Silozi-English dictionary

This dictionary is contained in five files:

S

 S.ss, pronounced as s in sea (but is never pronounced z as in his ).

sa1 adv. of negation: Not, used with dependent tenses of the verb: Niha ni sa pakeli, ni ta yo fita; I shall arrive even if I do not leave very early.

sa2 adv. still: Lu sa ambola, we are still talking together; no more; any longer; Ha ni sa mu hupuia; I do not remember him anymore.

sa3, pron. subj. sing. (class si-li) used when the verb has no object; it: Si-kekele sa ni tusa, the plough helps me.

sa4, poss. part. sing. (class si-li and si-bi): Ki silabo sa ka, it is my paddle; sibala sa mukolo, a defective plank of a canoe.

(siie) v.i. (1) to come to an end (the night): BusEhu se bu ya kwa ku sa, the night is waning. (see -sisa). syn. -yanduluka, -patalala; (2) to stop raining: Pula ya sa cwale, it is about to stop raining.

Saa, n. Iower council of principal headmen.

saba (sabile) v.t. to fear, to be afraid of; to be shy. der. sabo, sisa-belo. syn. -cila. cf. -susa. rel. -sabela (sabezi) to take refuge or shelter in: Pula ye ni ka i sabela kai? where shall I find shelter against this rain caus. -sabisa (sabisize) (1) to frighten, to daunt; (2) to be dread-ful, terrible: Ndwa ki sika se si sabisa, war is a dreadful thing; (3) to cause or help to escape: Ha ne ku bulawa linja ba ba–wi ne ba sabi-selize za bona mwa mushitu, when the dogs were being killed (be-cause of rabies), many people saved theirs by taking them to the forest. stat. -sabeha (sabehile) to be dreadful, frightful. int. -s belelela (sabelelezi) to fear and go for good: Mutu yani u sabelelezi, ha sa tola a bonwafa hape; that man had the fright of his life and went for good, so he will never be seen here again m. -sabana (sabani or s ba-nile) to fear each other. freq. -sa-ban8a to be inclined to fear. red. -saba-saba (saba-sabile) to fear without reason. ref. -isabisa (Isabl-size) to protect oneself against: U isabisafela mabisi a mwa makapa ki amande mwa tfi; you refuse with-out reason to use condensed milk but it is good in tea.

sabasimbi (bo-) n. Leya Toka a man  who prefers women's company to that of men.

Sabata, n. Eng. Sabbath.

sabela (li-) n. kind of fish.

sabo, n. fear, fright (from -saba).

sabule (li-) n. Eng. sabre, sword.

ssela (ma-) n. Iarge circular house (introduced by the Kololo). c. simbangu.

-safala (safalile) v.i. to suffer from caus. -safalisa (safalisize) to make someone suffer. ref. -isafalisa (isa-falisize) to worry oneself, to tor-ment oneself.

safunyuka, n. a warped or missha-pen object (paddle. shoe, etc.). (from -funyuka).

safwimpa (bo-) n. a short person. ~h (sahile) v.t. Eng. to saw. dÇ. musahi, saha. rel. ~hela (sahezi) to saw for someone. caus. -sahisa (sahisize) to order or to help to saw. int. ~helela (sahelezi) to complete sawing.

saha (liõ- or ma-) n. Eng. saw.

sabubulal (bo-) n. sweeper of the Li-tunga's yard or of the Kuta. (from -huhula)

sahuhula2 (bo-) n. town-crier (from -hubula).

saks (ma-) n. En8. sack, bag. fig. great eater.

sakJcompole (bo-) n. Pied King-fisher. syn. mutangalati, nengeleie.

sakaWkoto (bo-) n. a very big and strong man. fig. any huge bird, animai, etc.

sJkana (II- or ma-) n. cattle enclo-sure (kraal) syn. mulaks.

sakata, n. taken adjectively; per-fect: bupilo sakata, perfect life eternal life; mutu sakata, a perfect man.

-sakateb (sakatezi) or -sikatels (si-kstezi) v.t. to grasp, to lay hands on something.

sakawami, n. kind of grass.

sakayaya (bo-) n. very large crea-ture, (man, lion, crocodile, etc.)

sakokala (bo-) n. Luyana. a cripple walking on his knees. (from -kokala).

sakulala (bo-) n. Luyana. Iistless person. (from -lala).

sala (li-) n. Iitter on which to carry the dead.

-sala2 (salile) v.t. to winnow. der. musalo. fi8. to slander, to calumni-ate.

sakl (li-) n. Eng. saddle.

sale2 dem. pron. (class si-li or si-bi-) 4th Degree, that.

sali (liali) n. Luyana. asthma, whooping cough, etc., (formerly believed to be caused by the breaking of taboos) syn. sishako.

 saluluti, n. Luyana. bias, prejudice, discrimination. (from -alulula).

~ma (samlie) v.t. to pillow, to use something as a pillow. der. musamo. rel. -samela (samezi) to prepare a pillow for soõneone: Mu nangule mukuli kwa toho lu mu samele hande: lift up the patient's head, so that we may arrange his pillow.

samahongo (bo-) n. Mbunda. Iikishi dancer wearing a huge mask and using a deep voice to frighten people.

samakwenanga, n. Ioneliness, be-reavement. (from -kwenanga).

samawawa (bo-) n. sterile man.

s mbs (II- or bo-) n. Yellow-billed Duck.

sambamba (bo-) n. Grey-headed Gull.

sambambi (bo-) n. a person who speak everything without re-Rection.

S"mbi (bo-) n. title of the chief pre-siding over the Nalolo Kuta.

sJmendel (liw or bo-) n. bracelet made of celluloid or plastic matter.

samende2 (li~) n. En8. cement.

sameza (samelize) v.t. to use a wife's thigh as a pillow as an expression of love.

-sampuka (sampukile) v.i. to become tasteless, insipid; to lose savour. der. masampululwa. syn. -amuba, -tapuha. int. ~mpukelela (sampukelezi) to be quite tasteless, to be completely insipid.

Samul (li-) n. En8. Psalm.

samu2 (li-s) n. Luyana. African axe.

samutamunene or samuteshumi, adv. Iong ago, in former times. cl. sapili.

samutandeti, sdv. Luyana. perhaps, may be. syn. mwendi, mutomu–wi.

sana, n. area along the edge of the Bulozi Plain.

sanasulwe (bo- or ka-) n. hare rabbit. syn. shakame, sanondo, fig a clever, astute person.

sanda (lianda) n. (1) inheritance: Ku ca sanda, to inherit; (2) place where ancestors lived.

saxdi (liandi) n. reed mat used to trap fish.

sando (li-) n. hammer.

sangalwembe (bo-) n. kind of tree (Dialiopsis Africana)

sanganu (lia-) n. (also sianganu) an insane person.

sango or siango (li ngo) n. (1) com-pany, group of people: Na ha ni lati sango ni batu ba ba maswe; I do not like the company of wicked people (2) friendship.

sani, dem. pron. sig. (class si-li- or si-bi-) Third Degree: that; Silabo sani si kai? where is that paddle? Siseme sani mu yo si lata; go and toss aside that bad mat.

sankumwine (bo-) n. a drunkard.

sanondo (bo-) n. hare, rabbit. syn. sanasulwe, shskame.

sanung na (bo-) n. Yellow-throated Sand-grouse.

sapili, adv. formerly, before, previ-ously. cfi samuts_ne.

sass, ad;. black with white stripes round the breast and back. (male cattle. with reference to female cattle sasana.)

sasa2 (sasik or sasize) v.t. to rub: Ku sasa mulyani to rub ointment. cf. -lamh, -toz~; -pikita. fig. to involve fasely someone in a case- to accuse: Mu sike mwa ni sasa mwa litaba za mina, do not involve me in your affairs. rel. ~seza (sase-ue) to rub for someone. c us. -sasisa (sasisize) to hdp to rub. red. ~sa~ (s s ~gize) to rub inef-ficiently or lightly ref. -i (is -size) to rub oneself.

sasana, n. isolation, quarantine: Sapili ba mbingwa ne ba pila mwa sasana, in the past lepers were living in isolated quaners.

sany l (s sanyize) v.t. to beat, to strike. syn. -nata, ku-shap, etc.

sanya (sasanyize) v.t. to put a pot on the fire.

sasibo (bo-) n. Black Crowned Bush Shrike or Angola Black-headed Tichagra. (bird).

sasimbi (bo-) n. police constable (carrying handcuffs).

sas ka (s sukik) v.i. to rush out to any kind of attraction. der. liss-suka. rel. ~keb (s sukezi) to ~ to (a place) caus. ~sukis (s suki-size) to cause to ~.

sat or dats (lista) n. palm of the hand. syn. sigu~di.

satabbl (sat lalile) v.i. to refuse very strongly with good reason. cf. -hana. c us. ~tglslis (s tslsliw size) to cause to ~.

satabls2 (s t lalile) v.i. to resist very strongly when fighting.

stsmbi (bo-) n. a dumb person.  syn. simumu.

Satani (bo-) n. Eng. Satan, the Devil. fig. wicked person.

Satoli, n. Queen Victoria.

-sawana (swani or sawanOe) v.t. to denigrate, to calumniate, to slander der. I;s wana, busawana. syn. -seba, -tebeta, -ungwatala, etc.

sayaondo (li-) n. Luyana. hatchet made of very strong steel and used by blacksmiths.

sel adv. already: Ni se ni mu boni, I have already seen him.

se2, dem. pron. sing. (class si-li and sibi-) Ist Degree, this, that: Silabo se mu si lekile kai? where did you buy this paddle !

se3, rel. pron. sing. (class si-li- and si-bi;) which, that: Sibala se si ngong-otezwi mwa mukolo, the plank which has been nailed onto the canoe.

-seba (sebile) v.t. to denigrate, to slander, to calumniate. der. musebl, lusebo. syn. -sawana, -tebeta, -ungwatala, etc. rel. -sebela (sebezl) to whisper, to, to tell a secret to. rec. -sebana (xbanl or se-banile) to calumniate each other. freq. -sebanga to be inclined to ~.

-sebeza (sebelize) v.i. & v.t. to work, to do, to labour. der. musebezi, mu-sebelezo, sebeiezo, sebelis no, cf. -beleka, -tembuka. flg. to feach (as suffering): Ha u sa lati ku sebeza, ni wena tala i ta ku sebeza; if you do not like to work, hunger will cer-tainly teach you. rel. -sebeleza (se-belelize) (1) to work for, to serve (2) to worship: Ku sebeleza Mulimu, ki makalelo a butali, to worship God is the beginning of wisdom. caus. -sebelisa (sebellsize) to give work to someone, to super-vise workmen- to use: Ha mu sebe-lisa silepe seo, mu tokomele si buhali hahulu, take care when using that axe, for it is very sharp. rec. -sebe-zana (sebezani) fig. to beat each other; -sebelisana (sebelisani) to help each other ref. -isebeleza (ise-belelize) to work for oneself: Mutu ya isebeleza, ki yena ya ta kona ku ipilisa; a person who knows how to work without the help of others will be able to support himself.

sebelezo (li-) n. service; divine ser-vice. (from-sebeza).

sebelisano, n. mutual help, co-oper-ation (from -sebeza).

-sefal (sefile) i.t. Eng. to sift. der. musefi, sefa, musefo, musefeio. syn. -seseta. fig. to investigate, to detect. rel. -sefela (sefezi) to sift for someone; fig. to investigate on someone's behalf. caus. -sefisa (se-fisize) to help to ~. stat. -sefeha (sefehile) that which can be easily sifted rec. -sefana (sefunl or sefa-nile) fig. to have an eye on each other. inv. -sefulul‹ (sefuluzl) to sift for the second time: Mu sefulule bupi, bo, ha bu sika neka hande; sift this ’lour again, for it is not fine enough. red. -sefa-sefa (sefa-sef–e) to sift a small quantity of meal. ref. -isefela (isefezi) to sift for oneslf.

sefa2 (li-) n. Eng. sieve, sifter strainer; wire gauze. fig. investiga-tor. (from -sefa1)

sefa3, n. strichnine.

segeleti (1W) n. Eng. cigarette. cf. kwai.

-seha1 (sehOe) v.L dt v.t. to laugh, to laugh at; to jeer. der. Iiseho, muse-helo, cf. -sheuXuna. rel. -sehela (sehezi) to welcome with a laugh; to laugh at, to make fun of. caUs. -sehisa (sehisize) to make someone laugh, to amuse. red. -seha-seha (seha-sehile) to laugh for joy, to show happiness in laughing.

-seha2 (sehile) v.t. to cut with a knife. der. musehi, sisehiso, musehdo. cf. - puma. rel. -sehela (sehezi) to cut out for someone: Ni na mu ni sehele kwa nama, cut a small piece of meat for me also int. -sehulub (se-huluziL) to make the last cut to a kaross to bring it to size before hemming it. red. -sehaka (sehakile) (1) to cut into pieces; (2) to cir-cumcise .

-seheza (sehelize) v.t. to prop. to buttress.

seke! Inter;. expressing the dawn of the day: Lwa tona, mane bwa yo li seke! we have been on the watch the whole night until dawn!

-sekula (sekuzi) v.t. to shave the nape of the neck. der. museku.

sela1 (II-) n. small fish spear made of plain wire and used by children.

-sela2 (selile) v.t. to pour. der. kase-lenge. syn. -sulula. rel. -selela (selezi) to pour for someone. int. -selelela (selelezi) to pour out to the last drop. freq. sebeb (sebezi) to water, to irrigate.

sela2 (selile) v.t. to gather natural products (wild fruit, fish, etc.) der. museli, muselo, siselo, fig. exp. ku sela litaba, to gather news, to collect information. rel. -selda (selezi) to ~ for someone. caus.-seSsa (selisize) to help to ~: Kuhu i selisa bana ba yona the hen is searching for food for its chickens. ref. -iselela (iseleii) to ~ for one-self.

seieb (selezi) v.t. to r,ll up a hole, a grave, etc.

selws (sezwi) v.i. to be on the road when sunrise comŽs; to be late for work. (from ~).

sembelawanga, n. medicine bc-lieved to have power to prevent a person from being struck by lightning.

semi-kolonl, n. Eng. semi-colon. (;) syn. Felwani.

-sempula (sempuzi) ¥.t. to take a portion or a part of somahing (bfihobe, etc.); to lift up a load. der. Iimpuk, musempula. cf. Qiw h. -–ompola, -nanula. rel.`-senipukls (sempuizi) to take a portion in-tended for somebody else. int. -sempublela (sempulekzi) to take a whole portion intended for others.

senanga (senangik) v.i. to speak os-tentatiously, to speak with ambi-tious display. rel. ~senangda (sen sngezi) to ~ somewhere. css. -senangisa (senangisize) to cause to ~.

-senateka (senatekik) v.i. as-sen-Jnga.

semiabanji, n. Luyans. (mwaha wa senctabanji) floodless year. (from -enda).

sendaendi (bo-) n. Luyana. traveller, person coming home after a long absence. (from -enda).

sendel (li-) or bo-) n. cicada.

sende2, n. Eng. scent, perfume

sendi (li-) n. concubine, unomcial wife, favourite woman. sengabsci, adv. sideways.

senge (ma-) n. Eng. zinc, corrugated iron.

se–a, n. cooked bran.

seo (lieo) n. kind of fish. (see iku-shenge).

seps (sepik) v.t. (1) to trust, to be confident in, to rely on: Wena ha ni ku sepi bake–isa mfkwa ya hao bu-maswe I do not trust you because of yoœr bad behaviour- (2) to hope: Ni sepa u ta be afltEle kamuso, I hope he will be here tomorrow; (3) to think: Nf sepa cwalo, I think so. hr. sepo, sepiso? b~epehi, sepaw, buisepo. cf. -lwlara. rel. -sepeli (sepezi) to trust for Œ reason: Ni mu sepezi ku lukakwa hae, I trust her for her righteousness. caus. -sepisa (sepisize) to promise. stst. -  sepeha (sepehib ) to be reliable . int.*stat. -sepahala (sepahalile) to be trustworthy. rec. -sepana (sepani or sepanile) to trust each other. ref. -isepa ( isepile) to be self-confident.

sepano, n. mutual confidence. (from -sepa).

sepiso (li-) n. promise. (from -sepa).

sepo, n. hope, trust, confidence; ku fela sepo, to be disheartened. (from -sepa).

-seseta (sesetile) v.t. to sift, to winnow. der. museseti. syn. -sefa. rel. -sesetela (sesetezi) to sift for someone. caus. -sesetisa (sesetisize) to help to sift.

seta1, adj. grey-blue, buff (male cattle. With reference to female cattle: Setana); pale yellow, (with reference to bilious eyes). fig. poor, miserable: Na yo mu seta cwana no ka lifumana kai lizwai? where can a poor soul like me find salt?

-seta2 (setile) v.t. to notch, to gash (to make a cut round a small piece of root in order to be able to fix it to a string and wear it as a medi-cine round the neck, etc.)

setee! interj. expressing (1) the colour of the rain falling in the middle distance. cf. pululu (2) the colour of the eyes of someone suf-fering from a liver complaint: Meto a hae a li setee? his eyes are yellow. (3) grey (of dust).

-setefala (setefalile) v.i. Iit. to become grey (this verb expresses the change appearing in the colour of the skin because of dust, sick-ness or old-age) caw. Zsetefaza (se-tefalize) to cause to ~.

-seteka (setekHe) v.t. to tempt. ds. muxteki. cf. -shemba. rel. -setekela (setekezi) to attract a person on behalf of someone.

setete, n. dim light before day- break, or sun after sunset.

seto (li-) n. the prickly seed of a creeper (bearing yellow flowers).

-setuka (setukHe) v.i. to turn the head and look backwards. syn. -temuna. -beb.

*seula (seuzi) v.i. to rain (the first rain of the season) der. maseulo.

shal ! interj. used as a polite re-sponse acknowledging a call or that one has understood or heard what is being said to one. (Abbrev. for shngwe).

-sha2 (shaile) v.i. to leave room: Ku shaile hande, malobalo a tei7i; there is room in the sleeping quarters. ref. -isha (isbaile) to leave room between oneself and others.

-sha3 (soaile) v.i. to be transparent, to be seen through: Nusekusha, lu tuha lu punya kwa libala; the forest is becoming clearer, so we shall soon be in the plain. `

shaa1 (sbaile) v.t. to praise: ku shaa mukanga, to praise in order to en-courage paddlers; ku shaa–ongo, to yawn, to gape, ku shaiwa ki batu, to be despised by people.

-shaa2 (shaik) v.i. to be coarse, rough (voice).

-shaba (shabile) v.t. to prune, to lop, to cut off branches. syn. -sheba, -kola. rel. -shabela (shabezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shŒbisa (sbabi-size) to help to ~. bt. -shabelela (shabelezi) to lop completely leav-ing a bare trunk.

-shb ela (shabsezi) v.t. Luyana. to cast divining bones, figurines, etc. der. _ baeli, syn. -laub.

shabele (shabezi) v.t. to cut meat into pieces.

-shaela (shaezl) v.i. to call loudly, to sing loudly, to bawl. syn. -huvva.

sshalia (shaklb) v.t. to start work, to start a journey; to start a quar- rel etc., der. mushaki. syn. -kala, -tateka.

-shakalala (shakalalile) v.i. to be importunate, untameable mostly of a child. der. cakala. cf. -katsza, -shupa.

-shaksela (shakaezi) v.i. to move about aimlessly (mostly of insane persons) der. sishakseli. syn. -ngu-lyana.

shakame (bo-) n. hare, rabit. syn. -sanasulwe, sanondo. fig. a clever person.

-shakasha (shakashize) v.t. to jingle rattles (as a dancer at the begin-ning of a dance) . der. sishakashwa.

shakatela (shakatezi) v.t. to carry too much with both hands. fig. to bear a great quantity of fruit.

-shakilikana (shakilikani or shakili-kanine) v.i. Eng. to be shaggy: Milili ya hae i shakilikani, he has shaggy hair.

-shakula (shakuzi) v.t. to pull a fishing net. caus. -shakulisa (sbaku-lisize) to help to ~.

-sbakumuka (shakamakile) v.i. to be sour, acid. syn. -wawata.

shaku-sbaku! interj. expressing the coming back to life after a swoon, fainting fit, coma, syncope, etc. Na shwile kono ha lu yo kumbuluka seili shaku-shaku! he was unconscious, but suddenly he came to.

shakutula (shakutuzi) v.t. to untie a bundle, a parcel, etc.,

-shalikanisa (shalikanisize) (~ meto) v.i. to look here and there restlessly, anxiously.

-shalima (shalimile) v.L & v.t. to look, to look at (see -talima).

-shaluka (shalukHe) v.i. to enjoy the satisfaction of having eaten succu-lent relish after having been long-ing for it for a long time. der. mu-kusbalu. caus. -shalulisa (shaluki-size) or -shalula (shaluzl) to make someone t.o ~. rel. -lshalula (isha-luzi) to make oneself to ~.

-shalyeka (shalyekile) v.t. to give parsimoniously (mostly food).

-shama1 (shamile) v.i. to become white-hot (iron, steel, etc.) caus. -shamisa (shamisize) to heat iron until it is white-hot.

-shama2 (shamile) v.t. to pass water, to urinate. syn. -luta . rel. -shamela (shamezi) to urinate in: caus. -sha-misa (shamisize) to help a child or a sick person to pass water.

-shamba (shambile) v.i. to dance round, facing a dancer. der. mu-shambisi, mashambaneno. rel. -shambeb (shambezi) to dance somewhere. caus. -shambisa (sham-bisize) to teach to dance. fig. to teach a person to follow one's bad habits, to lead someone into evil. rec. -shambana (shambani) to dance together. (two dancers facing each other) red. -shamba-shamba (shamba-sbambile) to dance in order to encourage a dancer. fig. to paddle in a queer, funny way in order to amuse people.

-shambana (shambanl or shamba-nile) v.i. to be Iying with a space between, to be separated: Miluko ya museme o. i shambani hahulu too much space has been left be tween the lines of this mat. der. mashamba. syn. -shambuka, caus. -shambanisa (shambanisize) to leave much space between things.

-shambuka (shambukile) v.i. as -shambana.

-shambweka (shambwekile) v.L to do tricks in order to attract atten-tion or to make people laugh. der. tushambwe.

-shamena (shamezi) v.t. to wait for, to expect a promised thing, to await an expected visitor.

 shamiliketa (shamiliketilte) v.t. to incite a person to fight or con-demn another. der. k~mRiketi. cf. -_ez~.

-shamulula (shamuluzi) v.t. to harp back to old things. der. Iislumulula or IbRan utula rel. -sbamululela (sh mululezi) to come to someone about old mattcrs with a definite intention.

-shamutula (sbamutuzi) v.t. as-shs-~his.

-shanauka (shanaukile) v.i. to be torn to pieces. cf. -p~uha.

 -shanauana (shanszi) v.t. to break into pieces: Ma shanaune mwanja o. ki hona u ka oma kapili; break that cassava into pieces so that it may dry quickly. rel. ~naunda or sbatu~ (shan unezi) lo ~ for someone. ca s. -shana_isa (~u_") to help to ~.

-shanda1 (sha dik) v.t. to spread food out (in order to dry it). rel. -sh ntEla (sbandezi) to ~ for some-one. freq. ~Çbuh (shanabuzi) to spoil food by spreading it out too far.

sbanda2 (sb ndile) v.i. to be agi-tated, to write in pain (like a dying person): Kacena ki sEyumbela. Iitapi li ka shanda maswe. today a big catch using poison, has been or-ganised, so the fish will wriggle! rel. ~aRdela (sbandezi) to ~ somewhere: I olofolo ,ve ne ni kunu-pile. nako ,ve i yo shandela kwahule; the animal I shot is now writhing in pain somewhere. c us. _"lisa (sh ndisize) to cause someone to ~.

~nth~ or jb ndamana (sb nda-manl) v.i. to be flat, (plate, wooden dish, etc.) der. sisbantb. freq. -shambmeka (shanthmekile) to hollow out roughly syn. _nda-m nisa.

-shsntlamanisa (sb ndamanisize) v.t. to hollow out roughly. syn. -shan-tima freq.

-shantlauka (shandaukile) v.i. to lie in disorder: Likubo za banana li shandaukile, the children's blan-kets are Iying in disorder. fig. to suffer from dispersion, disorgan-isation: Muezi wa bona kaÏnu u shandaukile, ha u sa na batu; their village is now falling in ruins, for no people live there any more. bt. -shandaukelela ( sbandaukelelezi ) fi4. to become completely dis-persed.

~ndaub (sbandauzi) v.t. to put in disorder, to make a mess of some-thing. der. ~nusbandoli, k sbandub. syn. -sbya. rel. -sbandaulela (sb n-d ulezi) to make a mess of some-one's goods.

~nga (sbangile) v.i. to dance before the ordinary dancer starts in order to attract people to the dance. der. musb ngi, kashanga-ngoma. rel. -sb ngeb (sbangezi) to start a dance on the oEcial danc-er's behalf.

-sisyama (sbangami) v.i. or sb ng-¥m na (sb ng m ni) v.i. to lie or sit on top of something; to attack by surprise: Ha lu yo kumbuluka ngwe ki kale i mu shangama; before we realized, the leopard was on him. syn. -llmbama, cf. -pahama. fig. to overcome someone in a fight. freq. -shanpt ma (shungstami or sh ngtamik) to be Iying or sitting in di-sorder (things or people).

-shanganana (sb"~gpRani or sh nga-n nile) v.i. to become lively joyful (after a time of sadness or illness).

~nileka (shangekik) v.t. to put a thing on top of another to pile cf. -linbeka. rel. -shangekŽh (sh nge-kÇi) to ~ for someone. c us. -^ gekba (sh ngekbize) to help to ~. int. -shangekelela (shangeke-lezi) to pile up all collected things. freq. §hangateka (shangatekile) to put things on top of others (one after another) int. -shangutula (shangutuzi) to take out things from a pile.

-shangela (shangezi) v.t. (1) to add a piece to something in order to make it longer: Ku shangela mbala a wolupuleri. to lengthen wall plate planks; (2) to fix very firmly a handle to a spear or a fishing spear. der. mushangeli. fig. to exag-gerate matters. rei. -shangeleb (shangelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shan4elisa (shangelisize) to help to ~. int. -shangelela (shange-lezi) fig. to present matters with much exaggerations U sike wa shangelela wahenu litaba za sika eza, do not add to your accusa-tion. things which your friend has not done.

zshanguka (shangukile) v.i. to be ac-customed to do a thing in secret; to be accustomed to wander about in search of something: Mwanana yo sa shangkile maswe, this child is terribly independent. der. muku-sh ngu.

~ngula (shnguzi) v.t. to mock, to deride, to bring into ridicule: Wena wa ni shangula, u to ni kupa mali; mbali wena ya beleka! you are pull-ing my leg, in asking money from me, whilst you are the one who is working rel. -shanguleh (shangu-kzi) to mock with a definite inten-tion: U ni shangulelani cwalo? why are you mocking me like this?

-shangub2 (shanguzi) v.t. to lead astray. rel. -shangulela (shangulezi) to offend someone by leading an-other astray: Ki yena ya ni shangu-lezi mwana ka, he is the one who led my child astray ref. -bhangula (ishanguzi) to become a vagabond.

-shangumuka (shangumukile) v.i. (1) to become excited, (set in motion): Malao a shangumukile maswe, the hornets are terribly excited. (2) to recur (pain, illness). rel. ehangu-mukela (shangumukezi) to come back again: Butuku bwa hae bu mu shangumukezi mwa nzila, his illness struck him again on the way. caus. -shangumuna (shangumuzi) to excite; to provoke the recurrence of a pain or of an illness. (see -shangumuna). int. -shngumukeida (shangumukeEzi) to return for good (illness).

-shangumuna (shanguzi) v.t. (1) to excite, to infuriate: U sike wa shangumuna limuka. take care not to excite the bees. (2) to provoke the recurrence of illness: Butuku mwa hae bu shangumuzwi ki mabote, the recurrence of his ill-ness was provoked by his over-ti-redness. syn. -zuha. rel. -shangumu-nela (shangumunezi) to excite in-tentionally.

