf. bololo! cabu !

-pyeha (pyehile) v.i. to have diar-rhoea: Namani ya ka i pyeha mali, my calf suffers from dysentery syn. -sulula. caus. -pyehisa (pyehi-size) to cause diarrhoea.

-pyema (pyemile) v.t. to beat with a rod. syn. -shapa. rel. -pyemela (pye-mezi) to lash on someone's behalf. freq. -pyemaka (pyemakile) or -pyemauna (pyemauzi) to lash re-peatedly. ref. -ipyemauna ( ipye-mauzi) or-ipyemaka (ipyemakile) to lash each other in a cruel manner.

-pyemula (pyemuzi) wipe away; to dust. fig. exp. ku pyemula mioko, to wipe off tears. ref. -ipye-muh, to wipe off tears from own face. _

pyoldo (li-) n. whistle: Ku liza pyo-lolo, to blow a whistle. fig. a very small cup (too small to enjoy a drink). kapyololo small whistle.

-pgopya (pyopile) v.i. see -pyopyola.

-pgopyola (pyopyozi) v.i. (1) to speak Ruently a foreign language: Silumesfi u pyopyola hande Si`Fura ku mukwa o komokisa, Silumesii speaks French very well indeed: (2) ku pyopyola muloli, to blow a whistle.