-shangutuh (shangutuzi) v.t. to lay out things which were heaped up. rel. -shangutubla (shangutuizi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shangutulba (shanutulisize) to help to ~.

shangvwe ! interj. Luysna. expressing politeness and following a saluta-tion or a call: lWu lumele shangwe, good morning, sir; Eni, shangwe {Eni shaJ yrs sir; also used to em-phasize approval, acknowledge-ment, etc. (see -sha).

-shanjala

-shanjab1 (shanjalik) v.t. to cut meat into small pieces with an axe. rel. -shn~kb (shanjakzi) to ~ for someone. freq. -shan~itah (sh nJa-talik) to cut meat into very small pleces.

-shanjala2 (shanjalik) v.i. to sear or  declare on oath (calling God to witness). syn. -konka, -tapanya. rel. -shanjaiela (shanjalezi) to charge a person on oath through someone. freq. -shanjatala (shanjatalile) to sear very seriously, to make a very strong oath.

ehanona (shanozi) v.t. to tear into pieces (paper, cassava roots before drying etc.) syn. -pazula. rel. -shanoneb (shanonezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shanonisa (shano-nisize) to help to ~. int. -shanone-kla (shanonelezi) to ~ completely. ref. -;shanonena (ishanonezi) to ~ for oneself.

-shanyauka (shanysukile) v.i. (1) to get spoiled, worn out (paddles in rapids, hoes after a long service, etc) (2) to fall into crumbs (manioc, etc.) caus. -shanysukisa (shanyaukisize) to cause to ~. int. -shanysukelela (shanysukelelezi) to get completely spoiled.

-shanysuna (shanysuzi) v.t. to break into pieces (cassava roots); to wear out. syn. -shanauna. rel. -sha-nysunela (shanysunezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shanysunisa (sha-nysunisize) to help, to cause to ~: Macwe a shanyauzi mabe a lilabo za luna, the rocks have worn the blades of our paddles.

-shanana (sha–ani or shananine) v.i. to contort one's face with anger to show in the face one's sickness. cf. -sosobana. caus. -sha–anisa (sha-–anisize) to cause someone's face to change (sickness, anger, dis-gust, etc.)

-shapa (shapile) v.t. to beat, to lash, to flog, to thrash. der. mushapi, si-shapiso. cf. -nata. rel. -shapela (sha-pezi) to scourge for a reason: IVi mu shapezi ku sa utwa kwa hae, I beat him for his disobedience. caw. -shapisa (shapisize) to cause or to help to ~. int. -shapelela (sha-peiezi) to beat a whole group (chil-dren) rec. -shapana (shapani or sha: panik) to beat each other, to fight. freq. a) -shapanga to have the habit of beating; b) -shapaka (shapakile) to thrash repeatedly and severely

-shapuka (shapukile) v.i. to show in-telligence, brains, wisdom in words or in deeds. cf. -talifa. rel. -shapukela (shapukezi) to owe intel-ligence to: Kanana ka, ka shapukezi mwa mba, that child inherited brains.

-shasha (shashik) v.i. to turn sour, to become rancid. caus. -shashisa (shashisize) to cause to ~.

-sh shama (shashmi or shashamile) v.i. to be infused (medicines). cf. -ombama.

-shashamana (shashamani or shasha-manine) v.i. to stand in order to see or admire something. der. I;shasha-mana. syn. -cimana. rel. -shashama-nela (shashamanezi) to go to ~. caus. -shashamanisa (shashamani-size) to cause to ~.

~shangela (shashangezi) v.i. to walk slowly without strength or in grief syn. -onjaela, -ndombysela. rel. -shouhangelela (shashangelezi) to walk slowly towards. caus. -sha-shangelisa (shashangelisize) to cause someone to drag himself along; rel. -shashangeliseza (sha-shangeliselize) to accompany somewhere a person too weak to walk alone. ref. -isishangdisa (isilashangelisize) to drag oneself along.

-shasheka (shashekiie) v.t. to soak, to immerse (medicinal roots). cf. -mbvenv eka, -ombeka. rel. -sha-shekela (shashekezi) to ~ for someone. ref. -ishashekela (ishashe-kezi) to ~ for oneself.

~shela (shashezi) or shashelela (shashelezi) v.t. to consult the di-vining bones. syn. -laub, -shebu-luka.

-shashulula (shashuluzi) v.t. (1) to speak openly and without fear, to explain things fearlessly. (2) to beat (make resound) (referring to the second drum of a group of three). der. mushashululi. rel. -sh-shululela (shashululezi) to make re-velations to. caus. -shashululua (shashululisize) to incite someone to speak openly.

-shashumuka (shashumukik) v.i. to get warm: Ku se ku shashumukile cwale. it is already warm now. syn. -tutumuka

-shata (shatik) v.i. to jump from branch to branch (monkeys, squir-rels, etc.)

-shatana (shatani) v.i. to move about from seat to seat (in a ga-thering) syn. -shatuka fig. to speak illogically, jumping from one idea to another. caus. -shatanisa (shata-nisize) to cause to ~.

-shatoka (shatokile) v.i. to jump from one stone or log, etc. to an-other. syn. -tana. fig. to suffer from instability, fickleness; to speak il-logically. caus. -shatokisa (shatoki-size) to cause to ~.

-shatuka (shatukile) v.i. as-shatana.

-shatuka2 (shatukik) v.i. to walk a short distance. der. kashatu.

-shatula (shatuzi) v.t. to change a thing from one place to another. fig. (1) to go back to marital life after a time of continence, due to the birth of a child: Ku maswe ku shatula mwana a sa li yo munyi-nyani, it is unwise to go back to a marital life when a child still needs the whole care of his mother (before he is weaned) (2) to take someone across a river: Ni ftile kale fa likamba. kono ne ni tokwile mutu wa ku ni shatula; I arrived a long time ago on the shore, but I found nobody to take me across the river. ref. -ishatula (ishatuui) to move from one side to another (paddlers); to change a load from one shoulder to the other.

-shuta (shautile) v.t. Eng. to be dis-respectful to someone, to revile, to dishonour. syn. -tompolola.

-sheal (sheile) v.t. to push away from the shore: ku shea mukolo fa li-kamba, to push a canoe into the deep. cf. -kasha, -sundb.

-shea2 (sheile) v.t. to pray to royal ancestors at a royal tomb. der. mushei. cf. -pailela.

-shebal (shebile) v.i. to be poor, indi-gent. syn. -botana. caus. -shebisa (shebisize) to cause poverty, misery.

-sheba2 (shebile) v.t. (1) to prune, to lop, to cut off branches. syn. -shaba. cf. -kob Á (1) to weed a manioc garden. rel. -shebela (she-bezi) to ~ for someone. cauu. -she-bisa (shebuize) to help to ~.

-sheba3 (shebile) v.t. to cut pieces of bark from a tree in order to make medicines. (see maembe or mayembe). rel. -shebela (shebezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shebisa (she-bisize) to help to ~.

-shebuka (shebukile) v.i. to have a small bottom (anat.)

-shebuluka (shebulukile) v.t. Luyaha. to cast divining bones. der. mushebuluki. syn. -laula, cf. -shasheb. rel. -shebulukela. (shebu-lukezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shebulukisa (shebulukisize) to cause to ~ ! Se si tilo ni shebulukisa cwana ki mwanaka ya kula, it is my child's sickness that made me come and ask for a divining con-sultation. ref. -;shebuluka (ishebulu-  kile) to look for a diviner for one-self.

-sheka (shekile) v.i. Luyana. to laugh, syn. -seha.

-shekala (shekalile) v.i. to lie at the bottom of water: Ni bona mukolo o shekalilefa lilaho la nuka. I see a canoe Iying at the bottom of the river. fig. to shed many tears

-shekela (shekezi) v.i. to sink to the bottom (like dirt in water); to be decanted, to become pure

-shekesha (shekffhile) v.i. to be loose (tools, leg of a table, etc.) caus. -shekeshisa (shekeshisize) or-sheketisa (sheketisize) to loosen something: Mu shekeshise sitoli, ki hona si ka mi bela bunolo, loosen the cattle pole, then it will come out easily

-shela (shelile) v.i. to pass through or under an obstacle cf. -fita. flg. to escape. fig. exp.: ku shela mwa lito la ndonga: to escape trouble, difficulties, to be lucky (lit. to pass through the eye of a needle) caus. -shelisa (shelisize) to make someone pass through an obstacle.

-shelana (shelani or shelanile) v.i. to miss each other taking different paths. fig. exp. ku shelana ka manzwi, to be unable to under-stand each other when talking. syn. -bushana.

-shelauka (shelaukile) or -sheloka (shelokile) v.i. (water) to be agi-tated, to spring; to boil, cf. -we-lauka.

shele–i or shili–i (ma-) n. Eng. shil-ling.

sheli (bo-) n. French. beloved. syn. mulatiwa, dali.

-sheluka (shelukile) v.i. (water) to come up (through the ground etc.) to run over fig. to be brought up again: Litaba za hae li shelukile hape, his case is coming up again syn. -weluka. freq. -shelauka (she-laukike) (see -shelauka).

-shelukela (shelukezi) v.i. to slope gently: Ha ku na munanga hande ku shelukezi, there is no steep bank but just as gentle slope.

-shelula1 (sheluzi) v.t. to cause trouble (by words or deeds) der. mulishelula. rel. -shelulela (shelu-lezi) to get someone into trouble by thoughtless behaviour. ref. -ishelulela (ishelulezi) to get oneself inadvertently into trouble.

-shelula2 (sbeluzi) v.l. & v.t. to belch: Ku shelula inge mwanana ku maswe, it is impolite to belch like a child Mwanana u sheluzi mabisi, u anyize hahulu, the baby sucked a lot, and so spluttered out some milk.

-shelumuka (shelumukile) v.i. to slip down, to slide down, to glide down cf. -telela. rel. -shelumukela (shelumukezi) to ~ to

-sbem l (shemile) v.t. to bite off (food); to peel off bark syn. -ketula cf. -komona.

shema2 (shemine) v.i. Luyana. to give binh der. mushemi, lishemew. syn. -pepa, -leya. cf. -zwala.

-shemaeta (shemaetile or shemae-tite) v.t. to provoke, to excite. der. mushemaeti. syn. -shembata, cf. -su-sueza.

-shemba (shembile) v.t. to betray, to have bad designs against; to lead into temptation or trouble. der. mushembi, sishembiso, cf. -beteka, -oka. rel. -shembela (shembezi) to lead someone into temptation or trouble at the request of, another caus. -shembisa (shembisize) to per-suade someone to betray or to tempt rec. -shembana (shembani or shembanile) to mutually induce into temptation freq. -shembanga to be inclined to lead into tempta-tion. red. -shemba-shemba (shemba- shembile) to comfort, to console; to soothe an offended person, to flatter, to adulate. ref. -ishemba (ishembile) as rec. syn. -shika-shika.

-shembata (shembatile) v.t. to pro-voke, to excite someone to fight syn. -shemaeta.

-shemuba (shemubile) v.t. Luyana. to have compassion, to have mercy on, to have pity on; to do a favour to. der. mushemubi, si-shemw, rel. -shemubela (shemubezi) to have compassion for some reason: U mu shemubezi–i kanti ki mutu ya maswe? why did you show him compassion when he is a bad man?

-shemuna (shemuzi) v.t. to forge anew and sharpen a worn tool (axeb hoe, etc.) der. mushemuni. rel. -shemunela (shemunezi) or-shemu-nena (shemunezi) to ~ for some-one caus. -shemunisa(shemunisize) to help to ~.  int. -shemunekb (she-munelelezi) to ~ all the tools needing to be repaired. ref. -ishe-munela (ishemunezi) or -ishemu-nena (ishemunezi) to ~ for oneslef.

-shemutula (shemahzi) v.t. Luyana. (humans or animals) to give birth to many offspring. rel. -shemutulela (shemutulezi) to give birth to many children in a certain place: Bana ba hae u il'o ba shemutulela mwa njanji; she had all her numerous children when she was on the line of rail

-shenda1 (shendile) v.t. not to think much of, to upbraid, to despise, to disapprove (of), to blame; to mock der. mushendi, Ihhendo. rel. -shendela (shendezi) to ~ for some reason: Ba mu shendezi i–i? why have they disapproved of him? caus. -shendisa (shendisize) to cause to ~. stat. -shendeha (shen- dehile) to be blameworthy int. -stat. -shendahala (shendahqlile) to be disapprove of each other. freq. -shendanga or -shendaula (shen-dauzi) to be inclined to ~. ref. -ishenda (ishendile) as rec.

-shenda2 (shendile) v.t. to dismiss, to discharge, to sack. der. mushendi, lishendo, cf. -tulula, -zwisa. rel.-shendela (shendezi) to ~ for a reason: Ba mu shendezi buzwa bwa hae, they discharged him because of his laziness caus. -shetidha (shendisize) to cause to ~.

-shendama (shendami or shendamil ) v.i. to lean; to lie on the side, to lean on the elbow; to fall asleep der. imushendami. cf. -engula. fig. to slander (lit.) to continually have someone's name on one's lips. syn. -engama. caus. -shendamisa (shen-damisize) or-shendeka (shendekile) to lay someone down: A ku yo shen-deka munyan-a hao bona s-a ozela look, your little b;other is falling asleep, go and lay him down. red. -shenda-shenda (shenda-shendile) to want to lie down.

-shendeka (shendekile) v.t. to start to cut a new forest garden. der. mushendiki. syn. -heba. rel. -shende-kela (shendekezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -shendekha (shendeki-size) to help to ~ ref. -ishendekela (ishendekezi) to ~ by oneself: Unomwaha ni ka ishendekela kate-manyana, I am going to start a small forest garden for myself this year

-shendekela (shendekezi) v.t. to speak ironically to someone. der. mashendekela.

-shenduka (shendukile) v.i. to leave the shore: MuSwke hahulu mukolo o. u sike wa shenduka: pull strongly the canoe right up unto the shore to prevent it from being taken by

   the current. rel. -shendukela (shen-dukezi) to ~ in a certain direction. Mukolo u shendukezi mwa ngala, the canoe was taken to the deep. caus. -shendukisa (shendukisize) to cause to ~.

-shendula1 (shenduzi) v.t. to push away from the shore; rel. -shendu-lela (shendulezi) to push canoe somewhere from the shore. caus. -shendulisa (shendulisize) to help people to leave the shore.

-shendula2 (shenduzi) v.t. to begin to beat the Litunga's Muenduko drum.

-shenga1 (shengile) v.i. & v.t. to be sharp, to be pointed; to sharpen, to point. der. mushengi' sishengiso, mushengelo. cf. -loza. rel. -shengela (shengezi) to sharpen for some-onel caus. -shengisa (shengisize) to help to sharpen: A mu to ni sheng-isa kwa litupa, please come and help me to point some sticks. fig. to frighten: Mu zamaye hande mu ka shengisa mazwii ani; walk care-fully, otherwise you will frighten those lechwe over there. int. -shengelela (shengelezi) fig. to di-sappear being a prey to fear.

-shenga2 (shengile) v.i. to be aware of danger, to foresee trouble. Lifolo-folo se li shengile ha li sa bonwa mazazi a; the animals fled away, for we do not see them any more nowadays. syn. -shungula. fig. caus. -shengisa (shengisize) to reveal, to make aware of a danger: Mu mu shembe hande mu ka mu shengisa; deal gently with him otherwise he will notice your intention about him. int. -shengelela (shengelezi) to fear and go for good.

-shenga3 (shengile) v.t. to husk (maize, millet, etc.) by pounding. der. mushengi, sishenga. cf. -cokola. rel. -shengela (shengezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shengisa (shengi-  size) to help to ~. int. -shengelela (shengelezi) to ~ completely. rec. -shengisana (shengisani or shengisa-nile) to help each other by husking grain in turn. ref. -lshengela (ishengezi) to husk grain for one-self.

-shengula (shenguzi) v.t. (1) to mock, to scoff, to jeer, to deride. (2) to have sexual intercourse. der. mushenguli, mushengu. syn. -soma. rel. -shengulela (shengulezi) to offend someone by committing adultery with his wife, to have sexual intercourse somewhere caus. -shengulisa (shengulisize) to arrange for someone to commit adultery with another's wife. rec. -shengulana (shengulani or shengula-nile) to scoff each other; to have sexual intercourse. ref. -lshengula (ishenguzi) as rec.

-shengunu ka ( shengunukile ) v. i. to melt, to melt away, to liquefy. syn. -hakuluha. rel. -shengunukela (shengunukezi) to - somewhere: Mafula a shengunukezi fafasi, grease melted into the soil. caus. -shengunukisa (shengunukisize) or shengunusa (shengunusize) to cause to ~.

-shengwaeta (shengwaetile or sheng-waetite) v.i. & v.t. to find or give excuses in order to avoid work; caus. -shengwaetisa (shengwaeti-size) to incite someone to ~. syn. -zwafisa.

-shenja (shenjile) v.t. to pursue a wild animal while hunting, to chase; to send away: Cwale u ka kena mwa butata kakuli ba mu shen-jilefa musebezi, he will now find it difficult to live, for they have dis-missed him from his work. der. mu-shenji, lishenja. syn. -putuma, -tong-ama, -manama, -landameka. caus.-

 

shenjisa (shenjisize) to help to chase

-shenuna (shenuzi) v.i. to grimace; to snarl, to show the teeth (as a dog) fig. (1) to be reluctant: Ku ba fa musebezi, bona ba shenonafela, although we offer them work they just grimace. (2) to wait long: Lu li ka yo shenuna, kifo lu il'o zwa lu sa fumani.se siinwi; we came back with an emptv bag, although we have been waiting for very long. rel. -shenunela (shenunezi) to show the teeth at caus. -shenunisa (shenuni-size) to make a dog snarl.

-shenya1 (shenyize) v.i. Luyana. to move on when squatting, to crawl when sitting. der. sishenyangi, si-shenyi, mushenyango. cf. -hoboba. rel. -shenyela (shenyezi) or -she-nyeza (shenyelize) to move some-where when squatting: Shenyeza kwahule, u ta ca mulilo; move from the fire otherwise you will be burnt. caus. -shenyisa (shenyisize) to help someone sitting to move about: to push heavy things Iying on the ground: Mu shenyise mung-omo wo wa petulu, move away this drum of petrol. int. -shenyelela (shenyelezi) fig. exp. ku shenyelela lico, to sit down for a long time ex-pecting to be given food red. -shenya-shenya (shenya-shenyize) to move with difficulty: S'a skenya-shenya fela, ha sa kona ku zamaya, he cannot walk anymore, he can just move about. ref. -lshenyisa (ishenyisize) to move by one's own means.

-shenya2 (shenyize) v.t. to curse, to wish evil upon, to utter impreca-tions. syn. -kuta, -ndandala. caus. -shenyisa (shenyisize) to subject someone to a curse, to cause mis-fortune to someone. ref. -lshenyisa (ishenyisize) to make oneself liable  to be cursed.

-sheshela (shehezi) v.i. to walk with short and swift steps. syn. -shina-shina, -tota. caus. -sheshelisa (she-shelisize) to cause to ~.

-sheshemba (sheshembile) v.t. to challenge persistently. fig. to start in a small way growing larger and larger (wild fire).

-sheshuluka (sheshulukile) v.i. to be recurrent, to come back periodi-cally (as in abscess). syn. -fufuluka.

-sheta1 (shetile) v.i. to sink, to settle, to subside (mealie meal in a bag, etc.)

-sheta2 (shetile) v.t. to lift up a child in his tali to make him comfort-able.

-sheta3 (shetile) v.t. & v.t. to be harassed, oppressed, tormented by want need or poverty. syn. -nyanda; to trouble, to harass, to worry. syn, -shupa~ -kataza. caus. -shetisa (shetisize) to cause some-one's torment. ref. -lshetisa (isheti-size) to cause one's own torment.

-shetula (shetuzi) v.t. to divine (using the divining basket). cf. laula. -shebuluka.

-shetumuka (shetumukile) v.t. to go down hill, to descend. der. njetu-muko, cf. -ngenyuka. rel. -shetumu-kela (shetumukisa (shetumukisize) or -shetumuna (shetumuzi) to help someone down hill; to take some-thing down hill; to accompany: Ki busihu mu shetumune mwana habo mina, u ka saba; it is late, take your friend back home otherwise he will be frightened. int. -shetumuke-lela (shetumukelelezi) to go down for good.

-sheula (sheuzi) v.t. to weed. der. musheuli, musheulisi, musheu. cf.-tahula. fig. to hurt severely with a hoe. rel. -sheulela (sheulezi) to weed for someone. caus. -sheulisa  (sheulisize) to order or to help to weed. int. -sheulelela (sheulelezi) to make a whole area clean by weed-ing.

-sheununa (sheunuzi) v.t. to laugh at someone's words or manners even when there is no reason for it. cf. -seha. caus. -sheununisa (sheununi-size) to cause to ~.

shewa! shewa! interj. expressing the gait of a corpulent person.

-shewanga (shewangile) v.i. to walk clumsily (like a corpulent person).

shi! interj. expressing surprise, sad-ness, etc. Shi! na kwa bumai, ni li ka ya kafa ha nifumani musebezi! gosh ! l really do have bad luck, for I do not find work wherever I go.

-shiama (shiami or shiamile) v.i. to live a blameless life: Mwanaka pilu ya hae i shiami hande; my child really has a blameless life. caus.-shiamisa (shiamisize) (1) to control one's temper; to help someone to control himself. (2) to have a new Paramount Chief seated on the lioma (on the occassion of his enthronement).

-shieka (shiekile) v.t. to control one's temper, to master one's way of speaking: U no shieka linzwi fafasi ha u bulela, do lower your voice when you speak.

-shika-shika (shika-shikile) v.t. to comfort, to console to soothe an offended person. syn. -shemba-shemba.

-shikala (shikalile) or-shikama (shi-kami or shikamile) v.t. to carry a heavy load on the shouider.

-shikula (shikuzi) v.t. to greet a person by using the name of his clan: Mu lumele lnalitongo, mu zwa kai? good morning lnalitongo where are you coming from? der. mushiku.

-shilela (shilezi) v.i. to remain raw  though long on the fire (as vegeta-ble marrows); to stop growing due to excessive heat (plants); to grow slowly (underfed child). fig. to be completely insensible (due to a hard life der. sishekeleti. syn. -cinela.

-shimba (shimbile v.t. Luyana. to carry. mushimbi, mushimbo, sishim-belo, mushi- mbelo , nokushimba , ma-shimbanu. syn. -lwala. rel. -shimbela (shimbezi) to carry to; to carry for someone. caus. -shimbisa (shimbi-size) to order or to help to carry int. -shimbelela (shimbelezi) to carry the whole lot int. -shimbu-lula (shimbuluzi) to displace, to shift. ref. (1) -ishimba (ishimbile to be pregnant; (2) -ishimbela (ishim-bezi) to carrv for oneself

-shimbela (shimbezi) v.t. to make dykes to catch fish. der. mushim-bela mushimbeli. rel. -shimbelela (shimbelezi) to ~ as a favour to someone. caus. -shimbelisa (shimbe-lisize) to help to ~. ref. -ishimbe-lela (ishimbelezi) to ~ for oneself.

-shimbuluka (shimbulukile) v.i. to be displaced, to shift, to move. der. mushimbuluko. fig. to show an im-provement: Butuku bwa hae ha bu shimbuluki, his iliness is showing no Improvement. cf. -tuta. rel. -shimbulukela (shimbulukezi) to move somewhere: Lifolofolo se li shimbulukezi ko ku na ni mezi, the animals have already moved to where there is water. caus. -shim-bulukisa (shimbulukisize) to cause to ~. int. -shimbulukelela (shimbu-lukelelezi) to be moved for good

-shimbulula (shimbuluzi) v.t. to move, to displace, to shift, to transfer from one place to an-other; to promote; to remove something from one container to another. der. mushimbululi, sishim-  bululelo. rel. -shimbululela (shimbu-lulezi) to ~ somewhere or for someone caus. -shimbululisa(shim-bululisize) to cause~ to help, to ordcr to ~. int. -shimbululelela (shimbululelezi) to ~ everything completely. ref. -lshimbulula (ishim-buluzi ) fig. to leave, to depart to go aWay .Va na ishimbulula. ha ni lati matuma ' I am leaving for I do not likc wounds.

-shimeha (shimehile) v.t. see -simeha.

-shimiketa (soimiketile or shimike-tite) v.t. to explain sad events at length and in an excited manner. der. mushimiketi. rel. -shimiketela (shimiketezi) to ~ to someone. caus. -shimiketisa (shimiketisize) to cause to ~.

-shimuka (shimukile) v.i. to com-plain about insoluble difficulties, to express regret about things which cannot be changed. rel. -shi-mukela (shimukezi) to whisper to, to tell a secret to. syn. -seba. freq. -shimauka (shimaukile) or-shimoka (shimokile) to ~ all the time caus. -shimaukisa (shimaukisize) to cause to ~ all the time. - -.. -..

-shina-shina (shina-shinile) v.i. to walk with short and swift steps (as persons carrying a heavy load). syn. -tota, -sheshela. caus. -shina-shinisa (shina-shinize) to cause to

-shinda1 (shindile) v.t. to beat, to strike syn. -nata, etc

-shinda2 (shindile) v.i. to dance der. sishinda. syn. -bina.

-shineka (shinekile) v.t. to put on someone's shouiders a load too heavy for him. ref. -ishineka (ishi-nekile) to lift up and put a heavy load on one's shouiders.

-shina (shinile) v.t. to bring misfor-tune or cause an accident by a  spell cast over someone from a distance. der. mushino, syn. -bima, cf. -posa.

-shishimana (shishimani) v.i. to stop in surprise or fear.

-shita (shitile) or-shiteka (shitekile) v.t. (1) to hide very carefully: Mutu ha bonwi, ha lu zibi kapa ba mu shi-tekile mwa litindi, we don't sce the man any more, and we suspect that they hid him under a litindi. (2) to throttle rel. -shitela (shitezi) or -shitekela (shitekezi) to hide for someone. caus. -shitekisa (shiteki-size) to help to hide rec. -shitana (shitani or shitanile) to fight (two people) ref. -lshita (ishitile) as rec. -ishiteka (ishitekile) fig. to disap-pear for a time U n'o ishitekile kai mazazi a? U no sa bonwi where do you hide yourself these days? you were not seen around

-shitama (shitami or shitamile) v.i. to be covered by something: Tipa ya ka mwendi i shitami mwa musha-bati, mazazi a ha i bonwi; I don't see my knife these days, perhaps it got lost in the sand. fig. to beg per-sistently. rel. -shitamela (shitamezi) fig. to wait a long time for help

-shitanguta (shitangutite or shitang-utile) v.i. to quote proverbs, old sayings, praises. der. lishitanguti. svn. -loka. cf. -tanguta. rel. -shi-tangutela (shitangutezi) to recite proverbs, old sayings or praises to someone.

-shiteka (shitekile) v.t. sce shita.

-shituka (shitukile) v.i. to rise very early. syn. -pakela, -meneka. cf. -pumbuka. fig. to come out of the ground: Tipa ve ne shitami ishitukile mwa mubu, the knife which was lost in the ground turned up again rel. -shitukela (shitukezi) to rise early with the intention of going somewhere caus. -shitukisa (shitu-  kisize) to awaken early. freq. -shi-tukanga to be inclined to rise early in the morning. ref. -ishitukisa (ishitukisize) to get up early: Mwa-naka, kini ha u ishitukisize cwana wa bona ku bata hahulu kacenu; why did you get up so early my child you see it is very cold today?

shitula1 (shituzi) v.t. to attire a dancer with a dancing dress (see siye).

shitula2 (shituzi) v.t. to take out of the ground to dig up, to unearth. der, mushituli, syn. -pumbula. fig. (1) to discover secrets; (2) to run fast. rel. -shitulela (shitulezi) fig. to run quickly somewhere. caus. -shi-tulisa (shitulisize) fig. to frighten to cause a sudden fright: Kanti u na ni boi, ni mu shitulisize ka ku mu bembafela; he is just a coward, for I made him run away by frighten-ing him.

shiuka (shiukile) v.i. to be pouring (as very heavy rain). der. lishiushiu. rel. -shiukela (shiukezi) to fall upon suddenly and with strength (lightn-ing, illness, etc.) fig. to seize very strongly. int. -shiukelela (shiuke-lezi) to do considerable damage (lightning).

-shobana (shobani or shobanile) v.i. to mix; to mingle (people). caus. -shobanisa (shobanisize) to cause to mix.

shobola1 (shobozi) v.t. to insult: to curse syn. -lwaha, -tapula. freq. -shobaula (shobauzi) to insult badls and repeatedly.

-shobola2 (sholozi) v.t. to crush. to pound leaves.

-shobota (shobotile) v.t. to whisper. der. mushoboti, mishoboto. rel. -shobotela (shobotezi) to whisper to someone. calis. shobotisua (shoboti-size) to cause someone to whisper. red. -shobota-shobota (shobota-sho-  botile) to whisper every now and then. rec. -shobotelana (shobote-lani) to whisper secrets to each other. ref. -ishobotela (ishobotezi) as rec.

-shoela (shoezi) or -showela (sho-wezi) v.i. to sing in a chorus (dance) see -tabeleza. der. musho-weli. caus. -shoelisa (shoelisize) to make people join in a chorus

-shoelela (shoelezi) or -showelela (showelezi) v.i. & v.t. to give the royal salutation; to give the royal salutation as a token of gratitude for a favour granted by the Li-tunga. der. mushoweleli. mushowe-lelisi, sishoweleliso, mushowelelelo. caus. -showelelisa (showelelisize) to accompany someone giving the royal salutation.

-shoka (shokile) v.i. to observe, to scout, to spy. der, mushoki. cf. -twela, -nangela. rel. -shokela (sho-kezi) to ~ on behalf of someone. caus. -shokisa (shokisize) to join in scouting, spying.

-shokamena (shokamezi) v.t. to lie in wait, to lurk, to ambush. der. mushokameni. cf. -lalela.

-shokoka (shokokile) v.i. to come off (as an axe or a hoe from its handie). syn. -kuleha. rel. -shoke-kela (shokokezi) (1) to endanger someone by coming off (axe, etc ) Banana a mu sabe kwa capu. i ka n1i shokokela, children get away from the wood-cutter for the axe might come off and harm you. (2) to become wedged: A mu to ni kume/-lela silepe se, si shokokezi mwa kota; come and help me to pull out this axe which has got wedged in the wood. caus. -shokokisa (shokoki-size) to cause to ~

-shokola (shokozi) v.t. to take out, to pull out, to extract (a tooth) der. mushokoli. syn. -kumula. rel. -  shokolela (shokolezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shokolisa (shokoli-size) to help to ~. int. -shokolelela (shokolelezi) to take out comple-tely freq. -shokaula (shokauzi) to take out one after anothern

-shokomisa (shokomisize) v.t. to eat huhobe with roasted meat or fish. syn. -tafunisa, -shomekisa, -lume-leza.

-shokomoka (shokomokile) v.i. to come out, to appear unexpectedly. der. lishokomoki. rel. -shokomokela (shokomokezi) to appear unexpec-tedly before someone: Sipulumuki sa lu shokomokela, a mad person suddenly appeared before us.

-shokomona (shokomozi) v.t. to bring out, to produce: Shokomona sikwama sa hao, ni bone kapa ha ku na mali; produce your purse so that I may see if there is really no money in it; to find a lost thing, to discover: U shokomozi kai tipaye.ye ne latehile? where did you find that knife which was lost?

-shokona (shokonine) v.t. to rub in the hands (grain, fruit) etc. cf. -polola.

-shokonena (shokonezi) v.i. to be happy on sceing the near fulfil-ment of a desire.

-shokota (shokotile) v.i. to make noise in treading on dry leaves or branches. syn. -sholokota.

-shokotola (shokotozi) v.t. as -sho-kola.

-sholoka (sholokile) v.i. to make a great noise (as a group of excited people! dogs, etc.); to make an uproar, a hurlyburly; to shout for joy. der. musholoko. rel. -sholokela (sholokezi) to make a great noise  in order to prevent someone from  speaking (reactionary meeting). caus. -sholokisa (sholokisize) to cause to ~. int. -sholokelela (sholo kelezi) (everybody) to shout.

-sholokota (sholokotile) v.i. to make noise in treading on dry leaves and branches (esp. walking in the forest). syn. -shokota.

-shombela (shombezi) v.t. to drink heavily. der. mushombeli. fig. to swallow; to wrestle. rec. -shombe-lana (shombelani) to wrestle, to fight (two people).

shombo (li-) n. manioc leaves cooked as a vegetable and used for busunso.

-shomboka (shombokile) v.i. to become startled, frightened, dis-mayed; to panic. cf. -saba. caus. -shombokisa (shombokisize) to cause to ~. int. -shombokelela (shombokelezi) to be greatly dis-mayed.

-shombota (shombotile or shombo-tite) v.t. to catch, to steal (birds of prcy): to pounce, to swoop. rel. -shombotela (shombotezi) to ~ for someone.

-shoma1 (soomile) v.i. Luyana. to beat drums for the lishoma dance.

-shoma2 (shomile) v.t. to hollow out a piece of wood (as when making a drum, a stamping block, a wooden vessel, etc.)

-shoma3 (shomile) v.t. Luyana. to start examining a case: Tabaya hae ki kale ba ishoma; they have al-ready started to examine his case.

-shomekisa (shomekisize) v.t. to eat buXobe with roasted meat or fish. syn. -shokomisa, -tafunisa, -lume-leza.

-shonda (shondile) v.t. to spear a fish after lying in wait and creeping up on it. der. mushondi, sishondiso.

-shondalela (shondalezi) v.t. to ad-vance, to walk stealthily (towards animals etc.) in order to take or to attack by surprise, to stalk syn. -nanalela.

 

-shondangela (shondangezi) v.i. to walk slowly without strength or dispiritedly syn,-ndombyaela.

-shonga (shongile) v.t. to bribe, to divert by advice, to lead astray to dissuade Ku maswe ka shonga musal'a mutu. it is a reproachable habit to lead someone's wife astray der. mushongi, sishongi. caus. -shongisa (shongisize) to cause someone to ~. rec. -shong-ana (shongani or shonganile) to come to a mutual agreement ref. -ishonga (ishongile) as rec.

-shongoloka (shongolokile) v.i. to come to light (speaking of secrets or hidden things)

shongolola (shongolozi) v.t. to harp back to old matters; to relate to people things unknown to them. der. mushongololi. syn. -shongotola. fig. to inquire: Ni ya kwa Mongu ku yo shongolola kapa limota li funduka lili, I am going to Mongu to in-quire about the date when the buses are leaving.

-shongotola ( shongotozi ) v.t . as shongolola.

shonjanga (shonjangile) or -shon-jangela (shonjangezi) v.i. to walk with difficulty due to weakness or sickness syn. -ndombyaela, -ngu-nyaela, rel. -shonjangelela (shon-jangelezi) to walk slowly towards caus. -shonjangelisa (shonjangeli-size) also -shonjangeliseza (shon-jangeliselize) to accompany some-one walking with difficulty. ref. -ishonjangeliseza (ishonjangeliselize) to drag oneself along somewhere.

-shonoka (shonokile) v.i. to be straight Ngo ya Rae i shonokile hande ahulu. his nose is gracefully shaped fig. (1) to pass swiftly: Mwa bona lukwena lwani, lo shonokela ka vo swala komu; look at that croco-dile rushing to catch a cow over  there (2) to be very hot (sun) Lizazi li shonokile ahoy, ha lo kon ka zamaya, the sun is`extremely hot, so we cannot leave now (3) to slink or slip away

-shoshela (shoshezi) v.i. to bring forth new leaves, to bloom again syn, -tuhela.

-shoshola (shoshozi) v.t. to roast small fish on the fire. rel. -shosho-lela(shosholezi)to~ forsomeone int. -shosholelela (shosholelezi) to ~ the whole lot.

shosholoka (shosholokile) v.i. to go away stealthily. syn. -omboloka. rel. -shosholokela (shosholokezi) to disappear somewhere furtivelv caus. -shosholokisa (shosholokisizŽ) to take something away furtively -nt. -shosholokelela (shosholokelezi ) to disappear furtively for good

-shoshota (shoshotile) v.i. (1) to wander up and down, to ramble about, to wander to and fro, to travel here and there: Mute yo u shoshotile mwa manaha a manata hahulu, this man has been travel-ling about in many countries; (2) to walk in dense woodland. der. mushoshoti. caus. -shoshotisa (sho-shotisize) to lead people travelling around: Mushitu wo u maswe. u sike wa shoshotisa banana mwateni, this forest is dangerous do not take children with you when you go into it.

-shotoka (shotokile) v.i. Luvana. to fear, to avoid danger or difficul-ties der. imushotoki.

-showela (showezi) v.t. sce -shoela.

-showelela (showelezi) v.i. see -shoe-lela.

-showilikana (showilikani or showili-kanile) v.t. to make a noise (as many people all reproving some-one). syn. -yowilikana.

-shua (shuile) v.t. (women) to fish  with baskets. der. mushuwi, sishu-wiso, syn. -kwenga. rel. -shuela shuezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -shuwisa (shuwisize) to cause to ~. Ki .sika mani sesi shuamisize manna muhulu yani fafasi? what made that old man suddenly sit down? freq. -shuatama (shuatami or shuatamile) to sit down frequently because of illness or fatigue: Ni katani ni yena a nz'a zamaya a shuatama nzila kau-fela: I met him on the way sitting down every now and then, over-come by fatigue.

-shua-shua1 (shua-shuile) v.i. to wander about to roam about col-lecting or spreading news syn. -shuhana. rel. -shua-shuela (shua-shuezi ) to wander about with a precise intention: Mazazi a mute yo u .vhua-vhuela kwa libato la hae, this man is habitually visiting the woman he is soon to marry. caus. -shua-shuisa (shua-shuisize) to cause to ~

-shua-shua2 (shua-shuile) v.i. to dance moving to and fro merrily to welcome the Litunga.

-shua-shua3 (shua-shuile) v.t. to paddle so as to amuse people.

-shubana (shubani or shubanile) v.i. to wander about. syn. -shua-shua. rel. . -shubanela ( shubanezi ) to purposely caus. -shubanisa (shuba-nisize) to cause to ~.

-shubuka (shubukile) v.i. sce -cupuka.

-shubula1¼ (shubuzi) v.t. to slight, to dishonour der.lishubu.syn. -tompo-lola, -shwaula, -nyefula. caus. -shu-bulisa (shubulisize) to cause to revile freq. -shubaula (shubauzi) to despise to humble again and again rf. -ishubaula (ishubauzi) to slight each other.

-shubula2 (shubuzi) v.t. see -cupula.

shuka, n. Eng. sugar. syn. swikili.

 

-shukela (shukezi) or -shukelwa shukezwi) v.t. to long fort to desire ardently: Ni shukezi hahulu ka bona mwanaka, I very much desire to see my child: Bo ma ba shukezwi ka ni bona, my mother ar-dently desires to see me der. li-shuke. rec. -shukelana (shukelani) to long for each other.

-shukula (shukuzi) v.t. to comb; to dress the hair (of a girl coming from her initiation, or of a bride). cf. -kamuna.

-shukumuka (shukumukile) v.i. to trickle down, to run out, to leak: Mauza a shukumukile mwa saka, the millet ran out of the bag. cf. -suluha. rel. -shukumukela (shuku-mukezi) to trickle down. caus. -shukumukisa (shukumukisize) to cause to run out. int. -shukumuke-lela (shukumukelezi) to run out completely.

-shukumuna (shukumuzi) v.t. to pour out, to shed, to cause to run out cf. -sulula. rel. -shukumunela (shukumunezi) to pour out into. to shed into: to transfuse. caus. -shu-kumunisa (shukumunisize) to help to ~: A ka to ni shukumunisa bupi mwa sikhwana, come and help me pour some flour out of the cala-bash. int. -shukumunelela (shuku-munelezi) to pour out completely.

-shukutula (shukutuzi) v.t. see sha-kutula.

-shukwala (shukwalile) v.i. (hair) to be long and unkempt, to be all ruf-fled. svn. -zangalakana.

-shulula (shuluzi) v.i. to run down (tears, perspiration, etc ) cf. -suluha.

shulumuka1¼ (shulumukile) v.i. to fall down (rain) rel. -shulumukela (shu-lumukezi) to come down upon: Molna o Kenile u shulumukezi ba-Apositola ka lizazi la Pentikonta, the  Holy Spirit came down on the Apostles at Pentecost.

shulumuka2 (shulumukile) v.i. to be well built (people or houses); to stand straight (trees).

shulya-shulya (shulya-shulile) v.i. to be dogged by ill luck, to drag one-self along miserably. cf. -yembana.

-shumba (shumbile) v.t. to fish in deep water with a long handled spear. der. mushumba. cf. -waya. rel. -shumba-shumba (shumba-shumbile) to ~ for a short while.

-shumbela (shumbezi) v.t. (1) to lengthen a fishing spear handle in order to make it fit for deep water fishing. (2) to lengthen a skirt or kilt by sewing on a piece of ma-terial. der. mushumbeli. rel. -shum-belela (shumbelezi) to ~ for some-one. ref. ishumbelela (ishumbelezi) to ~ for oneself.

-shumela (shumezi) or -shumena (shumezi) v.i. to be vigorous, to be strongly built (human beings, ani-mals, etc.)

-shumusa (shumusize) v.t. to give a little rest (to people): Mu shumuse batu hanyingyani ba katezi. let the people have a little rest, for they are tired. cf. -katulusa, -pumulisa. ref. -ishumusa (ishumusize) to take a rest.

-shumwengena (shumwenezi) v.t. to give a child the name of one of his ancestors.

-shuna (shunile) v.t. to nibble: Peba i shunile kwa buhobe bwa ka, a mouse has ben nibbling my huhobe, to take off a piece of something. der. mashunena. rel. -shunela (shunezi) to ~ for some-o no: A mu ni shunele kwa kanama ka mina, cut off a small piece of your meat for me.

-shunga-shunga (shunga-shungile ) v.i. to be agitated, as when being  on the point of starting a journey.

-shungama (shungami) v.i. & v.t. (1) to be straight: Nzila i shungami, the road is straight; (2) to fall upon in order to attack: Ngwe ki kale i mu shungama, the leopard has already sprung on hlm.

-shungeka (shungekile) v.t. to build correctly according to a carefully thought out plan: Ndu ye, ba i shungekile hande; they built this house carefully, it looks just right. ref. -lshungekela (ishungekezi) to ~ for oneself without the help of others.

-shungekela (shungekezi) v.t. to pre-pare for someone a medicine which is supposed to help preg-nancy.

shungu! interj. expressing doubt. Ki kale ni shungula, sponge! I doubt it: I don't believe it any more.

-shungula (shunguzi) v.i. to foresce trouble and shun it. der. mashungu. syn. -cenjela, -shenga. caus. -shung-ulisa (shungulisize) to raise suspi-cion, to make aware of a danger. int. -shungulelela (shungulisa (ishungulisize) to make a fool of oneself by revealing one's inten-tions: Ki wena ya ishungulisize lifolo Solo zani the animals scattered be-cause they knew what you were up to

-shungumana (shungumani or shang-umanine) v.i. to squat, to sit down keeping the knees up. der. mu-shungumanelo.

-shungwata (shungwatile) v.i. as -shungumana.

-shununa1 (shunuzi) v.t. to draw back fore-skin of the penis (anat.) syn. -byokola.

-shununa2 (shunuzi) v.i. to find use-less reasons for disapproval; to refuse to listen to warnings. der. mashunuti.

 

-shuna (shunile) v.t. to turn up, to tuck up one's skirt (as when pass-ing through water). der. ishunwa. fig. to get ready for fighting; to give strong support to someone m a difficult situation. inv. -shu–ulula (shunuluzi) to let down a skirt or trousers which had been tucked up.

-shunuta (shunutile) v.i. see -cunuta.

-shupa (shupile) v.t. to annoy, to worry, to embarrass, to weary, to bore, to bother. der. mushupi. syn.-filikanya, -undunganya, -kataza. rec. -shupana (shupani or shupanile) to bother each other. ref. -ishupisa (ishupisize) to cause one's own torment: U sake wa ishupisa nto ye bunolo, do not allow yourself to be bothered by trifling matters.

-shupeka (shupekile) v.i. to be in dif-ficulty to suffer, to be miserable, to be in hardship. der. mushupeki. syn. -nyanda. fig. to climb or ascend with difficulty (usually refers to train) rel. -shupekela (shu-pekezi) to ~ somewhere: Muti ki yo munde ka shupekela mwa naha ya habo, it is better for someone to go through hardship in his own coun-try. int. -shupekelela (shupekelezi) to be in great difficulty, in great hardship.

-shupuka (shupukile) v.i. see -cupuka.

-shupula (shupuzi) v.t. see -cupula.

-shushuluka (shushulukile) v.i. see -sheshuluka.

-shushumana (shushumani or shushu-manine) v.i. to sit (overcome by sadness or difficulty); to sit shivering. cf. -ungumana. caus. -shu-shumanisa (shushumanisize) to cause to ~.

-shushuta (shushutile) v.i. to be dis-satisfied, displeased; to grumble, to grouse. cf. -nonoleha, -tongoka, -  bilaela. caus. -shushutisa (soushuti-size) to cause dissatisfaction.

-shushwala (shushwalile) v.i. as-shu-shumana.

-shuta1 (shutile) v.t. to miss the target, the goal, the aim, etc., caus. -shutisa (shutisize) to cause to ~. -shuta2 ( shutile) v.t. to fish (angling). der. mushuti, kashuto, sishutiso. cf. -yabula rel. -shutela (shutezi) to ~ for someone. red. -shuta-shuta (shuta-shutile) to ~ for a little while. ref. -lshutela (ishutezi) to ~ for oneself.

-shutuka (shutukile) v.i. to be plea-sant, satisfying: Bucwala bo, be shutukile hande; this beer tastes good and strong: Kacenu Mwiya u shutukile hande mwa suti ya hae ye nca, Mwiya looks very handsome today in his new suit.

-shutula (shutuzi) v.t. to drink to sip, to taste soft drinks. (jokingly) to enjoy drinking beer: Kacenu flu ta be shutula, today we shall enjoy a beer party. der. mushutu. caus. -shutulisa (shutulisize) to offer a drink.

-shuwa (shuwile) v.t. see -shua.

-shuwama (shuwami or shuwamile) v i. sce -shuama. shuwamei! interj. Luyana expressing a lack: there is none ! there is nothing ! ko ne ba ni Smile, ka yo Ghana ki shuwamei, there was nothing of what they sent me for!

-shuwila (shuwilile) v.i. to hurry, walking and running alternately. rel. -shuwilela (shuwilezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -shuwilisa (shu-wilisize) to cause to ~.

-shwa (shwile) v.i. to die; to get broken, smashed, destroyed, etc. der. mushwelo, lushwiso. spec. exp. ka shwa tala, to be hungry; ka shwa linyolwa, to be thirsty, ka shwa makeke, to have pity upon; ka shwa  pilu, to be insensible to good advice; ka shwa luwewe. to be frightened to death; ka shwa monde, to die a violent death, to commit suicide, ka shwa ndialu,to die from homesickness, from nos-talgia; ka shwa mutandalelwa, to die in loneliness having no one to care for one; ka shwa liokamitwele or ka shwa muyemuye, to die, nobody knowing where, when and how one has died, ka shwa muna. to be jealous. syn. -tunumana, -timela, -tokwahala, -sinyeha, falala, -lateha, -tutubala,-fa, etc. fig. exp. ka shwa mezi a mwa lush-wana, to die a stupid death due to neglect of warnings or advices. rel. -shwela (shwezi) to die for; pass. --shwelwa (shwezwi) to sustain a loss, to deplore someone's death: Ni sh-wezwi ki mwanaka, I lost my child. int. -shwelela (shwelezi) to expire, to give up the ghost. fig. to love much: lea ni mu talima cwana inge ni ka shwelela, when I see her, I fecl like dying of love. ref. -lshwela (ishwezi) to die alone: Komu i ish-wezi Eli yona, the cow died with no one being aware of the fact or the cow died on its own (i.e. not killed).

shwalu! interj. expressing the fact of being in great perspiration. (from -shwaluka).

-shwaluka (shwalukile) v.i. to sweat, to perspire abundantly. der. shwalu! cf. -fufulelwa.

-shwana (shwanile) v.t. & v.i.to in-herit, to be heir, to succeed to. (2) to inherit and take the name, title, possessions, etc. of a predecessor. der. shwana. cf. -yola.

shwana2 (b)-) n. heir, successor. (from -shwana).

-shwatama (shwatami v.i. see -shua-tama.

 

-shwateka (shwatekile v.t. to hide. syn. -pata. cf. -shweka. rel. -shwate-kela (shwatekezi) to withhold, to hide for someone: Mu mu shwate-kele hande buhobe bwa hae, do hide his buhobe and keep it for him. int. -shwatekelela (shwatekelizi) to hide the lot. ref. -ishwateka (ishwate-kile) to hide oneself.

-shwauka (shwaukile) v.i. to be des-pised, to be looked down on, to be disdained, to be laughed at. cf. -tompoloka. rel. -shwaukela (shwau-kezi) to ~ for a reason: Mute yo-muhulu u maswe ka shwaukelangafa ka ca, a respectable man should not draw general contempt down upon himself by drinking or eating too much. int. -shwaukelela (sh-waukelezi) to be completely held in contempt. stat. -shwaukeha (sh-waukehile) to be despicable, con-temptible.

-shwaula (shwauzi v.t. to despise, to contempt, to look down on, to dis-dain, to mock, to belittle, to humi-liate. der. mushwauli, lishwau, kashwau. syn. -tompolola, -nyefula. rel. -shwaulela (shwaulezi) to ~ for a reason: Ba mu shwaulezi ka itok-wisa Skate kwa hae, they mocked him for his lack of self-respect. caus. -shwaulisa (shwaulisize) to cause to ~ rec. -shwaulana (shwau-lani or shwaulanile) to show mutual disdain. freq. -shwaulanga to fre-quently ~.  ref. -ishwaula (ish-wauzi) to show lack of self-respect.

-shweka (shwekile) v.t. to hide. syn. -pata, -shwateka.

si', pref. sing. of nouns belonging to class si-li and si-bi.

si2, pron. subj. & obj. of class si-li and si-bi, it: Silabo si lobehile, mi ya si lobile ki Kacika, the paddle is broken and it is Kacika who broke it.

 

-sia (site) v.t. see -siya.

siabelo (liabelo) n. offering, gift; portion, share. (from -aba).

-sila (siezi) v.i. to lag behind, to falh to remain, to remain behind: Mu siale foo, goodbye (lit. remain there) rel. -sialela (sialezi) to lag behind, to remain behind (in order to look after the interests of the village). caus. -sialisa (sialisize) to make someone ~. int. -sialelela (sialelezi) to stay behind for good. rec. -siana (siani or sianile) (1) to compete, to contest, to race: Na ha ni koni ka siana ni baba Lila hande, I can not compete with people who are in good health. (2) to leave behind (speaking of two people who had agreed to travel to-gether). ref. -isiaza (isialize) or-isi-alisa (isialisize) to purposely remain behind: U isialisize ka bomb ha kuliyani; that man is not ill, he just remained behind on purpose.

sialeto (lialeto) n. see siyaleto.

sialo (lialo) n. see siyalo.

-siama (siami or siamile) v.i. see -sivama.

-siamena (siamezi) v.t. see -siya-mena.

-siana (siani or sianile) v.i. see -siyana.

sianda (lianda) n. see saanda.

siandi (lianda) n. see saandi.

sianga (lianga) n. infirm person cripple; feeble minded person. fig. sianga or siyanga-imashamba, cro-codile.

sianganu (lianganu) n. idiot, insane person. cf. sitoto, sikuba (from: -angabala).

siango (liango) n. see sango.

siano (lisiano) n. see siyano. siapalo (liapalo) n. dress, garment, clothes (from -apala).

siapeiso (liapeiso) n. fire-wood, (any  fuel used for cooking) (from -apea).

siapeso (liapeso) n. a cover. syn. sik-wahelo, muko. (from -apesa).

siata (data) n. palm of the hand. syn. singandi.

sibabulani (li-) n. (generic name) caterpillar (itching caterpillar).

sibabule (li-) n. as sibabulani.

sibaka (li or ma-) n. (1) place: Sibaka sani ha si na mezi, there is no water in that place; (2) dis-tance: Ha ka na sibaka sesi telele mwahali a minzi ya luna: there is not a great distance between our villages. (3) time: l‚a ni sika ina .vibaka sesi telele kwani. I did not spend a long time there; (4) oppor-tunity: Ni kupa sibaka sa ka bulela, I am asking for the opportunity to speak; (5) persmission: Ku kupa sibaka, to ask for permission.

sibali (li- or ma-) n. mark, spot on the body scar.

sibamo (li ) n. rim, end (of a fishing net, meat, etc.)

sibandiso (li-) n. any kind of axe or hatchet used in starting to make a dug out, a sculpture, etc. (from -banda).

sibanga1 (li-) n. African War axe.

sibanga2 (li-) n. reed fishing-trap.

sibangoki (hi-) n. a disobedient, vi-cious person.

sibangwabangwa (bo) n. a playful, cheerful, lively person.

sibapaliso (li-) n. toy, doll, any object to play with. syn. sibebiso' fig. adult not respected by chil-dren.

sibasiso (li-) n. dye. (from -basa).

sibatana (li-) n. any wild beast or fe-rocious animal.

sibataulo (li-) n. Luyana. marked-out piece of work alloted to work-ers. (from -batula).

sibatiso (li-) n. pitcher, water bag,  etc. used to cool water. (from -bata).

sibebisol (li ) n. an instrument used to give a smooth finish to some wood-work. (from -beba)

sibebiso2 (li-) n. Luyana. toy, doll, any object to play with. syn. siba-paliso. (from -beba).

sibebo, n. Luyana. smell: Nja,lta luna i se i lupelela, i utwile sibebo safolo-folo, our dog is starting to sniff a lot, he has probably smelt an animal.

sibeiso, n. luck bringing an abun-dant harvest (vegetable marrows, etc.) (from -beak

sibekiso (li-) n. knife used to cut meat into strips. (from -beka).

sibele-bele (li-) n. crazy and quarrel-some person, who does not fear anything. syn. sitakutaku.

.sibeli, n. couple pair: Sibeli sa bona ba pica hande, both of them are in good health: Makaka ka linako za ka kotana a zama~anga sibeli, guh1ea-fowls go by in pairs during the mating season.

sibeliso (li-) n. grinding stone (mainly used for grinding red millet which is very hard)

sibengelele (bo-) n. Hammerhead Stork.

sibeta-mashwana (bo-) n. kind of black mambo

sibetiso (li-) n. axe, hatchet or any instrument used for carving, hewing, etc. (from -beta).

sibeuliso (li-) n. razor, blade, any in-strument used to shave. (from -beula ).

sibi (ii-) n. sin.

sibiana (li-) n. sce sibvana ,

sibili1 (li-) n. puff-adder.

sibili2 n. reality, essence nature: ka sibili, really truly.

sibilibita or sibilimita (ii-) n. Will-o-the- Wisp. syn. simonyeka.

 

sibima (li-) n. mile, kilometre

sibimbi (li-) n. corpse. syn. situpu.

sibinda, n. ungovernability: mukolo wa sibinda, an uncontrollable canoe. fig. strong headed person.

sibindi (li-) n. fragment (of any-thing) cf. siemba.

sibiniso (li-) n. reed skirt worn by dancers (from -bina).

sibiti (li-) n. liver. fig. patience.

sibo, n. epidemic.

sibofu (li-) n. blind person. (front -foufala).

sibokololi (li-) n. someone weeping very loudly, wailing. (from -boko-lola. ).

siboleti (li-) n. carrion. (from -bola).

sibonganyi, n. restlessness; big noise made by frightened cattle: IVi utwa sibonganvi kwa mulaka. Iikomu li kenezwi ki sibatana, a lion has entered the kraal for I can hear the cattle making a great noise. (from -bongana).

sibonwena (li- or ma-) n. wound scar (from -bonona).

siboyani (li-) n. wild edible tuber.

sibuabui (li-) n. Sotho. talker, tale bearer, chatter-box. syn. mubua-bui, liambombola. (from -bua.).

sibuba (li-) n. rapids cataract, cas-cade, water-fall, falls. (from -buba).

sibubi (li-) n. venomous spider (kind of tarantula). cf. kakume.

sibubiso (li-) n. manner of making things dwindle grow less, waste away: Lena u na ni sibubiso, bupi ne li ho Sonata kono buhobe bwa has ki bo bunyinyani, you have really a way of making things waste away, the flour was plentiful but the por-tions of buXobe are very small. cf. situtiso. (from -buba).

sibuiso (li-) n. knife, any instrument used to skin an animal. (from -bua ).

 

sibuku (li-) n. worm (generic name).

-sibula1 (sibuzi) v.t. to put out or show one's tongue. caus. -sibulisa (sibulisize) to cause to ~.

-sibula2 (sibuzi) v.i. to blossom (maize, corn, millet, reed, etc.)

sibulaiso (li-) n. anything used for killing. fig. anything which enables one to buy a desired object: lla ni na sibulaiso, kabe ni itekela kwa litapi ze, I have no money other-wise I would buy some of these fish. (from -bulaya).

sibulukeo (li- or ma-) n. any kind of-trunk~ case, container, etc in which goods or food are kept. (from -buluka).

sibulututu (li- or bi-) n. small hut roughly built. syn. sibuma, cfi si-lindo.

sibuma (li- or bi-) n. small, rough round hut. syn. sibulututu, cf. si-lindo.

sibumba (li-) n. one of a ruminant's stomachs. cf. ndondo2.

sibunga (li-) n. flower of reed or maize plant.

sibungu (li-) n. Bateleur eagle

sibunu (li-) n. anus (anat.)

sibupeho (li-) n. shape, form, aspect (from -bupa).

sibupiso (li-) n. moulding material (from -bupa).

sibupiwa (li-) n. creature (from -bupa).

sibutu (li-) n. kind of small fish with sharp pointed fins. syn. singongi, sikoyokoyo, siyokoyoko.

sibuyuyu (li-) n. kind of grass bear-ing very dangerous seeds.

sibyana (li-) n. household articlez utensil: libvana za mutu, personal effectss belongings.

sicaba (li- or ma-) n. nation. fig. great gathering of people

sicacani (li- or ma-) n. a bush.

sicakacaka (li-) n. flamboyant tree  seed-pod. fig. outcast or vagabond fond of fighting syn. siyakayaka, liwanguwangu.

sicakapukutu (li- or bi-) n. rubbish! sweepings. fig. a destitute person.

sicalo (li-) n. plant (generic name) (from -cala).

sicamu (li- or bi-) n. pawpaw. syn. simpubila.

sicelo (li-) n. sideboard (where people keep food) (from -ca).

sicembwe (bi-) n. Leya Toka. ram (animal).

sicikwele1 (1; or bo-) n. Meyer's Parrot .

sicikwele2 (bo-) n. kind of mush-room .

sicili (li-) n. cow giving very little milk

sicimba (li-) n. fillet of a fish.

sicingani, n. Iack of respect (from -cingana).

siciso (li-) n. any kind of instrument used for preparing~ serving or eating food. (from -ca)

sico1 (li-) n. food, nurture. (from -ca).

sico2 (li-) n. kind of bird. sicola, adv. quicklys speedily.

sicombulae (bo-) n. very great eatere person never satiated

siconi (li-) n. person who spends years away from home. (from -cona) .

siconkobole (li- or bo-) n. kind of small bird.

sicopwetiso (li-) n. any tool used to stop a leak in a canoe or a barge. (from -copweta).

sicunkiso (li-) n. dropperz instru-ment used to instiln to pour drops in the eyesz etc. (from -cunka).

-sieka (siekile) v.t. to put across: Mu sike mwa sieka mukolo, mu utweke hande; do not beach your canoe obliquelye put it straight.

-siekela (siekezi) v.t. to suck from a cow's udder (speaking of a calf  persisting to suck its mother during the milking)

siemakataku (bo-) n. very active pe rson.

siemana (li- or bi-) n. corner (of a house or a yard) syn. sikuwana.

siemba (li- or bi-) n. fragment, tatter. cf. sibindi.

siemboka (li- or siyemboka (li-) n. Mambunda dance (very popular in Western Province)

siemo or siyemo (li-) n. stature, tal-lness: height. (from -vema).

siendaendi (bo-) n. see sendaendi.

siendabanji, n. see sendabangi.

siendi (li-) n. see sendi.

siengabaci, adv. see sengabaci.

sieo (li-) n. see seo.

sietete, n. see setete. sifaha (li-) n. necklace, beads.

sifako, n. abundance, plenty, profu-siom glut: Lico li wile sifako. it has been an excellent harvest: Unomwaha batu ha shwile .sifako, very many people died this year

sifalana or sifalani (li-) n. plastered granLIry cf. situli, sishete.

sifaliso (li-) n. adze used to scrap skins: any scraper used to remove crusts in a cooking pot, etc. (from -fala) sifambunge (bo-) n. a men-tally deficient persons who quicklv loses his temper! a short-tempered person

sifanu (li-) n. poison: bane. fig. a clever person.

sifapano (li-) n. cross

sifapano2 (li-) n. calico of coloured striped pattern: Scottish tartan.

sifate (li-) n. pineapple.

sifateho (li-) n. face (anat).

sifayamayungu (bo-) n. Luyana. person fond of hunting (from -fava)

sifebi (li-) n. Luvana. a person who smokes~ takes snuff. (from -feba)

sifefe (ii-) n. shot-gun

 

sifekiso (li-) n. Luyana. resem-blance, heredity syn. sihoziso. (from -feka).

sifela (li-) n. Sotho. Hymn book (sce pina)

sifenyi (li-) n. evil-doer, trouble-some person. (from -fenya).

sifetelo (li-) n. churn, vessel in which butter is kept (from -feta).

sifetiso (li-) n. churning staff` kin-dling stick (from -feta)

sifetuliso (li-) n. any instrument used to turn fish or meat on embers or to take them out of the fire. (from -fetula)

sifi (li-) n. (1) African Barn Owl (9) Marsh Owl.

sifi, interog. pron. (class si-li and si-bi) which? what sort? Silaho .sifi? which paddle? Siemba siSi? what sort of fragment?

sifi ni sifi, indef. pron. (class si-li-and si-bi) whichever any: Sicaha sifi ni .vifi, any nation.

sifieliso (ii-) n. sweeping-brush (from -fiela).

sififi, n. poor eye sight. (from -fifala)

sifiha (li-) n. patch of cloth. syn. simanahani, sikamba.

sifiki (li-) n. male dog

sifolomiso (li-) n. brick-mouid. svn. sikolubole. (from -foloma)

sifolozwani (li- or bi-) n. abortive child or beast. syn. mufolozwanh (from -foloza).

sifosi (li-) n. evil-docr. wrong-docr (from -fosa)

sifwambai, n. old river-bed~ ox-bow lake

sifuba (li-) n. chest (anat.) svm mbando.

sifubelu (bo-) n. person of a very light complexion. (from -fubela).

sifufaeti (ii- or bi-) n. vagabond stramps rolling stone. (from -fufa)

sifufu (li- or bi-) n. rotten wood.

 

sifufulu (li- or bi-) n. a sickly, ailing, unhealthy person. syn. sifuti.

sifuka (li-) n. unpleasant smell. syn. sinko.

sifukambanda, n. outskirts, suburbs of the capital.

sifulanyundo 1 (bo-) n. Luyana. blacksmith. syn. mutuli.

sifulanyundo 2 (bo-) n. Congo Black-collared Barbet. (bird) sifulatwa or

sifulatwi, n. Luyana. carrying pole with a single load (behind) syn. sikundawela, cf. mutiyo.

sifuli (li-) n. Red beak Teal (bird) fig. a short person with short arms.

sifuluhiso (li-) n. paddle, anything used as a paddie. (from -fuluha)

sifumbwalume (li-) n. wild vine.

sifunambango, n. Luyana. useless work.

sifunamoko, n. Luyana. as sifunam-bango.

sifunda (li-) n. trace made on the ground or charm used to frighten thieves. (from -fundela) fig. thing not to be done again: U eze sifunda, u sike wa kutelafateXii hape! wipe that out, never do it again !

sifungamenyi, n. Luyana. a nearby place: ku lobala sifungamenvi, to sleep near one's destination.

sifuti (li- or bi-) n. a sickly, ailing, unhealthy person. syn. sifufulu.

sifwacangi (li- or bi-) n. a bad paddier.

sifwakufwaku (li- or bi-) n. vaga-bond, tramp. (from -fwakaela).

siha, adj. white and black male cattle with reference to female cattle: sihanga).

sihahabi (li- or bi-) n. reptile (from -hohoba)

sihalalelo (li-) n. chancel, sanctuary (of a church)

Sihalaleliso (li-) n. Holy of Holies (Jerusalem Temple)

 

sihali, adj. feminine. female.

sihamelo (li-) n. any container used when milking animals. syn. kamelo (frou -hama).

siahu, n. unpleasant smell and taste of burnt meat or buhobe.

siheta (li- or ma-) n. shoe, boot. syn. sikatulo.

sihoho1 (li-) n. binoculars, telescope. (from -hoha) .

sihoho2, n. a long distance (from -hoha).

sihohiso (li-) n. rope used for pull-ing (from -hoha).

sihohoto (li- or bi-) n. a disobedient. stubborn person.

sihole (li- or bi-) n. cripple: incura-ble person. fig. a pregnant woman (from -holofala).

siholoholo (li- or bi-) n. loins.

sihoto (li- or bi-) n. threshing floor. syn. lipulelo.

sihotolwa (li- or ma-) n. cough (from -hotola).

sihoziso, n. heredity. syn. sifekiso (from -hoza).

sihozo, n. resemblance, likeness (from -hoza).

sihule, n. prostitution: butuku bwa sihule, venereal disease.

sihulu, adv. especially, chiefly, par-ticulary. syn. hahulu.

sihuo or sihuwo (mi-) n. cry, cla-mour (from -huwa).

sihwaba (li-) n. pupil of irregular at-tendances truant: person who does not like to stay home, wanderer: person difficult to manage, scamp.

sihwana (li- or bi-) n. calabash. fig. senseless person, person who has nothing to say, empty-headed person.

sihwapa (li-) n. dried fish. Siikalo n. Litunga's Council.

siikuneiiso (li-) n. any defensive weapon syn. sitamuleliso. (from -unela).

 

siili-ili (li-) n. limbless and headless trunk.

siimbumene-siwambumene (be-) n. Luyana. a credulous person, a person easily duped.

siimpiti, n. congestion, crush huddle (from -pitihana).

siiponi (li-) n. Iooking-glass, mirror. fig. very good looking person (from -bona).

siitamuleliso (li-) n. any defensive arm or weapon (from -lamulela) syn. siikuneliso.

sika1 (li-) n. thing, article, object etc., syn. nto, cf. silo.

-sika2 (sikile) v.t. Eng. (1) to tune a musical instrument, (guitar, etc) (2) to repair a musical instrument (usually a kanombvo). rel. -sikela (sikezi) to ~ for someone. ref. -lsi-kela (isikezi) to tune for oneself.

sikabeleti, n. action of depriving or causing someone to suffer loss or property or privileges: action of ruining someone's chance of suc-cess through sheer jealousy: des-poliation (from-kabelela)

sikabeliso (li-) n. any kind of small knife used to cut meat or fish for cooking (from -kabela)

sikaka (li-) n. lower abdomen. syn. sinena.

sikakani adj. neg. Sotho few, not many: bate ba sikakani a few people.

sikakata (li-) n. small fish (when cooked) (from kakata). syn. sinjo-kotela.

sikakuliso (li-) n. special kind of fuel used to fire clay-pots. usually dry cow-dung (from -kakula)

sikakumba (li-) n. dead palm tree without its crown of leaves.

sikakunka, n. (taken adverbially) with the body straight as a pole: standing straight up together: Bate band ha yemi sikakunka, ba lela sika  manifani? those people are stand-ing together like poles what are they planning?

sikakuwa (bo-) n. South African Marsh Harrier (bird).

sikala1 n. greediness.

sikala2 (li-) n. Eng. weighing scales, pair of scales; pail or basket used as a standard measure; heavy weight.

sikalalambo, n. Luyana. (taken ad-verbially) on the same spot. in the same place: Ha koni ka ina sikala-lambofia musebezi, he is unable to stay for long in the same job; Lena ha ini sikalalambo kwa manvalo whenever she marries, she does not stay long with her husband.

sikalamaulu (li-) n. pelvic arch ( anat ).

sikalamunanga (li-) n. cage, coop. (to carry fowls).

sikalanga, n. smallpox syn. buka-langa.

sikalawela (li-) n. shallow hole.

sikalu (li-) n. skin of a chikoe (jigger) left in a wound; root of an abscess.

-sikama (sikami or sikamile) v.i. to lean, to be bent. syn. -obama. rel. -sikamela (sikamezi) to be bent to-wards fig. to be inclined to: Kamita pile ya hae i sikamezi kwa bumaswe. he has propensity for wrong things. caus. -sikamisa (sikamisize) to bend. fig. to mislead, to mis-guide

sikamba (li-) n. patch to mend clothes. syn. simanahani.

sikampafwa (bo-) n. bat (zool).

sikandeleliso (li-) n. gift offered as a token of homage, respect, thank-fuiness (usually by the son-in-law to his parents-in-law) (from -kan-delela).

sikanji (li-) n. udder of a cow

sikankauliso (ii-) n. chopping in-  strument (from -kankaula)

sikankiso (li-) n. small tool used to cut barbs on fishing spears. syn. mango1¼ (from-kanka).

sikapa (bi-) n. old tin. fig. exp. U mwa sikapa sa mioko, he is weep-ing, overcome by sadness.

sikapelo (li-) n. dog-bowl. syn. si-kungu (from -kapa).

sikapana or sikapani (li- or bi-) n. broken piece of a calabash; thick shell of a fruit (lihuluhulu, lih-wahwa, etc.); shell of a tortoise. cf. Iikumbu.

sikape (li-) n. honey-bear. fig. sleepy person.

sikatafulu (li-) n. a good-for-noth-ing a slovenly person.

sikatana (li-) n. rag, piece of skin used to mend karosses.

-sikatela (sikatezi) v.t. to lean with the hand; to lean on someone's shoulder.

sikatiso (li-) n. any kind of hoe used to dig up roots (esp. cassava roots) (from -kata)

sikatu (mi-) n. see mukatu.

sikatulo (li- or ma-) n. shoe, boot. syn. siheta.

sikayo (li- or bi-) n. grinding mill (the machine) (from -kayak

sikebenga (!i- or bi-) n. a debauched person, criminal

sikeka (ma-) n. sharp blade of grass. fig. exp. Mwele-no-sikeka, name given to the Litunga, and meaning arbiter, person taking toe last de-cision. (lit. double edged knife sharpened on both sides).

-sikeka (sikekile) v.t. to bend the head on one side; spec. exp. ka sikeka zebe, to prick up one's ears, to be very attentive; ka sikeka nkwana, tubana, etc. to tip up water-pot, vase, etc. rel. -sikekela (sikekezi) to incline towards.

 

sikekele (li-) n. plough (from -kekela).

sikela (li- or bi-) n. brackish soil (from which salt is taken).

sikele (li-) n. scissors; shears, clip-pers

sikelekeshe (li-) n. violent creature, brute.

sikelekete (li-) n. kind of trce (Faurea speciosa).

sikelela (li-) n. scar. syn. Iiniba, si–iba, sikenyu.

sikeleliso (li-) n. cup, small cala-bash, etc. used to draw water or distribute becr (from -ka).

sikenelela (li-) n. workman's or child's overall (from Lena).

sikenge (li-) n. girl's initation; con-finement prescribed to girls during their initiation.

sikeniso (li-) n. entrance ticket (from Lena).

sikenyu (li- or ma-) n. scar: Nyambe u na ni sikenyu sa kwena pa silupi Nyambe has scars on his thigh caused by a crocodile syn. liniba siniba, sikelela. (from -kenyuna)

sikepe1¼ (li- or bi-) n. tail of a fish.

sikepe2 (li- or bi-) n. barge, boat, ship (also sisepe).

siketu (li-) n. fragment: Siketu sa kwai, a fragment of tobacco-loaf. siketu sa pizana, a fragment of the rim of a pot (from -ketula).

sikeu, n. manner of attracting at-tention (from-keuba).

sikiliti (li-) n. Eng. district: Sikiliti sa Mongu, Mongu district. svn. silalo.

sikiluliso (li-) n. Eng. key, any in-strument to unlock door (from -kiya)

sikinitiso (li-) n. Eng. knitting-ncedie (from -kinita).

-sikisa (sikisize) v.t. to take some-one's measurements. der. musiko. rel. -sikiseza (sikiselize) to take  measurements for someone. ref. -isikiseza (isikiselize) to take one's own measurements.

sikisi (li- or bi-) n. depression, hallow, dip. (in the ground) (from -kisifala)

sikiso (li- or bi-) n. anything used to draw sater (from -ka).

sikiti (li-) n. a thousand.

sikitila (li- or bi-) n. a stout, fat, strongly built person. syn. simbwe-tambweta.

siko1 (li- or ma-) n. a long creek, meander of a river. cf. Iiko.

siko2 (ma-) n. Egyptian goose, Berg Goose.

sikobiso' n. frequent reference to a kind gesture made to someone es-pecially when the author is vexed. cf. makome, (from -koba).

sikobyoti, n. sleeplessness, insom-nia; wakefulness.

sikocelela or sikocowela (li- or bi-) n. bundle of maize ears kept for the seed (f.om -kocowela) syn. si-koywela

sikoci (li- or bi-) n. Eng. skirt (Euro-pean Style) cf. musisi.

-sikoka (sikokile) v.i. to sob. rel. -si-kokela (sikokezi) to sob for or somewhere. caus. -sikokisa (sikoki-sizeA to cause someone to sob.

sikoka1 n. kind of tree (its roots are used to make a medicine believed to attract people).

sikoka2 n. ability to attract people fig. exp. Mutu yo munde ki ya na ni sikoka kwa batu, a good and plea-sant person knows how to attract people.

sikokiana (li-) n. kind of very strong African beer.

sikoko1 (li-) n. Luvale bark basket.

sikoko2 bi-) n. scab.

sikokoma (li- or bi-) n. excrescence, outgrowth; large knot on a tree.

sikokota (li- or bi-) n. tall, stout and  strong looking person. syn. kokota, ncelule.

sikokoteliso (li-) n. hammer, any in-strument used to nail (from -kokota).

sikokwe (li-) n. small barble fish.

sikolo (li-) n. Eng. school

Sikololo, n. the Kololo language, (adopted by the Aluyi (Lozi) during the nineteenth century and forming the basis of modern Lozi). (see Silozi and Siluyana).

sikoloti (li-) n. debt: ku ba ni siko-loti, to be in debt; ku kutisa siko-loti, to pay one's debt (from -kolota ).

sikolopo (li- or bi-) n. scrubbing brush (from -kolopa).

sikoma (li-) n. sledge-hammer.

sikombole (li-) n. brick-mould. syn. sifolomiso. (from -kombola).

sikombwa (li-) n. steward of a chief (from -kombweka).

sikondoliso1 (li-) n. a present of any kind offered to the parents of a wife by the husband on the oc-casion of their first visit to them after marriage.

sikondoliso2 (li-) n. mealie meal pre-pared in a certain way and used in the brewing of beer, staff used to stir beer. syn. sikundungiso (from -kondola2).

sikonkwani (li-) n. peg, survey beacon, piece work marked on the ground and allotted to a team of workers. cf. silengo.

sikopekope, n. (1) mixture of differ-ent kinds of food, drinks, etc.; (2) gathering of people coming from different places, and belonging to different tribes (from -kopana).

sikoti1 (bi-) n. hole, pit. cf. mukoti.

sikoti2 n. friendship. syn. silikani.

sikoto (li- or ma-) n. piece, bit; small particle of food improperly cooked. syn. sishekete. fig. resent ment, rancour, bitterness, hard feelings.

sikotolo (li-) n. metal basin.

sikoyokoyo (li- or bi-) n. kind of small fish with sharp pointed fins. syn. singongi, sibutu' siyokoyoko.

sikoyowela (li-) n. bundle of maize ears kept for the seed. syn. sikoce-lela or sikocowela (from -koyowela).

siku (li- or bi-) n. kind of lizard (with bright blue and red colours). spec. exp. siku-mwana-njimukwa, child of a well known person.

sikuba (li-) n. a stupid, unintelli-gent, unteachable person. syn. sitoto, mwelo (from -kubanyana).

sikubeliso (li-) n. wooden tool used in thatching to make the grass even, thatching f1oat (from -kubela).

sikucula (li-) n. new river bed hol-lowed out by the flood in a depres-slon.

sikuka1 (li-) n. track of a canoe in the grassy flooded plain. fig. clear statement leading to the main point of a case.

-sikuka2 (sikukile) v.i. to feel pain in the joints after heavy work; to sprain (one's ankle, wrist. etc.) syn. -kweta, -lea.

-sikuka3 (sikukile) v.i. see -sikumuka or sinkumuka.

sikukela (li-) n. see likukela.

sikuku (li-) n. umbrella.

sikukula (li-) n. honeycomb.

sikukuliso (li-) n. scissors or any in-strument used to cut hair (from -kukula).

sikukuma (li-) n. stammering, stut-tering; wa sikukuma, stammerer, stutterer (from -kukuma).

sikukune, n. violent, irrepressible hatred .

sikukunungu (li-) n. rump (for a fowl).

-sikula (sikuzi) v.t. to sprain: Ki kale  a mu sikula lizoho, he sprained his arm. inv. -sikulula (sikuluzi) to set a sprained limb back in its place.

sikulekelo (li-) n. stick used for car-rying things on the shoulder, (from -kuleka) syn. mutiyo.

sikuli (li- or ma-) n. island, penin-sula.

Sikulu, n. July. (see-kweli).

sikulubinyi (li-) n. Luyana. axe handie.

-sikuluha (sikuluhile) v.i. to change one's direction, to alter one's course; to become converted. der. musikuluhi, sikuluho. syn. -siuluka. rel. -sikuluhela (sikuluhezi) to turn towards: Ha mu fita fa manganan-dila, mu sikuluhele ku la nzohoto, when you come to the crossroads turn to the left, Bana bahabo kau-fela ba sikuluhezi ku yena bake–isa sishemo sa hae, all his relatives now look to him for help because of his kindness. caus. -sikuluhisa (sikulu-hisize) to cause a change of direc-tion. int. -sikuluhelela (sikuluhelezi) to change completely one's direc-tion.

sikuluho, n. conversion (from -siku-luha).

-sikulula (sikuluzi) v.t. to cause a change of direction, to convert, to ad vi se der. musikulul i . cf. -siulu la . rel. -sikululela (sikululezi) to turn towards; to move for someone: Lu sabe ku sikululela batu ku ze maswe, we must not lead people into bad habits; A mu nisikululele mungomo wo, wa ni palelwa, please . move that drum for me, as I can't do it myself. caus. -sikululisa (sikululi-size) to help to ~. int. -sikululelela (sikululelezi) to ~ completely. rec. -sikululana (sikululani) to show each other the right direction, to advise each other ref. -isikulula (isikuluzi) as rec.

 

sikulukulu (li-) n. padlock.

sikulumuniso (li-) n. instrument used to pluck fruit from a tree (from -kulumuna).

sikulu-opu (li-) n. Luyana. very suc-culent thick grass. (from -kula).

sikuluyi1 (li-) n. kind of tree (bearing swect berries liked by birds).

sikuluyi2 (bo-) n. Green Pigeon.

sikumisa (li- or bi-) n. muzzle loader-gun (now obs).

-sikumuka (sikumukile) v.i. to come in great quantity (rain, people, etc.): Pula i taha i sikumukile ka bunata, mu longole kapili lu ka koloba, a very heavy rain is coming, so unload quickly other-wise we shall get wet syn. -sinku-muka.

sikumuliso (li-) n. dentists forceps.

sikumwa (li-) n. drum (the first one used by drum beaters in a dance).

sikundamongo (li-) n. Luyana. scari-fication, tattoo on the back (women).

sikundawela (li-) n. carrying stick loaded on one end. or unbalanced load. syn. sifulatwa, cf. mutiyo.

sikundi1 (li- or bi-) n. very large fishing net pulled on both sides of a small river on royal fishing oc-casions.

sikundi2 (li- or bi-) n. very large woollen blanket.

sikundu (li- or bi-) n. wooden pail used for milking. cf. kamelo.

sikundu2 (li-) n. see likundu.

sikunduyamana (ma-) n. see likun-duyamana.

sikundungiso (li-) n. staff used to stir beer. syn. sikondoliso (from -kun-dunga).

sikundwe, n. bad, dirty water (often killing fish at the beginning of the flood). syn. siyumbela, bunjinje.

sikungo (li-) n. bundie of dried fish or meat.

 

sikungu (li-) n. trough (this utensil, no longer used today, was hewn out of mungongo tree and served for bathing new-born babies or for feeding dogs).

sikungundele (li-) n. a rough, diso-bedient, rude, stubborn, contra-dictory person.

sikunu1 n. malediction syn. maci.

sikunu2 n. witchcraft medicine made of muku–u trce roots, and believed to protect against the effects of malediction (obs.) (from -kun-~weta).

siku–undele (li-) n. see sikungundele.

sikupamulalelo, n. Venus in the evening. (lit. it is asking for supper). cf. lilungwe.

sikupiso (li-) n. present offered with the hope of getting a better one in return (from -kupa). sikupunamutamba, word only used in the expression: ku ya

sikupuna-matamba, to get lost: Komu ya ka i ile sikupunamutamba, my cow is lost. cf. sindime.

sikuswani (li-) n. tuberous plant cul-tivated in the forest; tuber of the same (the latter is very similar to a small and thin potato).

sikutiso (li-) n. any instrument used to cut hair or to shear sheep; scis-sors; shears, etc. (from-kuta).

sikuto (li-) n. curse, malediction (see siku–u) (from -kuta).

sikutu (li-) n. swarm: sikutu sa limuka, a swarm of bees: sikutu sa batu, a group of a few people standing together; (used adverbi-ally) together: Lifolofolo li yemi sikutu, the wild beasts are standing together.

sikutula (li-) n. a stout, strong, healthy man. syn. kutula.

sikutulelo (li-) n. any container used (basket, bag, etc.) in harvesting (from -kutula).

 

sikutwana (li-) n. corner (of a house, yard, a room, etc.) syn. sie-mana.

sikuwa1 (li-) n. evergreen shrub growing in the forests; edible fruit of the same. syn. mukuwa.

Sikuwa2 n. English language; European customs.

sikuyeti (li-) n. (1) witchcraft medi-cine believed to have the power of killing at a distance. (2) television.

sikwa (li-) n. thicket of bushes; dense forest, jungle. cf. mutemwa.

sikwabukwabu (bo-) n. (1) justice; (2) warrior.

sikwahelo or sikwahezo (li-) n. a cover, lid; syn. siapeso, muko (from -kwabela).

sikwakwakwa (li-) n. machine-gun.

sikwakwati (Ii-) n. iron snuff box.

sikwala (li-) n. an expert, skilful craftsman; a person above stan-dard.

sikwaliso (li-) n. anything used to fasten a door (from -kwala)

sikwalo (li-) n. door (from -kwala).

sikwama (li-) n. purse, wallet.

sikwankweta (li-) n. strong man; hero. syn. sinata, sikwenyepa.

sikwashu, n. rapidity, swiftness, speed. syn. putako, lubilo, kayeye (from -kwashula).

sikwata (li-) n. large group of people; of animals. cf. mukunyi.

sikwekwe, n. kind of scabies (affect-ing animals) cf. lukwekwe.

sikwela (li-) n. mouse trap (made of a large clod of earth). fig. danger from which there is no escape. cf. silaha.

sikwenda (li-) n. (1) shelter, refuge. (2) circle.

sikwengiso (li-) n. any kind of basket used for fishing. syn. lishi–o cf. lukunda (from: -kwenga).

sikwenyepa (li-) n. strong man, hero. syn. sinata, sikwanketa.

 

sikweti-kweti n. short period of days added to December (–ulule) and considered as a short lunar month (obs). (see: kweli).

sikwinji (li-) n. rough shelter (made by fishermen or hunters).

-sila1 (silile) v.t. to cross a river by canoe or on foot; ku sila ka mautu, to wade, to walk across water. der. musilisi, masilelo. fig. to die. rel. -silela (silezi) to cross towards, to cross with a definite intention. caus. -silisa (silisize) to take across, to help across. stat. -sileha (sile-hile) to be fordable (river). int. -si-lelela (silelezi) to ~ for good. rec. silisana (silisani) to help each other to cross a river. freq. -sili-sanga to ~ frequently. ref. -isilisa (isilisize) as rec.

sila2 (silile) v.t. to grind (tobacco, red millet, etc.) der. musili, busili. fig. to exterminate: LufenyEze lila za luna, mi lu li silile kaufela; we conquered our enemies and de-stroyed them completely. rel. -silela (silezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -silisa (silisize) to help to ~. stat. -sileha (silehile) to be able to be ground (ye sileha, that can be ground). int. -silelela (silelezi) to grind the lot. ref. -lsilela (isilezi) to grind for oneself: Mu nEyemele ha-nyEnyani, ni sa isilela kakwai; wait a little while for me, for I still have to grind some tobacco.

-sila3 (silile) v.t. to cast a shadow on; to intercept (light, view, heat, etc.): U sike wa ni sila kwa mulilo, do not stand between me and the fire.

sila4 (li-) n. enemy, adversary.

silabila, n. lack of education (mostly used for children), bad manners.

silabo (li-) n. paddle, oar (from: -laba).

 

-silafala (silafezi or silafalile) v.i. Sotho. to become dirty, filthy, impure.

-silafaza (silafalize) v.t. Sotho. to defile, to dirty, to make unclean. ref. -isilifaza (isilafalize) to defile, to dirty oneself. fig. to sully, to tar-nish one's good name by doing wrong.

silafo (lilafo) n. clay-pit (from: -lafa).

-silaha1¼ (li-) n. (1) gun-trap. (2) scaf-fold, gibbet. cf. sikwela.

silaha2 (li-) n. butchery (shop).

-silaha3 (silahile) v.t. to execute someone condemned to death, to slaughter (cattle). der. musilahi, silaha.

silalanda (li-) n. neighbourhood: Lo yahile silalanda si li sinwi, we live in the same area. cf silikitela.

silaliso (li-) n. stick used to mark the place of foundations of a house (from: -Bala).

silalo (li-) n. the district (of): Silalo sa Kalabo, Kalabo District. syn. si-kiliti.

silalu, n. a group of three: sitar sa bona, the three of them. (see: bulalu).

silama1 (li-) n. member; part of the body. fig. member of a group: So ki wa silama sa bulena, this man is a member of the Royal Family; silama sa Keleke, member of the Church.

silama2, n. kind of shrub.

silambeti, n. intimacy, closeness, fa-miliarity.

silami, n. the cold, coolness.

silamuko, n. great flight of birds (from: -lamuka).

silanda-mweli, n. Luyana. one who comes after the first-born child.

silandulwa, n. something which is forbidden: Ki silandulwa u sike wa kutela Latent hare; that is prohib-  ited, don't do it again.

silati, n. lack of assiduity, of dili-gence (from: data).

silauliso (li-) n. (1) offering due to a diviner or presented to him in order to predispose him to suc-cessful divining. (2) object used for divining (basket, mirror, axe, etc...) (from: -laula).

-sileha (silehile) v.t. to besmearwith dung the teats of a cow which re-fuses to be milked, in order to keep its calf away.

silehe (li-) n. a wicked, destructive person.

silei (li-) n. Eng. sleigh, sledge (for goods).

-silela (silezi) v.i. to be hoarse, rau-cous, rough, harsh (voice, etc.) syn. -silelwa, hohoma.

silele (li-) n. 'sticking-out' skirt (dancer).

silelenyima, n. taken adverbially: backwards: N'a via kene, kono a kuta silelenyima; he was on the point of entering, but he retracted his steps.

-sileleza (silelelize) v.t. to protect, to shelter, to screen; to hide from public sight, to defend der, musile-lezi, silelezo. rel. sileleleza (silelele-lize) to ~ for someone. caus. -sile-lezisa (silelezisize) to help to ~ ref. -lsileleza (isilelelize) to protect oneselfj to defend onself.

silelezo, n. protection; cover, screen (from: -sileleza).

silelu (bi-) n. chin.

-silelwa (silezwi) v.i. as -silela.

silemanu (li-) n. (1) implement of any kind that may hurt (axe, knife, spade etc.) (2) wound caused by an axe, a knife, etc. (from: -lema).

silembe, n. calmness, quietness, stil-lness: Kacenu nuka i ombezi, ki si-lembe, lo ka sila mwa kozo; today the river is quiet and calm, so we  shall have a peaceful crossing.

silembelembe, n. vegetable poison. fig. a dangerous person.

silena, n. kingship; za silena, rights, etc. pertaining to kingship; ka silena, in a regal manner. syn. bulena (from: Lena).

silenge, n. kind of grass growing in marshy places.

silengelenge, n. great heat of the sun. syn. kalengelenge (from: -lenga).

silengo (li-) n. piece-work marked on the ground and allotted to a man or a team. cf. sikonkwani. syn. mukwazo

silepe (li-) n. African axe fig. a very strong man.

sileze (li- or ma-) n. mud, mire, slough. cf. sinjopwa.

sili, adj. other, different, strange: Litaba z'a bulezi ki nto isili; the things he reported are strange indeed.

siliba (li-) n. pit, well. silibela, n. Eng. silver.

silibelo (li-) n. jar, etc. containing fat, oil, Vaseline, etc. (for use on the body).

sileliso (li-) n. toy. cf. sibapaliso (from: Bela).

-silelwa (silezwi) v i to be hoarse: Linzwi la hae li siiezwi, he has a deep, hoarse voice. syn. -silela, -hohoma.

silemiso (li-) n. any instrument used for cutting (from: -lema).

silenda (li- or ma-) n. object, etc. produced in evidence; exhibit (in criminal case).

-silihana (silihani) v.i. to become stupid, foolish, senseless. syn. -zizi-baza.

silihi-lihi (ma-) n. black, coagulated blood. cf. sinyinga.

silikani, n. see. bulikani.

silikitela (li-) n. Eng. district, neigh bourhood. cf. silalanda.

silikwalikwani, n. indecision, irreso-lution, uncertainty: Mute ya mwa silikwalikwani, a person unde-cided how to act or what course to take.

sililafela (bo-) n. a child inclined to cry for no reason. syn. Iimomo (from: Lila).

sililo (li- or ma-) n. mourning, la-mentations (from: Lila).

silimba (li-) n. African xylophone. silimbuluti, n. see: malimbuluti.

Silimela, n. Pleiades (constellation indicating seedtime).

silimi, n. stammering, stuttering. syn. sikukuma.

silimo (li-) n. year. syn. mwaha.

silinda (li-) n. heap, pile, hoard. syn. libunda.

silindo (li-) n. small and roughly built shelter used by fishermen. syn. sibuma, sibulututu.

-silisa (silisize) v.t. to mourn. der. musilisi. cf. Iila.

siliteliso (li-) n. instrument used to glaze a pot when moulded; instru-ment used to put the finishing touches to a mat. (from: -litela).

silitiso (li-) n. anything used to frighten birds away from a garden (from: pita).

siliwa (li-) n. carrion, decaying car-cass.

siliya-liyi, n. a dilatory person, a person always slow in starting. syn. mufua-fui (from: -liya-liya).

silizi1 (li-) n. an expert drum beater (from: Lisa).

silizi2 (li-) n. see: bulizi.

siliziso (li-) n. wooden hammer used to beat the maoma; drum-sticks, kettle-drum sticks (from: -liza).

silo (li-) n. thing, object. syn. sika, nto.

siloba, n. skin disease (eczema).

 

siloi (bi-) n. a fat witchdoctor, a fat witch. syn. sinyambe. (from: -loya).

siloiso (li-) n. anything used for be-witching (from: -loya).

-siloka (silokile) v.t. to leave alone, to abandon, to forsake someone (habit of children when playing) to boycott syn. -timboka.

siloko (li-) n. cattle manure: Mbonyi ya siloko i hula kapEli, maize sown in a field manured with cattle dung grows quickly. cf. mununo.

silolekiso (li-) n. scraper used a give a final touch to wood-work (dishes, paddles, etc.) (from: -loleka).

silombiso (li-) n. dye, colour, hue, tinge (from: -lomba).

silombo (bi-) n. place where ma-shandi are dyed (from: -lomba).

silomboti, n. (1) imitation syn. muli-kanyiso (2) manner of returning evil for evil; vengeance, revenge (from: -lombota).

silonda (li-) n. large abscess, fistula; tumour.

silonganu (li-) n. dead weight in a canoe. fig. a bad or lazy paddler

siloshwe (bi-) n. a stupid person. syn. sitoto.

siloyangundu (li- or bi-) n. an unu-sual, extraordinary thing taken as a bad omen, abortive baby, mis-shapen animal (monster) syn. sing-ilinginja.

siloyanu (li-) n. as siloyangundu.

Silozi, n. the lozi language (as spoken today and developed from Luyana and Kololo) (see: Sikololo and Siluyana).

siloziso (li-) n. anything (file, stone, etc.) used for sharpening axes, knives etc. (from: -loza).

silu, adj. red-and-white bull or ox (with reference to a cow silwana.

silubelo (li-) n. kneading-trough (from: -luba).

 

silubi (bo-) n. malefactor (from: -luba).

silubu (li-) n. liquid porridge; becr in preparation and not yet fer-mented (from: -luba).

silucila-cila (bo-) n. Pintailed Whyh, Paradise Flycatcher (bird).

silufukwe (bo-) n. Toka-Leya. mole (rodent) syn. ngeti.

silukelekele (bo-) n. Blacksmith Plover (bird).

silukiso (li-) n. any instrument used to sew, mend or repair (from: -luka).

silukolwa (bo-) n. kind of worm living on fresh maize; stalk-borer; name given to maize ear partly eaten by that worm. syn. silun-dolwa.

silukombwe (bo-) n. cock (domestic fowl) syn. mukombwe.

-silula (siluzi) v.t. to stir porridge in a pot. cf. -kundunga.

silulya (li-) n. kind of mistletoe (parasitic plant).

silumba (li- or bi-) n. ghost. fig. any ugly person.

silumbetela (li-) n. mason-bee, mason-wasp (from: mbeta).

silumbu (li-) n. kind of bee living in the forest and producing ground-honey .

silume, n. Luyana. man syn. mulume.

silumi (li-) n. Gen. n. noxious insect. fig. a person causing harm (from: -luma).

silundolwa (bo-) n. as silukolwa.

silundwamanji, n. crowd, multitude. syn. undi-wa-nyangela.

silungelo (li-) n. vessel containing salt (from: -lunga).

silungiso (li-) n. (1) spoon used for distributing salt. (2) salt, spice, etc. cf. Iizwai (from: -lunga).

silungo (li-) n. knife-handle.

silungu-lungu, n. Luyana. heat (sun,  fire, etc.).

silunyondi (bo-) n. Luyana. re-vengeful person.

silupi (li- or ma-) n. thigh.

silupula (bo-) n. a cheeky person; an aggressive, provocative person (from: -lupula).

silusila-sila (bo-) n. as silucila-cila.

siluta (li-) n. hump on neck of cattle .

silutangatanga (bo-) n. playing-clrcle.

silutupwi (bo-) n. kind of small barbel fish leading larger ones to depressions at the beginning of the flood .

Siluyana, n. the Aluyi language (spoken by the Aluyi (Lozi) before the l9th century invasion of the Kololo. (see: Sikololo and Silozi).

silwalelo (li-) n. anything used to carry something. syn. singelo.

silwana (lisilwana) n. small stone used to grind tobacco (in making snuff) (see Galley 410)

silwaniso (li-) n. weapon (any kind of arms) (from: -lwana) syn. sitabanisso.

silyalyoki (li-) n. someone who finds excuses to avoid work. cf. mulyalyoki (from: -lyalyoka).

silyangu (li- or bi-) n. fool, thought-less person; vagrant (from: liangu-nuka).

silyata, n. unexpected luck.

silyela (li-) n. (1) common meal where each brings his own share of food. (2) Holy Communion. silyo, n. right hand side: Lizoho la silyo, the right hand. cf. bulyo.

simambizi n. horse-boy, horse-man.

simambwe (bo-) n. kind of mush-room (dangerous when insuffi-ciently cooked).

simanahani (li-) n. patch to mend clothes, skins, etc. syn. sikamba.

simanamaila (bo-) n. Toka. heavy drinker. syn. sinwamaila.

 

simangulungwa (bo-) n. tale bearer; liar; unpleasant flatterer (from: -ngulungela).

simangwe-mangwe, n. misplaced kindness: Ku maswe ku uta mwana simangwe-mangwe, it is wrong and stupid to give in weakly to a child's will.

simayumbula (bo-) n. a hospitable person who receives his guests gladly by giving them presents of food (from: -yumbula).

simbakumbaku, n. kind of dance (for giris).

simbamba, n. see: -cipapa.

simbandamani (bo-) n. a person with a flat head (from: -mbandamana).

simbandungulu or simbendungulu (li) n. old broken wooden dish.

simbangu (li-) n. small rectangular house. cf. ssela.

simbatu, n. (often used adverbially) half-way distance or limit. (from: -mbatula).

simbayambaya (li-) n. lorry, heavy motor-vehicle.

-simbela (simbezi) v.t. see: -shim-bela.

simbi (lisimbi) n. pressing iron.

simbinga (li- or bi-) n. large earthen pot in which is kept medicinal liquid for daily ablutions. see sindinga.

simbombolo (li- or bi-) n. hollow, in a tree, containing water; puddle; pond. syn. simbwambwala.

simbongo, n. thicket in the forest where mambongo shrubs are plenti-ful.

simbotwaeli (li-) n. cripple (walking frog-like) (from: -mbotwaela).

simbotwe (li-) n. frog. fig. dunce, duffer.

simbukoki1 (bo-) n. Crested Hawk Eagle.

simbukoki2 (bo-) n. kind of caterpil-lar.

 

simbukuma (li-) n. sweet potato. syn. ngulu.

simbule (li-) n. beginning or head of a valley; source of a river.

simbulukushu (li- or bi-) n. kind of edible tuber growing in the forest (much likod by duikers) syn. sondwe.

simbulungoma (li- or bi-) n. badly shaped earthen pot.

simbulwamukowa (bo-) n. a person without relatives.

simbumbutwa (li-) n. (1) trce stamp. (2) remaining fragment of a cut tail or finger.

simbutula (li-) n. good looking fat baby.

simbuzi (li-) n. latrine syn. kalimba-limba.

simbwambwala (li- or bi-) n. see: simbombolo.

simbwambwashi (li- or bi-) n. maize ear which has suffered from draught or heavy rain and bears just a few grains.

simbwashangi (li- or bi-) n. a fat person walking with great diffi-culty .

simbwasoki (li-) n. careless talker (fro m: -mbwasauka).

simbwatata (li-) n. great expanse of shallow water. cf. simbombolo.

simbwengele (li-) n. small earthen pot with wide mouth.

simbweta-mbweta (li- or bi-) n. a stout, fat strongly built person. syn. sikitila (from: -mbwetaela).

simbwewewe (li-) n. large hailstone.

simbwi, n. darkness, obscurity. syn. lififi.

sime (li-) n. whip, lash.

-simeha (simehile) v.t. to knock down an offender. syn. -nyisa. rel. -simehela (simehezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -simehisa (simehisize) to help to ~. rec. -simehana (sime-hani) to severely beat each other.  ref. -lsimeha ( isimehile ) as rec. caus. -isimehisa (isimehisize) to act in a way which calls for a thrashing (child).

simela (li-) n. Gen. n. plant (from: -meal).

simembe-sa-pula, n. grey haze scen in the distance, due to pouring rain. syn. lupululu.

simeno (bo-) n. a person with buck tecth. cf. -ngeti.

simikata (bo-) n. Flecks Concal (bird) syn. mukuku.

-simiketa (simiketite) v.t. sce: -shi-miketa.

simili (li-) n. see sibili.

simingi (li-) n. fragment, piece, etc. syn. siemba.

simingi-mingi (li-) n. tail which has been cut short (dog, etc.) syn. sim-ungumungu. cf. simbumbutwa.

siminya (li-) n. curvature of the back (human beings).

-simoka (simokile) v.i. see: -shimoka or shimauka.

simoko, n. strength. syn. mata, tata.

simonyeka (li-) n. will-o-the wisp. syn. sibilibita, sibilimita. (from: -monyeha).

simolonga or simolongwa, n. incor-rect, ungrammatical language.

simonoliywa (bo-) n. small blind harmiess snake. (This snake, when seen, is believed to foretell the death of a relative). syn. nasiyalila.

simonyi, n. restlessness, agitation when sleeping.

simoomoo (li-) n. kind of insect which destroys crops (mostly maize) .

simpamwe (li-) n. a tall and stout adult person.

-simpeka (simpekile) v.i. to stop running, to stand firmly: A mata lubilo lo lutuna, h'a y'o simpeka ki kwa Butoya! he ran very swiftly and was at Butoya before he re-  covered his breath.

simpolyo1 (bo-) n. a one-eyed person .

simpolyo2 (bo-) n. Bulbul, Black-cap. (bird).

simpubila (li- or bi-) n. paw-paw. syn. sicamu.

simpuni (li-) n. any piece of wood used as a projectile; limpunimpuni, pieces of wood uprooted or torn from the ground and used as fire-wood.

simu (masimu) n. garden. field. syn. tima, mutabo.

simufulanyundo (bo-) n. Luyana. blacksmith. syn. mutuli.

simukulu (bo-) n. large poisonous bulb (often used as a charm to frighten thieves).

simukuyu (bo-) n. Red-Eyed Dove. simulamu, adv. carelessly: Ku maswe ku lata mutu simulamu, it is a cruel and bad habit to abandon someone carelessly.

-simuluha (simuluhile) v.i. to begin, to originate: Batu kaufela ba simu-luha kulokulikunwi, mankind has but one origin to rise (river): Lyambai i simaiuha kwa lisa leli r bizwa Dilolo, the Zambezi has its t source at lake Dilolo. der. simu-t luho.

simuluho, n. origin, beginning | (From: -simuluha) . syn. sisimo.

-simulula (simuluzi) v.t. to begin, to commence, to give origin: Mboo ki . yena ya simuluzi bulena bwa Silozi, Mboo founded the Lozi dynasty; to explain or relate matters from the beginning: Na, ha ni zibi ku simulula hande za sizo sahesu, I can not explain the origin of my family. der.musimululi. rel. -simulu-lela (simululezi) to relate historical events to people caus. -simululisa (simululisize) to persuade some-one to explain or relate matters.  int. -simululelela (simululelezi) to explain or relate completely.

simulyapondo (bo-) n. Toka-Leya. extravagant or thriftless person, spendthrift: Yena ki sitakwa simulya-pondo, u nwa pondo ka zazi, he is a very heavy drinker spending almost a pound a day on his drink.

simulyasindaela (bo-) n. Toka-Leya. guzzler (from: -sindaela).

simumu (li-) n. a dumb person, mute. syn. satambi.

simunanu (li-) n. Gen. n. domestic animal.

simungumungu (li-) n. see: simingi-mingi

simunyelule (bo-) n. (children's) swmg.

simunyeu (bo-) n. kind of beetle.

simupee or simuwe (bo-) n. South African Go-away bird.

-simwa v.i. to be born; used only in the expression: Na i sa li ni simwa, since I was born. cf. -pepwa. Kwali ku simwa since the beginning

simwe (li-) n. mark left on the mouth by fatty food.

simwetiso (li-) n. any instrument used to cut grass. (from: -mweta).

simwinji (bo-) n. a person born in day time.

sina1, conj. as, like.

-sina2 (sinile) v.t. to prod something. fig. to throttle. red. -sina-sina (sina-sinile) to ~ again and again, in order to see if it is ripe. syn. -tonya-tonya.

sinake (li-) n. kind of discase affect-ing the scalp (purulent disease).

sinaliyanga, n. group of women working in the Litunga's fields, a group of women.

-sinamena (sinamezi) v.t. (1) to drink from a large, heavy pot which cannot be lifted up. (2) to look into a container such as bottle calabash, etc.

 

-sinana (sinani) v.i. to be over-crowded; to be blocking up a narrow path, a doorway, a way, etc. rel. -sinanela (sinanezi) to get pressed in: Mu sike mwa sinanela mwa kandu ka kanyinyani, ku siya ndu ye tuna; don't be squashing yourselves in a small house when you have a large one at your dis-posal. pass. -sinanelwa (sinanezwi) to be pressed in. caus. -sinanisa (si-nanisize) to cause to ~. ref. -isina-nisa (isinanisize) to cause oneself to be squashed.

sinankwayula (bo-) n. woman spoken of despisingly syn. nank-wayula.

sinanuliso (li-) n. any kind of instru-ment used for lifting things; lever. fig. anything paid or given to the girl's parents by the bridegroom when taking away his bride from them. (This is paid apart from the 'sionda'). (from: -nanula). syn. mukatu.

sinata (li-) n. hero; strong man, stout man syn. sikwankweta.

sinatiso (li-) n. blunt instrument (from: -nata).

sinawenga (li-) n. wedding, mar-riage feast. spec. exp. ku nga sina-wenga, to take a bride from her parents. syn. wenga.

-sindaela (sindaezi) v.t. to feed someone forcibly, to stuff some-one with food. der. simulyasin-daela.

sindambo, n. friendship, familiarity.

sindambwila, n. bad familiarity, abuse of friendship. syn. sitwae-lelo, sinungana.

-sindamena (sindamezi) v.i. to be hardened (like corn at the bottom of a mortar during the pounding) cf. -sindumuna.

-sindeka (sindekile) v.t. to paddle or to pole vigorously when reaching a  landing place; to paddle with no rhythm. rel. -sindekela (sindekezi) to ~ in a certain direction.

-sindeketa (sindeketite) v.t. to ac-company (to or from). der. musin-deketi, musindeketelo syn. -filiheza. rel. -sindeketela (sindeketezi) to ac-company a person at the request of someone: A mu ni sindeketele mwanana yo, u ka saba fa nzila a nosi; please accompany that child for me, for he may be afraid if he walks alone. caus. -sindeketisa (sin-deketisize) to ask someone to join somebody accompanying a person: Kimaniya ka nisindeketisa mwanesu yo? who will help me ac-company this friend of mine?

-sindela (sindezi) v.t. to make fo-mentations. to apply warm com-presses on a sick person. der. mu-sindeli, musindelelo. cf. -toba. rel. -sindelela (sindelezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -sindelisa (sindelisize) to help to ~.  ref. -lsindela (isindezi) to apply warm compresses on one's own body.

sindendumuniso (li-) n. anything used to cut open a calabash, or to open a tin, tin-opener (from: -ndendumuna).

-sindimana (sindimani) v.t. to stand or to sit very close to someone; to elbow one's way through a crowd; to make one's way close to some-one or something: Ni bulaile nali ka ku i sindimana hahulu fakaufi, I killed a buffalo by making my way very close to it. der. musindima-nelo. caus. -sindimanisa (sindimani-size) to cause to ~.

sindime, word only used in the ex-pression: Kuyasindime, to become lost. cf. sikupunamutamba.

sindinga (li- or bi-) n. see: simbinga.

sindoe or sindoye, n. incestuous re-lationship.

 

sindondo, adv. sheer (down): ku tiba sindondo, to sink like a stone. (lit. drawn like a pitcher sinking straight down).

-sinduka (sindukile) v.i. to be sati-ated, to eat too much; to be over-fed. syn. -kula. cf. -mbilimana.

-sindula (sinduzi) v.t. to rub some-one's body in order to remove . dirt. der. musinduli, musindulelo. cf. -pikita, pukuta. rel. -sindulela (sin-dulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -sindulisa (sindulisize) to help to ~. rec. -sindulana (sindulani) to ~ each other. ref. -isindula (isinduzi) to rub one's own body to remove dirt.

-sindumuka (sindumukile) v.i. to come forward threateningly (like somebody about to attack); to be threatening; to be brewing (storm). der. musindumuko. fig. to speak without restraint. rel. -sindu-mukela (sindumukezi) to move somewhere furiously. caus. -sindu-mukisa (sindumukisize) to cause to ~.

-sindumuna1 (sindumuzi) v.t. to pound the corn left in a mortar and which-couid not be removed by hand after the first pounding. rel. -sindumunela (sindumunezi) to ~ for someone.

-sindumuna2 (sindumuzi) v.t. to push forward very strongly. syn. -yukula. -yana, rel. -sindumunela (sindumunezi) to ~ in a certain di-rection: Mwa bona, ki kale a sindu-munela mukolo mwa ngala! look, he has already pushed off the canoe to the deep! caus. -sindumu-nisa (sindumunisize) to help to ~.

sindunduli (li-) n. a large parcel or package.

sindunduliso (li-) n. pounding stick. syn. munsi.

sindunga (li-) n. earthen pot used  for water or beer.

sinena (li-) n. Iower abdomen. syn. sikaka.

-sineneketa (sineneketite) v.t. to press down.

sinengela (bo-) n. Luyana. dancer. syn. mubini. (from: -nenga).

sineta (li- or bi-) n. hollow; hol-lowed place. (from: -netemana).

singa (bi-) n. prefix used to express largeness (mostly with reference to people): singa Walubita, stout Walubita. cf. kanga, lunga.

singalangala (bi-) n. tuft (hair, grass, etc.); wisp (hay, straw, etc.)

singandamani (bo-) n. person with a large forehead; a bald person. (from: -ngandamana).

singandi (li-) n. palm of the hand: singandi sa tau, sa ngwe, etc . paw of a lion, of a leopard, etc. cf. siata.

singanga (li-) n. African doctor, medicine man. syn. –aka, nganga.

singangalume (li-) n. a stout man.

singangiso (li-) n. any tool used in carpentry work (hammer, saws etc. (from: -nganga).

singanya, word used in the express-ion: ku iswala singanya, to hold each other by the hand when walking.

-singanyeka (singanyekile) v.i. to think over, to plan, to project, to scek a solution.

singanyenganye, n. hesitation be-tween two choices, dilemma (from: -ngangamana).

singelo (li-) n. anything used to carry something. syn. silwalelo. (from: -nga)

singengema (ma-) n. large piece of corrugated iron.

singilinginja (li-) n. an unusual, ex-traordinary thing taken as a bad omen, abortive baby, misshapen animal (monster). syn. siloyang-undu.

 

singolongoma (li-) n. imaginary monster; ogre.

singomba, n. a very deep and long sleep: Ni lobezi singomba kacenu, I slept far too long today.

singongi (li- or bi-) n. kind of fish with dangerous pointed fins. syn. sikoyo-koyo, sibutu.

singongolo (li-) n. large, empty tin.

singongoteliso (li-) n. any instru-ment used as a hammer (from: -ngongota) .

singongotiso (li-) n. as singongote-Iiso. t

singonyi (li-) n. cramp: Ni na ni sing-onyi mwa mahutu, I have cramp in my leg.

singubu (li-) n. kind of skinless drum beaten on both sides (a large hollowed out triangular piece of wood, more a resounding box than an ordinary drum).

-singula (singuzi) v.t. to enquire about somebody's health (this verb is only used referring to the Litunga and members of his family, in charge of Nalolo, Mwandi, Libonda, Naliele and Ka-nanga).

singulumutwi (bo-) n. Luyana. a person with a large head.

singulyangulya1 (li-) n. (1) poisonous bulb of the flame lily plant; flower of the same. (2) satellite (man made).

singulyangulya2 adv. aimiessly. (This word is only used in the express-ion: ku nepa singulyangulya, to shoot in the air).

singungu, n. kind of itching grass.

singungwe (bi-) n. a stout person. syn. sinkuzi, etc.

singwenjuliso (li-) n. slasher (for cutting grass) (from: -ngwenjula).

-siniliketa (siniliketite) v.t. see: -si-neneketa.

sinjambi (li- or bo-) n. Luyana.  garden belonging to the Litunga and which had to be voluntarily cultivated in the past. cf. namukau, mbilye.

sinyapa or sinjapatila, n. watery, muddy place.

sinjengwa (li-) n. unproductive field (unfertilized).

sinji, adv. straight forward: Mu fuluhe feela sinji ku liba Mongu, paddie straight forward in the di-rection of Mongu.

sinjokotela (li-) n. great quantity of small fish boiling in a pot. syn. si-kakata.

sinjopwa, n. mire, mud. cf. sileze.

sinkalakata (bi-) n. see: nkalakata.

sinko (mi-) n. unpleasant smell. (from: -nka).

-sinkuka (sinkukile) v.i. to stand up, to spring to one's feet, to get up-rooted (tree). syn. -yema.

-sinkula (sinkuzi) v.t. to uproot; to lift up a heavy load. fig. to take away from: Yena kamita ku tata ku mu sinkulafa bucwala, it is always difficult to take that man away from a beer party. rel. -sinkulela (sinkulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -sinkulisa (sinkulisize) to help to ~. int. -sinkulelela (sinkulelezi) to uproot completely.

-sinkumuka (sinkumukile) v.i. to go or to come in great quantity (people, rain, etc.) syn. -sikumuka. rel. -sinkumukela (sinkumukezi) to go to: Kacenu batu ba sinkumukezi kwa Kuta ka bunata, today people went in great numbers to the Court.

sinkuyu (li-) n. jumping hare, jerboa.

sinkuzi (li-) n. see: nkuzi.

sinkwa (li-) n. loaf of bread.

sinkwana (li-) n. tobacco loaf.

sinna, n. pertaining to male sex. manliness, stout man adv. exp. ka  sinna, in a manly way, manly.

sino (li-) n. drink refreshments (from: -nwa).

sinodo (li-) n. Eng. synod, deliber-ative assembly of church leaders.

sinonelo (li-) n. basket used to col-lect fish caught in bow-nets (from: -nona).

sinono (li-) n. wild cat. fig. (1) a person not much seen among others; a recluse. (2) a person very fond of eating chicken.

sinotolo (li-) n. key (door-key. etc.) syn. kii.

-sinta (sintile) v.t. to exchange, to barter. to truck (in kind).

sintolo (li-) n. Eng. store. syn. ven-kele.

sintu, n. pertaining to African people: Milyaniya sintu nEyona i na ni tuso hanata, African medicines are often helpful also.

-sinuha1 (sinuhile) v.t. to leave some-one alone: Ni ta ku sinuha u pile hande, I will leave you alone so that you may have your happiness. caus. -sinuhisa (sinuhisize) to cause to ~. 

-sinuha2 (sinuhile) v.i. to stand aside: Sinuha fa, wa ni sila! stand aside, for you are casting a shadow on me!

-sinuka1 (sinukile) v.i. to be under the influence of a stupefying drug or medicine (love-potion). int. -si-nukelela (sinukelezi) to be comple-tely under the influence of a stupe-fying medicine and even being unable to work.

sinuka2 or sinukoi (li-) n. kind of grass with a strong and unpleasant smell (much used by African doc-tors) (from: -nka).

sinuko (li-) n. loin (pl).

sinuku (li-) n. porcupine.

sinukululu (li-) n. kind of bulbous plant eaten in time of famine

 

sinukwani (li-) n. burglar, thief; rascal .

-sinula (sinuzi) v.t. to reveal, to foretell. der. musinuli, sinulo. syn. -inula, taniketa. (see: -polofita). rel. -sinulela (sinulezi) to ~ to some-one ref. -isinulela (isinulezi) to foretell things concerning one's own future, to reveal oneself to (God): Niha u lolile cwalo, n'o sa lukeli ku isinulela bumaswe. al-though you had such a dream, it was not right for you to foretell a bad future.

sinulo, n. revelation, prophecy; the Revelation (Script). (from: -sinula).

sikumutumbi, n. evidence: Wena s'o ta eza si ta bonahala. mi i ta ba siku-mutumbi; what you are going to do will come to light and will be notorious.

-sinuna (sinuzi) v.t. to put someone under the influence of a stupefying (love) medicine. der. musinuni, mu-sinunelo. rel. -sinunela (sinunezi) to ~ for someone. ref. -isinuna (isinuzi) fig. to eat with dirty hands: Wena wa isinona, kini ha u ca ni masila? why are you eating with dirty hands, are you looking for bad luck?

sinundwa or sinundwe, n. obstinacy, obduracy, stubbornness. syn. mahani.

sinunga, n. used in the expression: mukolo wa sinonga, a canoe re-paired with the planks nailed on, or sown on with bark, etc . .

sinungana, n. bad familiarity, abuse of friendship. syn. sindambwila, sit-waelelo.

sinuniso (li-) n. any kind of cooking fat (from: -nuna).

sinwamaila (bo-) n. Toka-Leya. a heavy drinker. syn. simanamaila.

sinwelo (li-) n. container, vessel, re-ceptacle in which water is kept.  (from: -nwa).

sinwiso1 (li-) n. cup. anything used as a cup. (from -nwa).

sinwiso2 (li-) n. soldering.

sinya1 (li-) n. bladder. anat.

-sinya2 (sinyize) v.t. to destroy, to damage; to waste; to spoil; to spend; to plunder. fig. to slander: Ku maswe ka sinya libizo la mute, it is bad to calumniate somebody. der. musinyehi, musinyi, muisinyi, maisinyezi, sisinyi, businyehi, busi-nyi, sinyehelo, sinyeho. cf. -tupa-nya. rel. -sinyeza (sinyelize) to damage for; to spend for: U ni si-nyelize maxi a manata, he spent a lot of my money. caus. -sinyisa (si-nyisize) to cause to ~. stat. -si-nyeha (sinyehile) to get spoilt, de-stroyed, to become bad; to be spent. (see: -sinyeha). sp. exp. ka si-nyeXa kwa mba, to miscarry. int. -sinyehelela (sinyehelezi) to get completely destroyed. rec. -sinye-zana (sinyezani) to cause mutual harm. freq. -sinyanga to frequently ~.  red. -sinya-sinya (sinyasinyize) to cause a small damage. ref. -isinya (isinyize) to harm oneself. rel. -lsi-nyeza (isinyelize) to spoil one's own affairs. caus. -lsinyisa (isinyi-size) to deliberately cause harm to one's own affairs: Ha u eza mikwa ye maswe kwa bate cwana, u isinyisa libizo i sa li wena; in doing wrong to people like this, you are spoiling your name.

sinyai (li-) n. itching of the foot caused by dampness, water or dew.

sinyakanyaka, n. joy, rejoicing of many people meeting together on a special occasion (from: -nyaka-lala).

sinyaliso (li-) n. the money needed to pay the sionda. cfi sionda, malo-bolo, sinanuliso (from: -nyala).

 

sinyamba (li- or bi-) n. likishi dancer. fig. exp. ka kenela mute mwa sinyamba, to cheat. syn. siye.

sinyambe (bi-) n. a fat witchdoctor, a fat witch. syn. siloi. cf. kanyambe.

sinyanga (li-) n. hunter. syn. muzumi, sizumi.

sinyatela (li-) n. stomach cramp; gnawing pain, aching void, in the stomach.

-sinyeha (sinyehile) v.i. to become spoilt, destroyed; to become bad; to be spent. fig. exp. Mute s'a sinye-hile, the person is dead. rel. -sinye-hela (sinyehezi) to ~ because of. due to, etc . . .: Saha ya ka i sinye-hezifa ka saha mabala a tata, my saw was damaged when sawing very hard planks; to be used, spent for: Mali a hae a sinyehezifa mung-omo, he spent all his money in drinking. pass -sinyehelwa (sinye-hezwi) to suffer a damage, a loss: Ni sinyehezwi ki ndu ya ka, I have lost my home (divorce, death, etc.. .) ref. -lsinyehela (isinyehezi) to become bad, to get spoilt; to be dispersed: Likomu za mufu li isinye-hezifela, the cattle of the deceased were simply scattered about. freq. -sinyehanga to get habitually spoilt: Mali a maswe ka no sinye-hangafa lika ze sina tuso, money is not made just to be spent on buying useless things.

sinyehelo (lisinyehelo) n. damage, waste, loss (from: -sinyeha).

sinyeho (lisinyeho) n. damage, de-vastation, disaster, destruction (from: -sinyeha).

sinyinga (li-) n. curdled blood; con-tusion, ecchymosis. cf. silihilihi.

sinyo, n. calumny (from: -sinya fig.

sinzohoto, n. (1) left hand side: fig. exp. ka zamaya mute sinzohoto. to plan things behind somebody's back. (2) left-handedness: mute wa  sinzohoto left-handed person.

-si–a (si–ile) v.t. see -shi–a.

si–alamba (li-) n. embankment (of water, etc...)

si–anana, n. disobedience. indisci-pline, insubordination (from: –ana-dana).

sinanda, n. place surrounded by flood waters.

sinaneli (li-) n. hard headed person. a person hard to convince (from: -fiafiela).

si–iba (li- or ma) n. scar.

si–oliso (li-) n. pencil, pen, anything used for writing (from: –ola).

si–ombwe (li-) n. kind of tortoise.

si–omoto (li-) n. lump, clump (of buhobe, clay, etc.)

si–ompoliso (li-) n. anything used to take buhobe out of something (from: -–ompola).

si–ondo (li-) n. an anti-social, unas-similated person.

si–ono (li-) n. Luyana. stick used as a poker by blacksmiths.

si–ululume (li-) n. a stout and aged person.

si–waeliso (li-) n. scraper used for softening hides. (from: –waela).

si–wa–wa (li-) n. kind of gong, piano-accordion.

si–watiso (li-) n. Iadie, scoop (for grain, flour, etc.) (from: -–wata).

-sioka (siokile) v.t. (1) to work alone, to undertake a work too great for one's strength: Musebezi o mutuna cwana, ki na ni ka u sioka ni li nosi? o you think I shall be able to undertake such a work alone? (2) to beat someone repeat-edly: Wena mute yo muhulu ka y'o sioka mwanana cwalo, ki nto ye maswe, u fosEze! it is really awful for a big man like you to beat such a little child unmercifully; you have done a wrong thing!

sioko or soko (li-) n. forked pole  against which spears are leant and on which skulls of game are hung.

siomo (li-) n. condition of a woman who has miscarried: Musali ya mwa siomo h'a koni ka ezeza bate lico, a woman who has miscarried is not allowed to prepare food for the family.

sionda or sonda (li-) n. dowry but paid by the bridegroom to the bride's parents (from: -onda). syn. malobolo. cf. sinyaliso, sinanuliso fig.

siozela (bo-) n. see: sozela.

siozwa (li-) n. prostitute, harlot.

sipa (lisipa) n. genet; fur of the genet. syn. ndimba.

sipabaenda (bo-) n. a generous, bountiful. hospitable person who gives food even to passers-by (from: -fa).

sipai (li-) n. opening of a bow-net. syn. ndongo.

sipaileliso (li-) n. offering made to ancestors. syn. siyumbangetiso (from: -pailela).

sipaka (li-) n. shoulder bone, shoul-der blade, scapula.

sipakiso (li-) n. piece of wood used to fasten or to lock a grass-door (from: -paka).

sipakulo (li-) n. kind of wooden spoon used to take buhobe from the pot and for giving it a pleasant shape in dishes (from: -pakula).

sipalo, n. (1) census. (2) recruit-ment. ba sipalo, recruited labour. fig. exp. ka zamaiswa sipalo, to be taken to where one does not want to go at a place one does not like.

sipangaliko (li-) n. (sing. meaning) object, instrument used in witch-craft. (pl. meaning) personal ef-fects, any kind of belongings (from: -panga).

sipani (li-) n. Eng. span of oxen (from: -pana).

 

sipapela (li-) n. shelter made of branches.

sipatela (li-) n. Eng. hospital, dispensary, clinic.

sipato (li-) n. domestic duck.

sipaupau (li-) n. palm leaf 'basket' with a lid. fig. child who follows the mother everywhere.

sipaziso (li-) n. instrument used for t making scarifications (from: -paza).

sipazuliso (li-) n. axe, any instru-ment used for chopping, splitting wood, etc. (from: -pazula).

sipecu (li-) n. beer made strong by addition of sugar (from: -pecula).

sipeculelo (li-) n. container in which strong beer is prepared (from: -pecula).

sipeculiso (li-) n. sugar used to make beer stronger (from: -pecula).

sipeleta (li-) n. Eng. spelling-book, primer.

sipelu (li-) n. a kind of Lozi dance usually danced by young men and women.

sipendiso (li-) n. (1) brush used for house-painting. (2) syringe (from: -penda).

sipi (lisipi) n. (1) iron, metal; sƒpiye fubelu, copper; sƒpi ye sweu, zinc. (2) an iron (charcoal iron, electric iron, etc.). fig. a strong man.

sipiala or sipyala, n. fact of becom-ing grcy-haired when still young: mutu wa sipiala, a grey-haired young person.

sipiho, n. betting (from: -piha).

sipiiso (li-) n. stick used to lift a car-rying stick which is on the shoul-der (to relieve the pressure) (from: -ipiya).

sipinya (li-) n. breaking of wind

(fart) (from: -pinya).

 

sipobe (li-) n. depression, hallow, dip (in the ground). syn. sikisi.

sipolo (li-) n. (also sipolo sa njanji). railway line. see: njanji.

sipololiso (li-) n. Eng. rag, brush used to polish (curios, etc.) (from: -polola).

siponi (li-) n. mirror, looking-glass (from: -bona).

siposo (li-) n. spell. (witchcraft medicine believed to be effective from afar). syn. makoba. (from: -posa).

sipu! interj. used to express sprout-ing (seeds; small-pox, etc.): Mbonyi i ize sipu mwa simu, maize has sprung up in the field. (from: -sipuka).

-sipuka (sipukile) v.i. to germinate; to sprout; to grow rapidly. der. sipu. syn. -mela.

sipukiso (li-) n. spoon used for sip-ping (from: -puka).

sipuku (li-) n. Eng. phantom, ghost, spectre, apparition, spirit, spook.

sipuku-puku (li-) n. churl. boor, un-couth person.

sipula (li-) n. chair, seat, stool. cf. situlo.

sipuliso (li-) n. flail; any instrument for threshing corn, etc. (from: -pula).

sipulo (li-) n. small place (usually hollowed) prepared for a dog to give birth.

sipululu, adv. without permission: Ku kena sipululu, to enter uninvi-tedly.

sipulumuki1 (li-) n. butterfly.

sipulumuki2 (li-) n. a mad or insane person (from pulumuka).

sipuma (li-) n. crceping plant, the tuber of which is used to poison fish.

sipumawe, n. great noise made by I people, cattle, birds, etc. congre-gating together; large noise made  by a meteor falling through the earth's atmosphere; explosive noise made by a meteor hitting the earth.

sipumba (li-) n. rope fixed in any way to the ground and used for tying up cattle.

sipumbami (bo-) n. a strong man re-sisting someone or something firmly (from: -pumbama).

sipumbangombe (li-) n. puff-adder. syn. sibili, mili.

sipumbo (li-) n. hole in which an animal lies; place where a person sits for a long time.

sipumiso1 (li-) n. anything used for cheating. syn. songiso. (from: -puma).

sipumiso2 (li-) n. any object used for cutting (from: -puma).

sipundumukela, n. abrupt decision. adv. exp. ka sƒpundumukela, ab-ruptly, suddenly (from: -pundu-muka).

sipunyiso (li-) n. borer; any instru-ment used for boring (from: -punya).

sipupe (li-) n. French. doll.

sipupu (li-) n. bunch of wild dates (fruit of a small kind of palm tree called nandinde.

sipusu (li-) n. sheath (for the blade of any weapon).

siputela (li-) n. parcel, bundle (from: -puta).

siputu (li-) n. bale of material, print, etc.; large parcel or bundle (from: -puta).

sipwacangi (li-) n. a lazy traveller.

-sisa1 (sisize) v.t. to give much milk (cow, woman).

-sisa2 (sisize) v.i. to watch. sp. exp: ku sisa masa, to watch the whole night through (from: -sa).

sisa3 (lisa) n. site, premises, reserved plot in the capital: Ha si hanata ku fiwa mutu ku yaha fa sisa sa yo  munwi, it is very seldom that someone is allowed to build on a reserved plot.

sisabelo (ma-) n. refuge. (from: -saba).

sisali, n. character or qualities of a woman. spec. exp: ku wa sisali, to fall down together, no one over-coming the other (game, fight, etc .).

sisani, adj. thin, lean; fine.

-sisatala (sisatalile) v.i. see: -sita-tala.

sisebeliso (li-) n. tool, implement; any instrument used in work (from: -sebeza).

sisefelo (li-) n. sieving basin (from: -sefa).

sisehiso (li-) n. any instrument used for cutting. (from: -seha).

siselo (li-) n. natural product. fig. anything gathered, found or gained. cf. muselo (from: -sela).

sisepe (li-) n. barge, boat, ship. sishakaeli (li-) n. vagabond (from: -shakaela).

sishakashwa (bi-) n. vagabond, wan-derer; a neurotic person (from: -shakasha).

sishako (li-) n. asthma, whooping-cough. syn. sali.

sishambwe (li- or bi-) n. large puff-adder. cf. sibili.

sishanda (li- or bi-) n. very flat plate or dish; shallow basin or pot.

sishanjo (li-) n. garden (on the edge of a forest), a marsh on forest edge

sisha–ata (li-) n. a handful. spec. exp: sishanata sa malao, waspS nest.

sishapiso (li-) n. anything used for flogging, thrashing, etc. (from: -shapa).

sishawa (li-) n. small quantity, small number: Batili, h'a na likomu zenata. ki sishawafela; no, he has  not many cattle, but just a small number.

sishekeleti (bi-) n. the last unripe and unuseful products of a crop (pumpkins, maize, etc.) fig.: a weak, last born child (from: -shi-lela).

sishekete (li- or ma-) n. piece, bit; small particle of food improperly cooked. syn. sikoto.

sishela (li-) n. tumour; swelling

sishembiso (li-) n. a present offered in order to entice someone (from: -shemba).

sishenga, used in the expression: Mbonyi ya sishenga, husked maize (from: -shenga).

sishengiso (li-) n. any instrument used to sharpen tools (from: -shenga).

sishenjele (li-) n. very deep water, abyss.

sishenyangi (li-) n. cripple moving when squatting (from: -shenya).

sishenyi (li-) n. migratory locust (in the first stage of its development) (from: -shenya).

sishete (li-) n. large granary (unplas-tered) syn. situli. cf. sifalana.

sishimbelo (li-) n. any object used for carrying things (from: -shimba).

sishimbululelo (li-) n. container into which is poured something out of another container (from: -shimbu-lula).

sishinda (bo-) n. first class drummer (from: -shinda)

sishingwa (li- or bi-) n. large piece of firewood partly burnt; fire-brand.

sishokolo (li-) n. buffalo bull. syn. manda.

sisholwa-sholwa (li-) n. shallow pool which dries up annually. syn. ka-sholwa-sholwa.

sishomena, n. word used in the ex-pression: ku cela pizafa liso sisho-  mena, to take food out of the pot before distribution

sishondiso (li-) n. small fishspear made of plain wire (especially used by children) . syn. kasela. (from: -shonda).

sishongwa (ma-) n. stump (of a tree etc.) (see: mashongwa).

sishoweleliso (li-) n. present offered to the Litunga by a person giving the royal salutation.

sishuelo (li-) n. basket into which are put small fish just caught. syn. njuelelo (from: -shua).

sishuiso (li-) n. Iarge fishing basket. syn. Iishi–o. cf. Iukunda. (from: -shua).

sishumo (li-) n. wooden spade (used in the past) syn. sisomo

sishunena, n. as sishomena.

sishungwa (li-) n. kind of vegetable (much appreciated as relish).

sishutangi (li-) n. unsuccessful hunter or fisherman (from: -shuta).

sishutelo (li-) n. basket used by anglers (from: -shuta).

sishutiso (li-) n. bait; small fishing hook. cf. kashuto. (from: -shuta).

sishuwelo (li-) n. see: sishuelo.

sishuwiso (li-) n. see: sishuiso.

sishweka, n. partiality, favouritism insincerity. syn. sobozi. (from: -shweka).

sisi, n. heavy smoke: Ha lu yto kum-buluka, ndu i se i tunya sisi, before we had time to realize it, the house went up in smoke.

sisila, n. bad luck, misfortune. syn. sisimba, busimba

sisilelezo (li-) n. shield, protection of any kind. syn. sisiteketo. (from: -sileleza).

sisilelo (li-) n. potshed, broken piece of earthen ware in which to-bacco is ground. (from: -sila).

sisiliso (li-) n. small grinding stone (for grinding tobacco), pestle syn.  silwana (from: -sila).

sisimba, n. bad-luck, misfortune. syn. sisila, busimba.

-sisimba (sisimbile) v.i. to walk, to travel without haste, leisurely; to progress, to proceed slowly: Mu to-komele, mulilo wani u taha u si-simba; mind that fire over there, it comes slowly but surely rel. -si-simbela (sisimbezi) to ~ towards. caus. -sisimbisa (sisimbisize) to cause to ~

sisimo, n. origin, beginning. syn. simuluho.

-sisimuha (sisimuhile) v.i. to have goose-flesh (due to fear). caus. -si-simusa (sisimusize) to frighten, to shock, to make the flesh crcep.

sisinyi (li-) n. spoiler, destroyer, wicked person, evil docr. syn. mu-sinyi (from: -sinya).

-sisita1 (sisiti~le) v.t. to preoccupy, to obsess, to worry.

-sisita2 (sisitile) v.i. to grope. der. musisiteli., syn. -babata. -pupuleza. rel. -sisitela (sisitezi) to grope to-wards.

sisiteketo, n. protection, refuge; cover. syn. sisilelezo.

sisitiso (li-) n. pounding stick syn. sindunduliso, muusi. (from: -sita).

sisokwe (li-) n. pubic hair (cut as a sign of passage from childhood to adulthood).

sisomo (li-) n. mockery, derislon, sarcasm, scorn. sp. exp: Libizo la sisomo, nickname. (from: -soma).

sisongo (li-) n. an illness, no longer occurring, associated with super-stitious beliefs.

sisu (ma-) n. dry cow-dung some-times used as fuel. syn. lisu.

sisubi (bo-) n. a pressing. insistent beggar. a creditor who persists in following his debtor (from: -suba-lala).

sisuliso (li-) n. spoon used to serve  out, to portion out the contents of a pot (from: -sula).

sisululu, n. mild snuff.

sisuma (bi-) n. large piece of meat. syn. suma.

sisumo (bi-) n. see: sishumo.

sisumpila (li- or bi-) n. tuft of hair on the forehead.

-sisumuha (sisumuhile) v.i. see: -sisi-muha.

-sisumuka (sisumukile) v.i. as -sisu-muha.

sisunkununu (li-) n. as sisumpila.

sisunta (li-) n. gun-flint.

sisupo (li-) n. sign idiom exp.: Si-tenda ki sisupo sa bulena, a bald-head is a sign of sovereignty. cf. poniso (from: -supa).

sisusa (li-) n. scarecrow; any object used for frightening (from: -susa).

sisutu, n. Sotho language.

siswaiso (li-) n. any instrument used for marking (from: -swaya).

siswaliso (li-) n. any object used for holding something (from: -swala).

siswaniso (li- or ma-) n. image, sketch, drawing, picture; photo-graph, comparison, parable (from: -swanisa).

siswaya (li-) n. great quantity of meat available after good hunting: ku ikola siswaya, to enjoy meat after good hunting, and after having been a long time without it.

siswenyi (li-) n. someone who im-portunes; tormentor (from: -swenya).

-sita1 (sitile) v.t. to pound, to stamp, to pestle. der. musiti, busiti, sisi-tiso, musitelo, fig. to beat very severely. rel. -sitela (sitezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -sitisa (sitisize) to help to ~. stat. -siteha (sitehile) to be poundable: Mwanda wo ha u sitehi kakuli ha u sika oma hande, this cassava cannot be easily stamped as it is not yet dry  enough. syn. -funa stat. int. -sitelela (sitelezi) to pound the lot. rec. -siti-sana (sitisani) to help each other in pounding. red. -sita-sita (sita-sitile) to pound again and again for a little while. ref. -isitela (isitezi) to pound for oneself; -isitisa (isiti-size) as rec.

sita2 n. depth. syn. buliba.

sitabamahule (li-) n. thorny crcep-ing plant (from: -taba).

sitabaniso (li-) n. weapon (any kind of arms). syn. silwaniso. (from: -taba) .

sitabelo (li-) n. sacrifice. offering (from: -taba).

sitabi (li-) n. pain in the side; pneu-monia (from: -taba).

sitabiso (li-) n. anything used to stab (from: -taba).

sitahuliso (li-) n. any implement used for weeding (from: -tahula).

sitaka1¼ (li-) n. (1) thicket of reeds. (2) annual killing of birds.

sitaka2 (li-) n. Pied Kingfisher (bird) syn. mutangalati.

sitaka3, n. companionship. syn. butaka.

-sitaka4 (sitakile) v.i. to walk pomp-ously, full of self importance.

sitakela (li-) n. Lilac-breasted Roller (bird).

sitakuliso1 (li-) n. eraser, rubber, blackboard duster etc. (from: -takula).

sitakuliso2 (li-) n. drum-stick (used for maoma drums) (from: -takula).

sitakutaku (li-) n. a mixed up, quar-relsome person. syn. sibelebele.

sitakwa (li-) n. drunkard (from: -takwa).

sitalifi (li-) n. a learned person, a highly educated person (from: -talifa).

sitambiso (li-) n. Luyana. price paid for obtaining witchcraft medicine (from: -tamba).

 

sitamiso (li-) n. anything used for tying (string, bandage, etc.) (from: -tama) .

-sitana1 (sitani) v.i. to become irres-ponsible (state believed to be sometimes produced by witchcraft influence). caus. -sitanisa (sitani-size) to cause to ~: Sesi mu sitani-sEze pilu cwalo ki matokwani, it is hemp that destroyed his person-ality. ref. -lsitanya (isitanyize) or-isitanisa -(isitanisize) to destroy one's own personality.

sitana2 (li-) n. the small of the back.

sitandiso (li-) n. pointed stick used to hit the ball (tindi) in the cileke game (see: sumpu) (from: -tanda).

sitangoyi (bo-) n. Luyana. a person refusing to forgive an offender's fault and calling for revenge in doing so; someone starting to make mischief cf. musitanga (from: -tanga).

sitangu (li-) n. wonder, marvel, mir-acle; something unusual, extraor-dinary syn. mitolo, siyobo.

sitantampongo (li-) n. Toka-Leya. any kind of trce easy to climb.

sitantwe (li-) n. coop.

sitapa (li-) n. Iow ground near the river where maize is cultivated before the flood.

sitapata (li-) n. a corpulent person.

sitapelo (li- or ma-) n. washing basin, bath; bathing place (from: -tapa).

-sitatala (sitatalile) v.i. to stumble. syn. -sisatala. der. sitataliso. fig. to fall into temptation. caus. -sitata-lisa (sitatalisize) to cause to stum-ble; fig. to tempt, to lead into temptation .

sitataliso (li-) n. stumbling-block. fig. scandal (from: -sitatala).

sitatehiso (li-) n. fire-wood. (lit: something used to make a cooking fire) (from: -tateha).

 

sitatiso (li-) n. kind of needle used for curling hair (from: -tata). cf -bonda. :

sitato (li-) n. block of wood on which an anvil is fixed.

sitatu (li- or bo-) n. forest iguana.

sitauliso (li-) n. Eng. anything used t for wiping (towel, handkerchief, duster, etc.) (from: -taula).

- site1, n. used in the expressions: site sa lizazi, sunbeam; site sa mulilo, [ rays of the fire.

site2, n. Luyana. thicket of reeds or papyrus.

sitea or siteya, n. carelessness with clothes,

sitebule (li-) n. Eng. stable, small oblong house roughly built.

siteiso (li-) n. bait (any kind) (from: -tea). 

sitela1 (li-) n. hatred, spite, malice. ; syn. sitimbo.

-sitela2 (sitezi) v.t. to make a hedge, a fence; to hedge, to fence. der. lu-sitelo. caus. -sitelisa (sitelisize) to help to ~.

sitema (li-) n. canoe made out of a small tree; short, roughly made canoe.

sitempe (li-) n. Eng. stamp (postage stamp). sitenda (li-) n. bald head.

sitendewa (li-) n. drum beaten at both ends. syn. mukubele.

sitengu (li-) n. Natal Stone Chat (bird) .

siteo (li-) n. trap, snare (any kind) (from: -tea).

sitepo, n. tantrum of a child badly brought up.

sitete, n. flat land covered with flood water (where canoes can take short cuts across grassy patches and where spear-fishing is easy). syn. butete.

sitetimende (li-) n. Eng. statement  statement of appeal, of account, etc).

siteya1 (li-) n. small round calabash used as resounding-box with a ka-nombyo.

siteya2 n. a habit of careless tearing clothes see: sitea.

siteyo (li-) n. see: siteo.

sitibili (li- or ma-) n. pain caused by a violent blow (from: -tibula).

sitibiso (li-) n. stopper, cork, plug (anything used to stop up a hole) (from: -tiba).

sitibo (li-) n. cork. (from: -tiba) see: sitibiso.

sitibuliso (li-) n. any instrument used to take off the plaster from a wall. fig. blunt instrument.

sitibululiso (li-) n. any instrument used to open a corked or choked thing. corkscrew. (from: -tibulula).

sitilakita (li-) n. Eng. tractor. syn. ti-lakita.

sitima (li-) n. Eng. (steamer) train; engine; locomotive. syn. sitimela.

sitimbo, n. Luyana. hatred, spite, malice. syn. sitela. (from: -timba).

sitimbi (li-) n. dunce, duffer; a bad smger .

sitimela (li-) n. see: sitima.

sitimiso (li-) n. fire-extinguisher. (from: -tima)

sitimuniso (li-) n. anything used to extinguish a fire (from: -timuna).

sitina (li- or bi-) n. brick (also a great quantity of bricks).

sitindi (li- or bi-) n. fishing place where people gather on special oc-casions to spear fish together (ku waya sitindi). fig. harlot.

sitino1 (li-) n. tomb of members of the Royal Family.

sitino2 (li-) n. garment (covering the lower part of the body) (from: -tina) .

sitipwitipwi (li-) n. liquid food.

sitobohwa (li-) n. a person who  reaks ties with other people be-cause of his bad character. (from: --oboha).

sitofu (li-) n. Eng. stove.

sitoho1¼ (bi-) n. the last drops of beer  remaining in a pot.

sitoho2 (bi-) n. meat from a beast's head given to scrapers as a reward and eaten by them when scraping the hide.

sitokisi (li-) n. Eng. ('stocks') guard room.

sitoko (li-) n. Eng. stock-taking.

sitokoliso (li-) n. any instrument used to dig or dredge canals, etc. (from: -tokola).

sitokwa (bi-) n. see: lutokwa.

sitola (li-) n. Sotho. prostitute, harlot; an incestuous person. (from: -tola).

sitole (li-) n. full-grown heifer.

sitolelo (li-) n. small bottle in which medicinal ointment is kept. (from: -tola).

sitoli (li-) n. pole fixed in the ground and to which cattle are tied up for the night.

sitolo (li- or bo-) n. (1)Squacco Heron. (2) African Green-backed Heron. (3) Little Bittern. (4) Red--necked Little Bittern. (5) African Dwarf Bittern. (The name sitolo covers many smaller Herons and Bitterns. The name is applied to each of the above species together with varying descriptive adjectives or explanations if distinction is re-quired. Sitolo Imau is often used for Bitterns).

sitolopo (li-) n. Eng. strap for in- spanning oxen.

sitombo (li-) n. abscess, ulcer, sore.

sitomoliso (li-) n. tweezers (any in-strument used for pulling out splinters, thorns, jiggers, etc.) (from: -tomola).

sitondo1 (bi-) n. Luyana. tree (any 

   kind of tree). syn. kota.

sitondo2 (bo-) n. (1) rain-maker. (2) name given to people during thun-derstorms for fear that by calling them by their proper names disa-ster wouid ensue.

sitongo (li-) n. moan, groan. (from: -tonga).

sitongoliso (li-) n. any implement used to uproot edible bulbs, etc. (from: -tongola).

sitongwani1 (li-) n. hyena. fig. person prowling about with ill intention. syn. mukutulu, siwi, mungundwe.

sitongwani2 (li-) n. kind of mush-room.

sitongwani3 (li-) n. kind of thorny bush.

sitopa (li-) n. group or party (of people); school class.

sitoto (li-) n. ignorant, stupid, fool-ish, blockheaded person. syn. muelo, sikuba. cf. sanganu.

sitowati (li-) n. foreign body (in the eye). syn. Iutokwa.

sitoyo (li-) n. hatred, resentment. syn. ndimbelela, sikukune. (from: -toya).

sitozezo (li-) n. small bottle in which vaseline or medicinal oint-ment is kept. (from: -toza).

situbiso (li-) m any implement used to pull down a wall, a house, etc. (from: -tuba).

situhu1, n. cruelty, brutality, barbar-ity

situhu2 (li-) n. kind of bream fish.

situhu3 (li-) n. skin disease (mostly affecting the scalp).

situhulu (li-) n. lineage, descent; progeny, offspring.

situkuliso (li-) n. any winnowing-basket used to sift kaffir-corn. cf. Iiselo (from: -tukula).

situkutuku, n. sultry heat. (from: -tukutelwa).

situlehiso (li-) n. instrument used in  giving a clyster. (from: -tuleha).

situli (li-) n. granary. syn. sifalana.

situliso (li-) n. any tool used by blacksmiths (from: -tula).

situliso2 (li-) n. jumping-pole. (from: -tula).

situlo (li-) n. Eng. (1) stool. chair;

| seat. (2) title, position, office. cf. sipula

situmbuliso1 (li-) n. anything used to start a fire. (from: -tumbula').

situmbuliso2 (li-) n. any instrument used to castrate animals. (from: -tumbula2).

situmo (li-) n. harmonium, piano, organ. fig. a good bass singer. (from: -luma).

situmwanyanga, n. way of doing things hurriedly syn. kayeye.

situnda (li-) n. hunch (people). by extension: hunchback.

situndameni, n. see. mutundameni.

situngekiso (li-) n. one of the first strong poles used when starting to build the roof of a hut. (from: -tungeka).

situngu (li-) n. small circular hut. (from: -tungeka).

situnula (li-) n. a large piece of meat.

situpa (li-) n. identity card, identity certificate, registration card.

situpu (li-) n. corpse. syn. sibimbi.

situsiso (li-) n. any object used to help a person do something. (from: -tusa).

situtelo (li-) n. vessel into which beer is strained.

situtiso1 (li-) n. sieve, colander. (from: -tuta).

situtiso2, n. an unexpected increase in the volume of the food obtained when sifting or cooking, and be-lieved to be a gift granted by God and only to certain people. cf. sib-ubiso. (from: -tuta).

situto (li-) n. wooden tool used to  hold hot iron when forging. (from: -tula).

situtu1, n. kind of grass.

situtu2, n. ardent, but ephemeral love for a new person and disre-garding others. (from: -tutuma).

situtu3, n. naked above waist, naked ku lobala situtu, to sleep naked.

situtuliso (li-) n. carpet beater. (from: -tutula). anything used to shake off dust.

situtunga (li-) n. waterbuck

situwa (li-) n. roof.

situyatuya (li-) n. pitch of the mutuya tree (used to poison fish). cf. kambeti.

-sitwa1 (sitilwe) v.i. to be unwell, to be sick: Bo me ba sitwa kacenu, my mother is unwell today. syn. -kula.

sitwa2 (sitilwe) e.t. to be too heavy for, to be impossible for: Musebezi wa ni sitwa, ni palelwa ku u eza ni li nosi, the work is too great for me, l cannot do it alone. syn. -palelwa. caus. -sitiswa (sitisizwe) to cause hindrance .

sitwaelelo, n. bad familiarity, abuse of friendship. syn. sindambwila, si-nungana. (from: -twaela).

sitwatwa (li-) n. barren cow.

sitwi (li-) n. part of a house where guests are received; front hall, front room.

sitwisambufu (li-) n. Luyana. unu-sual menses during pregnancy.

sitwiso (li-) n. special axe used to hollow out stamping blocks, mor-tars.

sitwolondo (li-) n. large hollowed piece of wood serving as mortar for stamping clay used in the fab-rication of bellow funnels.

siubeliso (li-) n. any instrument used for making dykes. (from: -ubela).

siukuliso (li-) n. any instrument serving to skim cream, fat, etc.  (from: -ukula).

siula (siuzi) v.t. to act as a mediator, as a peace-maker. der. musiuli. cf. --sikulula -siuluka (siulukile) v.i. to change di-rection, to turn round. cf. -siku-luha. rel.

-siulukela (siulukezi) to turn towards. caus. -siulukisa (siu-lukisize) to cause a change of di-rection.

-siulula (siuluzi) v.t. to cause some-one's change of mind, to separate fighting people, to act as a media-tor. der. musiululi. cf. -sikulula.

siumbi (li-) n. large water rat.

siumbiso (li-) n. any material used for the building of a shelter (mats, grass, etc) (from: -umba).

siunduma (li-) n. charm; anything containing witchcraft medicine (horns, etc.).

siutiso (li-) n. provisions, food sup-plies. (from: -uta).

siuto, n. feeding (of people) (from: --uta).

siwa (bo-) n. Night Heron.

siwabile, n. song connected with girls initiation (usually sung by women when a girl comes out of her initiation confinement (from: -waba).

siwaiso (li-) n. any kind of fish spear. cf. muwayo. (from: -waya).

siwaluwalu or sihwaluhwalu (li-) n. a deficient person (from all points of view).

siwambumene or siimbumene (bo-) n. Luyana. a c redulous person, one easily duped.

siwanamui (li-) n. chamber pot.

siwaya (li-) n. aluminium sauce pan. cf. mupika.

siwayani (li-) n. someone talking nonsense. (from: -wayana).

siweko, n. used in the expression: ku sebeza siweko, to work at first  enthusiastically and then despiri-tedly.

siwela, n. used in the expression: ka siwela, by chance, occasionally, Litapi cwale li bonwafela ka siwela; fish are now seen only occasion-ally. (from: -wa).

siweleya, n. group of people wan-dering about with bad intentions (mostly women).

siwi-namungundwe (bo-) n. Luyana. hyena. syn. sitongwani.

siwiso, n. kind of good luck be-lieved to be imparted to some people, and according to which pumpkin and vegetable marrow seeds they sow produce large crops. (from: -wa).

-siya (siile) v.t. to leave behind, to abandon. fig. to die. rel. siyela (siyezi) to leave for, to abandon to. caus. -siisa (siisize) to cause to abandon. int. -siyelela (siyelezi) to abandon for good; to abandon everything.

siyahisi (li- or ma-) n. large rectang-ular house. (from: -yaha).

siyahiso (li-) n. any tool, etc. used in building (from: -yaha).

siyahululiso (li-) n. any tool, etc. used in dismantling something. (from: -yaha).

siyakayaka (li-) n. outcast, vaga-bond. syn. sicakacaka, liwangu-wangu, siyambangani. sibangoki.

siyakiso (li-) n. means used by rain-makers to drive back rain. (from: -yaka).

siyaleto (li-) n. nest. sp. exp. Ku siya mwanafa siyaleto, to die in child-birth (from: -yaleta).

siyaletiso (li- or ma-) n. fragments of rceds put in a pot to prevent fish from burning. (from: -yaleta).

siyalo (li-) n. reed mat spread in a canoe to protect people and goods from the water. (from: -yala).

 

-siyama tsiyami or siyamile) v.i. to bŽ or to lie across something: Ni fumani likuluyoka li siyami mwa nzila, I found a very large snake lying across the path. syn. -baama. rel. -siyamela (siyamezi) to ~ (to-wards): U sike wa siyamela kwa ma-lobalelo a yo munwi, do not cause inconvenience to your bed-fellow by putting your tegs across (his area). caus. -siyamisa (siyamisize) to put across: Sesi ku siyamisize mwa munyako kini? why are you sitting in the doorway?

siyamana (li-) n. Luyana. a wild animal. syn. folofolo.

siyambangani (li- or bo-) n. outcast, vagabond. syn. sicakacaka, liwang-uwangu, osiyamena, siyakayaka. n. used adverbially: open, U sEile ndu ya hae siyamena, he left his house open .

-siyamena (siyamezi) v.i. to be bereft (husband of wife or wife of husband). cf. -shwelwa. fig. to die, to perish. sp. exp: ku shwa, ku siya-mena, to perish in great numbers.

-siyana (isyani or siyanile) v.i. to compete, to race; to differ: Lizuma ze za siyana kwa bunde; these bas-kets are different one is nicer than the other. der. sijano. syn. -lakana.

siyandingiso (li-) n. any instrument used to stir food (meal, small fish. etc.) spread out in the sun in order to be dried. (from: -yandinga).

siyanehelo (li-) n. (1) mat used in the drying of grain, meal, etc. (2) wire, cord, plastic-line used as a washing-line. (from: -yaneha).

siyanga (li-) n. sce: -sianga.

siyangiso (li-) n. any implement used to pluck fruit.

siyangwa or suyangwa (bo-) n. Crested Hawk Eagle.

siyano, n. race, competition. cf. mwendano (from: -siyana

 

siyanunelo (li-) n. container used for grain gathered after having been spread out for drying. (from: -yanuna).

siyatiso (li-) n. instrument used by African doctors to cut arteries in order to relieve people from neu-ralgia, headache, toothache, etc. (from: -yata).

siyawani (li-) n. see. siwayani.

siyaya (li- or bi-) n. kind of disease, no longer occurring, associated with superstitious beliefs.

siyayuliso (li-) n. any instrument used to scale fish. (from: -yayula).

siye (li- or bi-) n. likishi dancer's dress. fig. exp: ku kenela matu mwa siye, to cheat. syn. sinyamba.

siyebuliso (li-) n. any implement used for pecling fruit, vegetables, etc. (from: -yebula).

siyebuliso (li-) n. any implement used for pecling fruit, vegetables, etc. (from: -yebula).

-siyeka (siyekile) v.t. see. sieka.

siyekela (siyekezi) v.t. to give suck (cow): Komu yani ya siyekela, that cow is giving suck to its calf; to suck (calf): Hakuna mabisi, namani i siyekezi, the cow has no more milk, for its calf has been sucking.

siyekile (bo-) n. lark.

 siyemboka (li-) n. see: siemboka.

siyemo (li-) n. see: siemo.

siyendekaminsi, n. horizon. (lit: where pestles can be leant against the firmament).

siyengiso (li-) n. any instrument used to give a smooth finish to wood work (hatchet, knife, etc.). (from: -yenga)

siyepeliso or siyepiso (li-) n. any tool used in digging. (from: -yepa).

siyo, adv. not there: ku ba siyo, not be there, to be absent

siyobo (li-) n. (1) something ex-traordinary, unusual: bad omen.  (2) wonder, marvel, miracle. syn. mitolo, sitangu.

siyokoliso (li-) n. pincers, or anvything used to take an object or food out of the fire. (from: -yokola )

siyokoyoko (li- or bi-) n. kind of fish with dangerous pointed fins. syn. singongi, sibutu.

siyongili, n. noise made by many people

siyopu (li-) n. hut used for ritual confinements (of mothers soon after giving birth etc ).

siyotelelo (li-) n. container in which medicinal roots are burnt.

siyubiso (li-) n. scoop, anything used for bailing (from: -yuba)

siyubo (li-) n. (1) scoop (2) Li-ntunga's harbour (from -yuba)

siyumbangetiso (li-) n. offering made to the spirit of an ancestor. syn. sipaileliso. (from -yumbang-eta)

siyumbela, n. custom of putting poison in water to kill fish. (from - -yumbela). cf. kambweti.

siyumbeliso (li-) n. spade, hoe, any tool used for making dykes. (from: -yumbela)

siyumeneno (li-) n. pot used for the preparation of medicinal steam in-halations (from:-yumena)

siyunda (li-) n. optical illusion (due to darkness) (from: -yunda).

sizana, col. n. young giris: sizana ya Sefula, the young giris of Sefula. cf. tangana.

s,zekiso (li-) n. court fee (from: --zeka)

siziba (li-) n. African kilt. cf. mu-lamba.

sizibi (li-) n. a clever student (from: -ziba)

sizingwa (li-) n. a foolish, stupid, strong-headed person. (from:  -zinga)

 

sizizi (li-) n. dunce. duffer, feeble-minded person; irresponsible person. (from: -zizibala)

sizo, n. habit, custom, disposition. etc pertaining to someone's origin.

sizonono (li-) n. severe gonorrhea

sizubelo (li-) n. snuff-box (from: -zuba).

sizuhela or sizuhelwa, n. fit of temper. (from: -zuha). moodiness

sizumi (li-) n. basket.

sizumi (li-) n. hunter syn. muzumi (from -zuma)

sizwakiso (li-) n. anything used for mixing with something else: Ha t?i na sEzwakiso sa bupi bwa mwania, ni soka fela bupi bwa mbonyi, I am preparing just maize buhobe for I have no cassava flour to mix with it (from:-zwaka)

sizwalo, n. hereditary characteris-tic. trait

sizwana, n. Toka-Leya earthen pot

-sobonta (sobontile) or sobota (sobo-tile) v.i. to be drenched to the skin (rain) fig. to rain blows upon, to beat up. rec. fig. -sobotana (sobo-tani) to beat up each other severely.

sobozi1, n. partiality, favouritism. bias syn. sishweka.

sobozi2, n. resemblance, likeness syn. sihozo.

soi (lioi) n. dog's collar.

soka1 (lioka) n. iron ring tightening a spear-head to its handie (from: -soka2).

-soka2 (sokile) v.t. to tighten a spear-head to its handie with an iron ring der. soka.

-soka3 (sokile) v.i. to blossom (maize, kaffir corn, etc.)

-soka4 (sokile) v.t. to stir buhobe. fig. to twist, to wring: Ba mu sokile mulala, they wrung his neck der. musoki, musokelo, lusokwana, mu-  sokwana. cf. bonda. rel. -sokela (sokezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -sokisa (sokisize) to help to ~. stat. -sokeha (sokehile) to be able to be stirred: Bupi bo ha bu sokehi hande, ha hu si ka oma; this flour cannot be stirred in a proper way because it has not been dried. int. -sokelela (soWelezi) to ~ the whole lot. freq. -sokanga to ~ frequently. inv. -so-kolola (sokolozi) to ~ for the second time: Na, ha ni ci buhobe bo bu sokolozwi, ki mwila. I don't eat buhobe which has been stirred for the second time, for that is taboo red. -soka-soka (soka-sokile) to ~ quickly. ref. -lsokela (isokezi) to ~ for oneself: Ni ta isokela kahobe ka-kanyinvanifela, I shall just prepare a small quantity of buhabe for myself.

sokisi (masokisi) n. Eng. sockg stocking

soko (lioko) n. see: sioko.

sokola (liokola) n. shelled cob of maize. syn. mutose.

soli (lioli) n. island. syn. Iikuli.

-solomona (solomozi) v.t. to crush, to husk: ku solomona mauza a ku tefsa linyunywani, to husk millet in order to trick and snare birds

-solompa (solompile) v.t. to drench syn. -sompa. cf. -nela.

solume, n. personal property (crops, etc.) of a husband which he alone can dispose of: Munumwaha, ha ni sika kutula hande mwa simu ya ka ya solume, ha ni zibi se ni ta yum-bulanga ba ba ta na ba lu etelanga; this year, I did not harvest much in my own field and I don't know how I shall show hospitality to our visitors.

-soma (somile) v.t. (1) to ridicule, to hold someone up to ridicule; to mock, to jeer, to scorn. der. lisomo, sisomo. syn. -shengula. rec.

 

-somana (somani) to mock each other. ref. -isoma (isomile) to deride oneself by swaggering (2) to have sexual intercourse rel. -somela (somezi) to offend someone by having sexual intercourse with one of his relatives, to ~ somewhere caus. -somisa (somisize) to cause to ~ rec. -somana (somani) to have sexual intercourse by mutual agreement freq. -somanga to frequently ~

sombaombiso (li-) n. anything used to console, to lull or to comfort a child (from:-omba-omba).

sombeka, n. manner of cooking without sufficient fire. fig. exp: Taba ye ki sombeka, this case is an old one and is making no progress

sombela (liombela) n. large brown forest-lizard.

sombo, n. ritual sacrifice of cattle (or people) usually made in the past on the occasion of a Litunga's death.

somo (liomo) n. see: siomo.

-sompa (sompile) v.t. see: -solompa.

sompo (li-) n. kind of witchcraft medicine made of crushed leaves (believed to protect against the hostile influence of spirits of de-ceased people).

-sompoloka (sompolokile) v.i. to become powerless (speaking of a witchcraft medicine or of a witch-doctor whose power has been overcome by a more powerful in-fluence): Mulyani wa hae u sompolo-kile, his medicine has lost its po-tency. syn. -tompoloka. int. -sompo-lokelela (sompolokelezi) to lose en-tirely potency or power

-sompolola (sompolozi) v.t. to annual (by means of witchcraft medicine) the power of a witch-doctor or the potency of any of his medicines. ref. -isompolola (isom polozi) to eat, inadvertedly or by necessity, tabooed food which amluis the power of a protecting medicine.

sonda (lionda) n. sce: sionda.

sondo1 (liondo) n. any tool, etc. which can be used to cause harm

sondo2 (liondo) n. iron forged into any implement. adv. exp: sondo si sa cisa, immediately (lit: while the iron is still hot)

-sondomeka (sondomekile) v.t. to in-struct fullyt to insist in giving ex-planations. cf. -ngotomeka.

sondwe (liondwe) n. kind of edible tuber which grows in the forest (much liked by duikers). syn. sim-bulukushu.

songanyi, n. see: sibonganyi.

songiso (li-) n. Luyana. method used to cheat syn. sipumiso. (from: -onga)

sonya (sonyize) v.t. (1) to squash an insect. (2) to kill: to run over someone, to trample to death. cf. -bulaya. rel. -sonyeza (sonyelize) to kill for, at, in caus. -sonyisa (sonyi-size) to cause or to help to kill.

-soneta (sonetile or sonetite) v.t. (1) to push something forward into a hole. (2) to kill by stining

soo (lioo) n. bath used for medicinal ablutions (mostly intended to bring good luck).

soomo (liomo) n. sce: siomo.

Sope (1) January (see: Kweli) (2) Lozi Prime Minister. syn. Ngam-bela, Minyolui.

sopu or sopusiwa, n. Luyana. fine grass growing in fertile soil, fig. exp: Kacenu u pila hande, u fumani fa sopusiwa: he is living very well today, for he has found a sinecure.

sosaa ! interj. burnt out! burnt to ashes! Ni tilofumana tapiya ka i cile sosaa! I found that my fish was  completely burnt to ashes! syn. lotee!

-sosobana (sosobani or sosobanile) v.i. (1) to frown; to show anger, to show displeasure, discontent. (2) to show physical signs of moral troubles. cf. -shanana. caus. -soso-banisa (sosobanisize) or-sosobanya (sosobanyize) to cause to ~.

sosolo (li-) n. Eng. saucer cf. pu-laiti.

-sosonya (sosonyize) v.t. to eat, picking at (peanuts, small fish! etc.) rel. -sosonyeza (sosonyelize) to ~ at things belonging to someone caus. -sosonyisa (sosonyisize) to cause to ~. int. -sosonyeleza (soso-nyelelize) to ~ the whole lot. -sota (sotile) v.t. to chew, to masti-cate (sugar cane, etc.) throwing away the hard core. syn. -kambula. -soteza (sotelize) v.t. to drive cattle fig. to accompany a sick person -sotisa (sotisize) v.t. to deprive, to dispossess, disinherit. der. sotiso. syn. -kabelela, -tombola. cf. -yawa. ref. -lsotisa ( isotisize) to bring harm or misfortune upon oneself: U isotisize i li yena, ka ku bulaya mwan'a hae ya n'a ka mu pilisa; he made hardship for himself by kill-ing the child who wouid have looked after him.

sotiso, n. dispossession, depri-vation, disinheritance. (from: -sotisa).

soto, adj. dark brown (male cattle (with reference to female cattle: sotwana ).

sowa (liowa) n. scorpion. syn. ka-banze.

soya (lioya) n. gonorrhoca, blen-norrhoca

soyafutu, n. Luyana. hardship caused by bad health: ku pila soya-futu, to live a hard life due to bad health.

 

sozela (bo-) n. a dozy, sleepy person. (from: -ozela).

su! interj. expressing darkness: Ku lisu! it is dark; we are in darkness!

suba (liuba) n. dyke, artificial ter-race built to stop or to bridge water in the floody plain. (from: -ubela)

-subaela (subaezi) v.t. to overfeed a child.

-subaeta (subaetile) v.t. as -subaela. 

-subalala (subalalile) v.t. to force, to compel, to constrain; to bind, to leave no option. der. sisubi. syn. --hapeleza. -subama.

-subama (subami or subamile) v.t. as -subalala.

-subeka (subekile) v.t. to put things in the wrong place. freq. -subaeka (subaekile) to ~ repeatedly.

-subiketa (subiketite) v.i. to appear as part of a whole: Nifumani noha i subiketite mwa musima, I found a snake half in its hole.

-suboka (subokile) v.i. to be obsti-nate, stubborn. der. musuboko. rel. -subokela (subokezi) to annoy someone by one's obstinacy, caus. -subokisa (subokisize) to cause stubbornness.

-sueta (suetile) v.i. see: -sweta.

-suha1 (suhile) v.t. to tan, to rumple, to soften a skin. fig. to shake (as a dog shaking an animal it has caught). der. musuhi. syn. -nyuka. rel. -shuhela (suhezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -suhisa (suhisize) to help to ~. stat. -suheha (suhehile) to be able to be softened; to be able to become supple, soft: . Mukata wa ka u suhehile hande, my hide is properly softened. rec. -suhana (suhani or suhanile) fig. to fight. red. -suha-suha (suha-suhile) to soften a skin a little ref. -isuhela (isuhezi) to ~ for oneself.

-suha2 (suhile) v.i. to fear, to be  afraid of. syn. -saba. caus. -susa (susize) to frighten (see: -susa). rec. -suhana suhani) to fear each other. suko (li-) n. penis syn. pili. memba. sukulu (li-) n. rhinoceros; knob-kerry made of rhino horn.

-sukuluka1 (sukulukile) v.i. to suffer: to be in great difficulty. sn. -nyanda, shupeka, sheta.

-sukuluka2 (sukulukile) v.i. to be stirred, agitated (water); to be raised (dust).

-sukulula (sukuluzi) v.t. to agitate, to shake to stir: Mu sike mwa suku-lula mezi ao, ni bata ku t'o a nwa, don't disturb that water I want to drink it! der. sukusuku.

-sukumuna (sukumuzi) v.t. to shake earth to the ground (when hocing or weeding).

sukusuku (ma-) n. settling (of water), (from: -sukulula).

-sula (sulile) v.t. to remove a pot from the fire; to take cooked food out of a pot and share its contents. der. musuli, musulelo, musulo. rel.-sulela (sulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -sulisa (sulisize) to help to ~. int. -sulelela (sulelezi) to distribute the whole contents of a pot. ref. -isulela (isulezi) to take for oneself food from the pot: Mwanana u maswe ku isulelanga busunso mwa piza, a sikafiwa: it is a bad habit for a child to help himself from a pot of relish without permission. fig. exp: U ta si sula unomwaha, you will suffer this year (as a consequ-ence of bad behaviour).

-sulaeta (sulaetite) v.t. to escort an unwilling person (as a policeman escorting a prisoner) rel. -sulaetela (sulaetezi) to escort to.

-sulana (sulani) v.i. to catch one's breath (fear); to be extremelv preoccupied; to be on the point of death: Moya wa ka s'o sulana mwa  sifuba..ha ni sa ziba se ni ka eza: I am extremely preoccupied and I don't know what I am going to do

sulu (liulu) n. kind of tree (growing in the plain).

-suluha (suluhile) v.i. to spill out (liquid). syn. -ndan~uka cf. -shuku-muka, -lubuka, fig. to pour (rain). int. -suluhelela (suluhelezi) to spill out completely: Mabisi a suluhelezi kaufel'a ona, the milk spilt out completely.

-sulula (suluzi) v.t. (1) to pour, to shed, to spill. syn. -sela. (2) to have diarrhoca. syn. -pyeha. sp. exp. Ku sulula mba, to abort; ku sulula mali, to have blackwater fever (dysen-tery) rel. -sululela (sululezi) to pour something down. caus. -sululisa (sululisize) to cause to spill; to purge. int. -sululelela (sululelezi) to spill the whole amount. freq. -su-laula (sulauzi) to cause a liquid to squirt out, to spout from a con-tainer. ref. -isululela (isululezi) to spill a liquid onto one's body.

-sulumana (sulamani) v.i. to remain at the same place, to sit down si-lently. syn. -ungumana, -shushu-mana.

-sulumeka (sulumekile) v.t. to suc-cced in doing anything. cf. -kona, -omeka.

sului, n. col. n. warrior ant. red ant

suma (li-) n. see: sisuma.

sumbi (ii-) n. see. siumbi.

sumbwanyambe (bo-) n. God's crea-ture.

-sumekela (sumekezi) v.t. to promise; to make an agreement; to consecrate (a church, etc): Ni sumekezi musali, I made an agree-ment with a lady in order to marry her.

sumpu (li-) n. pointed stick used to hit the ball in the game called tindi or cileke (see: tindi, cileke)

 

-sumpwa (sumpilwe) v.i. to be bored (by insects): Mbonyi ya ka i sum-pilwe, my maize has been de-stroyed by borers.

sumu, adj. white muzzled (body being of any colour) male cattle: (with reference to female cattle: sunyana)

-sumuna (simuzi) v.i. to purse one's lips, to pout; to look sulky.

Sunda (li-) n. Eng. (1) Sunday; la Sunda, ka la Sunda. on Sunday syn. Pumulo. cf. Sabata. (2) week. syn. viki.

-sunda2 (sundile) v.t. to push. cf. -kasha. pass. -sundwa (sundilwe) to be pushed. fig. to feel an urgent need to relieve oneself (see: -sundwa). rel. -sundela (sundezi) to push towards, to push for some-one: Mu ni sundele mota ya ka kwa ndu, push my car to the house caus. -sundisa (sundisize) or order or to help to push. -sundeleza (sun-delelize), -sundiliketa (sundilike-tite), -sundilikeza (sundilikelize) to push someone through, to help someone through) int. -sundelela (sundelezi) to push persistently, together fig. to get in by intrusion: Mu sike mwa sundelela cwalofa mu-nyako, mu tuhele pili banana ba kene, do not push in through the door, let the children come in first. stat. -sundeha (sundeile) to be mo-vable: Mota ya luna i pala ku sun-deXa ka baka la lishabati, our car cannot be moved because of the sand. rec. a) -sundana (sundani) to push each other; b) -sundanela (sundanezi) to rush for: Mu si ke mwa sondanela mwa munyako cwalo, do not rush like this to-ward,s the door. freq. -sundanga to push persistently. fig. to be ill for a long time; -sundangisa (sundangi-size) fig. (1) to cause persistent suf fering: Butuku bwa hae bu sa mu sundangisa, his illness still makes him suffer a lot; (2) to throttle with insistence. (3) to push forward en-ergetically a canoe too heavily loaded for a single paddier inv. -sundulula (sunduluzi) to push again and again. red. -sunda-sunda (sunda-sundile) to give a little push ref. -isunda (isundile) as rec.

sundulula, n. important matter, im-portant case which cannot be settled quickly fig. people or cattle in great numbers. syn. -sundunda.

sunduma (liunduma) n. see: siun-duma.

-sundumana (sundumani) v.i. to do something energetically (running, pushing, etc . .)

sundunda, n. people or cattle in very great numbers. syn. sundulula fig.

-sundwa (sundilwe) pass. v. to feel an urgent need to relieve oneself. (see: -sunda. pass. fig.)

-sunga (sungile) v.t. to urge, to press, to incite: Mu sunge batu katata, ba ye kwa musebezi, you must strongly encourage people to go to work. cf. -sungumuna.

sungabusu, n. buhobe that crumbles for lack of sufficient water: U toko-mele' u sike wa soka sungabusu, take care not to stir the buhobe with insufficient water.

sungo (biungo) n. promontory. syn. mongu or mongu.

sungulela, n. hart-burn.

-sungumuna (sungumuzi) v.t. to urge, to press insistently. cf. -sunga.

-sunsa (sunsize) v.t. to dip lumps of buhobe in relish. der. busunso, mu-sunsezo. rel. -sunseza (sunselize) to ~ for someone: Usunseze munyan'a hao hande, a ce a kule: help your little brother to dip his buhobe in  the relish so that he eats enough and becomes full.

-sunya1 (sunyize) v.t. to throw down something which sinks into the sand: sp. exp. U sike wa sunya toho ya hao mwa lishabati, u tafateha, do not put your head into the sand, otherwise it will get into your eyes.

-sunya2 (sunyize) v.t. to give (in such a way that only the recipient knows of the gift). cf. -fa.

-suna (sunile) v.t. to transplant, to plant cuttings. der. musur;i, musu-nelo. rel. -sunela (sunezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -sunisa (sunisize) to help to ~. int. -sunelela (sunelezi) to ~ the whole lot. red. -suna-suna (suna-sunile) to plant some cut-tings; to spend a short time trans-planting

supal (li ) n. weevil, insect borer. wood-boring insect.

-supa2 (supile) v.t. (1) to point at, to indicate. (2) to appoint. der. musu-pezi. rel. -supeza (supelize) to show to: A mu ni supeze nzila, show me the way. caus. -supisa (supisize) to aim at: Ku maswe ku supisa mutu tobolo, it is a dangerous habit to aim at someone with a gun. red. -supa-supa (supa-supile) to point at insistently.

-supala (supezi) v.i. to become old. der. musupali, busupali. syn. -cem-bala. rel. -supalela (supalezi) to grow old in or at (a place): Nyambe, yena, u supalezifa muse-bezi u li munwi; Nyambe has grown old doing the same job. caus. -su-palisa (supalisize) to cause senility: Bucwala bu supalisa hahulu batu, heavy drinking causes untimely old age. ref. a)-isupaza (isupalize) to cause one's own ageing. idiom. exp: Mutu ya nwa bucwala u isupaza ni ka ku sa tapa, a heavy drinker ages twice as quickly because he is  incapable of properly looking after himself. b) -isupalisa (isupali-size) to make oneself look old; to have manners of old people; to pretend to be old.

supamweto, adv. cntirely, wholly. the whole of them: Ba shwile su-pamweto, they were entirely wiped out.

supu (li-) n. Eng. soup.

-susa (susize) to frighten, to scare, to startle; to daunt. der. sisusa. syn. -sabisa. rel. -suseza (suselize) to ~ for someone. rec. -susana (susani) to ~ each other. freq. -susanga to ~ frequently.

susu (bo-) n. a deaf person.

-susueza (susuelize) v.t. to influ-ence, to induce, to incite; to exvite. (mostly into bad ways). der. mususuezi, susuezo. syn. -susumeza. cf. -hukueza. rel. -susuezeza (susue-zelize) to influence in a certain way.

susuezo (li-) n. incitement; influ-ence. (from: -susueza).

-susuma (susumile) v.i. to have a pleasant, oily appearance (skin after omtment).

-susumeza (susumelize) to push into; to urge, to compel, to incite. syn. -susueza. rel. -susumeleza (su-sumelelize) to urge to. ref. -lsusu-meza (susumelize) to push oneself into, to intrude.

-suta1 (sutile) v.i. to draw aside, to get out of the way, to retreat. cf. -shenya. rel. -sutela (sutezi) to make room for someone. caus. -sutisa (sutisize) to push aside, to cause to retreat.

-suta2 (sutile) v.t. to push up (mole pushing up soil).

-suteka (sutekile) v.t. to throw down to the ground (in wrestling).

-sutelela (sutelezi) v.i. (1) to ap-proach, to come near: Sutelela  kwanu, come here. (2) to retreat: i Sutelela koo, move back. caus. -su-teleza (sutelelize) (1) to bring near. (2) to push back, to push away, to drive off, to repel. syn. -atameza.

 suti (li-) n. Eng. suit. syn. paka.

 suto, n. generous care: Ki musali yo munde ya na ni suto kwa batu, she is a good and generous wife who cares for everybody.

-sutuka (sutukile) v.i. to rise up from the ground (mole-hill, mole- cast); to swell (abscess).

suukulu, adv. empty handed: ku zamaya suukulu, to walk empty handed.

suulu (liulu) n. see: sulu.

suulumuko, n. flight (of birds or wild animals) (from: -ulumuka).

suulu-ulu, adv. quickly and in great numbers: ku mata suulu-ulu, to run quickly (speaking of many people) (from: -ulumuka).

suuwa (liuwa) n. piece of ground missed by a ploughman; piece of ground not yet cultivated but int-tended to be.

suyelelo (liuyelelo) n. Luyana. con-tainer (basket, etc.) in which is kept newly caught fish, freshly plucked fruit, etc. (from: -uya).

suyelo (liuyelo) n. stomach of birds, fowls, etc. cf. swili.

suyi (liuyi) n. increasing dimness of sight.

swa! interj. used to incite huntin, dogs to chase game. see: -swakeza. syn. swala!

-swaba1 (swabile) v.i. to be disap-pointed; to be sad, sorry, ashamed; to be shy, timid. der. maswabi, maswabisa. rel. -swabela (swabezi) to be ashamed of (some-one's behaviour). to be sorry for, to deplore. caus. -swabisa (swabi-size) to cause disappointment, sorrow, shame: litaba ze swatisa,  shameful matters, rec. -swabisana (swabisani) to cause mutual disap-pointment. ref. -lswabisa (iswabi-size) to cause sorrow or shame to each~other; to pretend to be sorry or ashamed; to make a fool of one-self.

-swaba2 (swabile) v.i. (1) to fade, to droop, to wither (flowers, leaves, etc.) to become dry (fish, etc.).

-swaela (swaezi) v.t. to stab an animal already wounded, or an enemy in a war. der. muswaeli, bus-waeli. rel. -swaelela (swaelezi) to ~ for someone.

-swakeza (swakelize) v.t. to incite hunting dogs to chase game. (from: -swa).

swaki (liswaki., n. water bag.

-swalal (sweli) v.t. to catch, to seize, to grasp, to hold; to apprehend. syn. -nyamatala, -kwanganya. der. muswali, muswalelo, miswalo, buis-walo, swalisano, swalano, swaleho. rel. -swalela (swalezi) to hold for someone; to relieve somebody?; to apprehend on someone's behalf, caus. -swalisa (swalisize) to assist in holding, in apprehending, to report, to cause someone's arrest. stat. -swaleha (swalehile) to be caught; to be occupied, busy fig. to be understandable: Taba ya hae ha i swalehi hande, it is difficult to understand his case; it is diffi-cult to grasp his point of view; Mutu yo h'a swalehi hande, one cannot see through that man. rec. -swalana (swalani) (1) to cooperate. sp. exp: ku swalana bulikani, to become intimate friends. (2) to come to blows. red. -swala-swala (swala-swalile) (1) to work for a short time: Ni swala-swalafela ha-nyinyani, ni tuha ni lisela musebezi; I am just working for a very short time, I am going to leave my work  (2) to take a little food: Ha ni koni ku ca, ni swala-swala hanyinyani fela; l cannot eat much, I am just trying to take a little food. (3) to give hope, to promise, to deceive: Se ni ku lemuhile kale. u ni swala-swala fela fa meto, ha u ni lati; I know what you are like, you let me hope, but you do not love me ref. -lswala (isweli) to behave oneself: to stand firm in difficulties; to help each other.

swala2 (bo-) n. fishing net. syn. ka-nyandi. (from: -swala).

swalala, n. dusk, twilight syn. ma-wiliywa .

swalano (li-) n. cooperation. (from: -swala) .

swaleho (li-) n. activity. (from: -swala).

-swalela (swalezi) v.t. to forgive, to excuse, to absolve. der. swalelo, swalelano. rec. -swalelana ( swale-lani) to forgive each other. ref. -is-walela (iswalezi) as rec.

swalelano (li-) n. reciprocal pardon (from: -swalela).

swalelelel (li ) n. hasp and stapel (for padiock, etc.) (from: -swala).

swalekle2 n. temporary measure, stop-gap thing

swalelo (li-) n. pardon, forgive-ness. (from: -swalela).

swalisano (li-) n. cooperation (from: -swala).

swalo, n. act of catching: Fa swalo ya baloi, when witchdoctors were arrested.

-swana (swanile) v.i. to resemble, to be like, to look like; to be similar; to be equal. der. muswanisi, siswa-niso. caus. -swanisa (swanisize) to imitate, to copy, to compare; to represent, to draw, to photograph: to guess. sp. exp: Ha ni swanisezi, kono ki mo ku inezi; I do not guess, it is so! int. -swanelela (swanelezi)  to be completely similar: Batu ha ba swaneleli, people are different each person is different.

-swanela1 (swanezi) v.t. to fit, to suit; to become: Kuwani ya hao ya ka swanela, your hat suits you. stat. -swaneleha (swanelehile) to be at-tractive; to be well matched.

-swanela2 (swanezi) v.aux. ought (2 infinitive) (expressing duty, advi-sability): U swanezi ka eza musebezi wa hao hande, you must do your work properly. pass. -swanelwa (swanezwi) to be worthy of: U swa-nelwa ki mupuzo wa likute, he de-serves an honour (i.e. he ought to have an honour). der. swanelo. stat. -swaneleha (swanelehile) to be con-venient.

swanelo (li-) n. duty; right: ka eza ka swanelo, to be dutiful; swatted ya mute ka Mulen'a hae, allegiance. (from: -swanela).

swanyana, adj. see: -sweu.

-swasa (swasize) v.t. to catch (fish, birds, etc.) der. muswasi. fig: to catch people by their words. rel. -swaseza (swaselize) to catch for someone. stat. -swaseha (swasehile) to be caught. rec. -swasana (swa-sani) to decoy fig. to entangle each other. ref. -iswasa (iswasize) to cause one's own trouble; to catch out each other.

-swaya (swaile) v.t. to mark, to seal. der. muswai, liswayo, siswaiso.

 

-swenya (swenyize) v.t. to disturb, to worry, to oppress. der. muswenyi, muswenyehi, luswenyo, buswenyi, maswenyeho. syn. -shupa, -kataza, -nyandisa, tolia. (also: -toliya) rel. -swenyeza (swenyelize) to ~ some-one by doing something: Wena u ni swenyeza bana, you are troubling my children. stat. -swenyeha (swe-nyehile) to be worried, to be op-pressed; to be unwell. rec. -swe-nyana (swenyani) to disturb each other to trouble each other ref. -ls-wenya (iswenyize) to cause one's own worries

-sweta (swetile) v.i. to go upstream, to paddle against the current. der. musweto. cf. -enduka or yenduka.

sweta (li-) n. Eng. sweater, pullover, etc.

sweu, adj. white (with reference to female cattle swanyana). sp. exp: fo ka sweu, in an open place; idiom. exp: Nyambe u swala mute do ka sweu fela; where one thinks there is no danger that is where one meets death.

sweu-sweu, adv. used in the idiom. exp: Baloi ba ni siile fa libala leli sweu-sweu, the sorcerers killed all my children (lit. left me alone in an open plain).

swikili (li-) n. Eng. ('sweet') sugar syn. shuka.

swili (li-) n. gizzard of a bird or fowl.

<div>T

 T, t, pronounced as in English

 ta1 aux. v. forming future tenses and  placed between the subject and the verb: Ni ta bulela, I shall speak  (same as ka)

-ta2 (tile) v.i. to come: Ta kwanu, come here; a mu te ni mina, do come also syn: -taha. rel. -tela (tezit to come for: Mu tezini khans? what did you come for? why did you come here? caus. -tisa (tisize) to bring; to accompany (see: -tisa). int. -telela (telezi) to come for good

-taama (taami or taamile) v.i. to return home (from a day's fishing or from the forest) with an empty bag, empty-handed caus. -taamisa (taamisize) to cause to ~. to cause to hinder: Lo taamisizwe ki ka saba pula, we came back empty-handed because we were afraid of being caught by rain

-taana (taani or taanile) v.i. to be destroyed, spoilt, damaged; to become crippled: likomu za mufu li taani kaufela, ne li sina mubabaleli, all the deceased's cattle were lost because there was nobody to look after them. caus. -taanisa (taani-size) to cause to ~.  Bucwala be taa-nisize bate ba banata. drinking has ruined many people

-taba1 (li-) n. matter, argument, affair; news, story; case, law-suit: lea ka na taba, it does not matter; taba ki ifi? what is the matter? Litaba ki lifi koo? what is the news where you come from? Taba ya hae u i ezize butuna, he gave great importance to his case.

-taba2 (tabile) v.i. to be glad, to re-joice, to be merry, to be joyful. der. tabo, buitabiso. syn. -nyaka-lala, -wabelwa. rel. -tabela (tabezi) to enjoy something, to rejoice for, to take pleasure in caus. -tabisa (tabisize) to cause joy, to cheer, to please rec. rel. -tabelana (tabelani) to be happy together, to enjoy each other's company. caus. -tabi-  sana (tabisani) to please each other ref. -ltabisa (itabisize) to look after one's own pleasure.

-taba3 (tabile) v.t. to spear, to stab: to kill, to slaughter; to prick, to sting; to inject: ka taba ndonga, to give an injection. der. mutabi, mu-tabani, sitabiso, sitabelo, matabelo, sitabaniso, tabisa. cf. -pwalyeka, -kipweka. fig. to hurt someone's feelings rel. -tabela (tabezi) to stab at; to kill for; to sacrifice for caus. -tabisa (tabisize) to cause to stab stat. -tabeha (tabehile) fig. to feel an acute pain in the chest. int. -ta-belela (tabelezi) to complete the action of killing. freq. -tabaka (ta-bakile) to stab, to spear repeat-edly. rec. -tabana (tabani) to fight rel. -itaba (itabile) to hurt oneself with a sharp instrument, to stab

taba4, adj. brown and black (ox or bull) (with reference to a cow: tabana)

-tabauka (tabaukile) v.i. see: -taboka.

-tabeka (tabekile) v.t. to fence, to hedge; to surround, to besiege: Lo tabekilwe ki lila, we are surrounded by enemies cf. -ambeka.

-tabeleza (tabelelize) v.t. to intone, to start singing; to sing a solo (fol-lowed by a chorus) (see: -shoela). der. mutabelezi. rel. -tabelezeza (ta-belezelize) or -tabeleleza (tabelele-lize) to intone for; to sing a solo for.

-tabilikana (tabilikani) v.i. to be covered with specks; to have a rash (on the skin); to be bespat-tered (mud, dirt, etc.).

tabisa (li-) n. table fork. syn. foloko. (from: -taba).

tabo, n. joy, pleasure, happiness. cf. nyakalalo. (from:-taba).

-taboka1 (tabokile) v.i. to speak without restraint to speak non sense syn. -tamoka. rel. -tabokela (tabokezi) to ~ to: ku tabokela mutu litaba za linolwani, to bother someone with trifling matters caus: -tabokisa (tabokisize) to cause to ~. red. -taboka-taboka (taboka-tabokile) to go on speak-ing nonsense, to buttonhole, to pester, to stick like glue to some-one.

-taboka2 (tabokile) v.i. to squirt out; to spout forth (blood, etc ); to splash up (water); to jump out (as grain when pounded)

-tabula (tabuzi) v.t. to push aside, to throw out. cf: -kasha. rel. -tabulela (tabulezi) to ~ to: A mu tabulele kokwani yeo kwande, i ta luma banana, put that insect out, other-wise it will sting the children caus. -tabulisa (tabulisize) to cause to ~ ref. -itabula (itabuzi) or -itabaula (itabauzi) to alienate people: U sike wa itabaula batufa mubili, u ta pila u nosi, do not alienate people, otherwise you will have to live alone.

-tabulula (tabuluzi) or -tabutula (tabutuzi) v.t. to distribute, to dish out of the pot serving large por-tions

-tabusa (tabusize) v.i. to be tasteful, to be pleasant to the taste stat. -tabuseha (tabusehile) to be agreea-ble to the taste.

-tabutuka (tabutukile) v.i. to jabber, to ialk nonsense

-tabutula (tabutuzi) v.t. as -tabulula. -tabwantika (tabwantikile) v.i. as -tabutuka.

-taeka (taekile) v.t. to attack from all sides: Nifumani tau i taekilwe ki makanyani, I found a lion sur-rounded and attacked by wild dogs. fig. to shoot embarrassing questions at an opponent.

-taela1 (taezi) or-taeta (taetite) v.t.  to give a present to a dancer as a token of satisfaction and as an en-couragement. syn. yana.

-taela2 (taezi) v.i. to become scarce; to be insufficient; to lack room: Busunso bu lu taezi, relish is insuffi-cient for us; mali a lu taezi, we are short of money; Batu ki ba baiiata, lu taezi mwa ndu, we lack room in the house, for there are very many people. caus. -taelisa (taelisize) to cause insufficiency. ref. -ltaelisa (itaelisize) to deprive oneself: U sike wa itaelisa kwa nama, do not deprive yourself of meat.

taelo (li-) n. order, commandment: direction; rule. (from: -laela).

taezo (li-) n. farewell, farewell party (from:-laeza).

tafule (li-) n. Eng. table: ku inafa tafule, to have a meal

-tafuna (tafunile) v.t. to masticate. to chew. der. mutafuneli, katafu-neno. fig. to calumniate: Ni ba fumani ba sweli ku nivtafuna, I found them busy slandering me. syn. -we-wenya. rel. -tafunela (tafunezi) or-tafunena (tafunezi) fig. to recom-mend someone to somebody: Mu-likani, u yto ni tafanela hande ku mukuwa wa hao, mwendi u ta nifu-manela musebezi, friend, do re-commend me to your boss, for he might have some work for me caus. -tafunisa (tafunisize) to eat buhobe with roasted meat or fish syn. . -shomekisa.

taha1 (li-) n. gen. n. Weaver Bird and Finch.

-taha2 (tile) v.i. to come der. tahiso. syn. -ta. rel. -tahela (tahezi) (1) to come for: Mu taheziiii kwanu? why did you come here? (2) to happen; to fall upon: Ni tahezwi ki baenyi, visitors have arrived at my house; Lu tahezwi ki maswabi, we received bad news. caus. -tahisa (tahisize) to  bring: to accompany to present: Ni tahisa mutuyofa pii'a mina, I in-troduce this man to you spec. exp: ku tahisa mazwele, to begin to show breast~ (young girl) rel. -tahiseza (tahiselize) to cause: Bumaswe kamita bu tahiseza mutu likozi, a man's bad behaviour always brings trouble to himself. int. -tahelela (tahelezi) to come for good: Pula i rahelezi cwale, now the rain has come for good. freq. -tahanga to come frequently. ref. -ltahisa (ita-hisize) to present, to introduce oneself.

tahiso (li-) n. presentation. (from: -taha).

-tahula (tahuzi) v.t. to weed (garden). der. mutahuli, mutahulisi, sitauliso, mutahulelo. syn. -yawela, cf. -sheula. rel. -tahulela (tahulezi) to weed for someone. caus. -tahu-lisa (tahulisize) to help to weed, to supervise weeding. stat. -tahuleha (tahulehile) to be able to be weeded: Mubu ha u tahulehi hande ka baka la pula, the soil cannot be easily weeded because of the rain int. -tahulelela (tahulelezi) to weed a whole place. red. -tahula-tahula (tahula-tahuzi) to do a little bit of weeding ref. a) -itahulela (itahu-lezi) to weed one's own field, b) -itahulisa (itahulisize) to help each other in weeding.

-taimisa (taimisize) v.t. Eng. to mul-tiplv (times)

taimisi, n. Eng. multiplication

-taipa (taipile) v.t. Eng. to type. der. mutaipi, taipi, butaipi, mutaipelo. rel. -taipela (taipezi) to type for someone. caus. -taipisa (taipisize) to help in typing. int. -tapelela (tai-pelezi) to type all that had to be typed. red. -taipa-taipa (taipa-tai-pile) to type for a short while, to type slowly ref. -itaipela (itaipezi)  to type one's own correspon-dence.

taipi (li-) n. Eng. typewriter. (from: taipa).

taka1 (li-) n. companion, friend~ fellow, chum, pal, contemporary; playmate, peer, of equal age, mate.

taka2 (li ) n. iris (of eye).

taka3 (li-) n. small fishing net with small mesh.

-taka4 (takile) v.t. to tattoo (exclus-ively on the face), to make marks on the body with lime, chalk or ochre (divination, healing ceremo-nies, etc.). cf. -paza.

-taka5 (takile) to parry (blows). der. mutaki.

-takalala (takalalile) v.t. to give no time when exacting a fine; to be gunning for someone.

takalezo (li-) n. wish, desire. cf. takazo. (from: -lakaza).

takalu (li-) n. ant-eater.

-takamana (takamani or takama-nine) v.i. to sit a long time in the same place; to be stagnant (water).

-takameka (takamekile) v.t. to leave for some time a liquid (water, milk, becr, etc.) in a container. rel. -takamekela (takamekezi) to leave intentionally or unintentionally a liquid in a container: Kini ha u y'o ni takamekela mezi a maswe mwa mukeke u sa a sululi? why do you leave dirty water in the basin for me instead of pouring it out? caus. -takamekisa (takamekisize) to cause to ~.

-takana (takani or takanile) ku takana boko to lose one's head, to become mad. caus. -takanisa (ta-kanisize) or -takanya (takanyize) to unsettle someone's reason, to derange someone's mind. int. -ta-kanelela (takanelezi) to be quite mad . ref. -itakanya (itakanyize) or -  itakanyisa (itakanyisize) to drive oneself mad

takano (li-) n. race, competition. (from: -lakana)

takazo (li-) n. desire, wish; cupid-ity (from:-lakaza).

-takinya (takinyize) v.t. to eat and enjoy good food (as in a feast); to banquet, to feast.

-takisa1 (takisize) v.t. (1) to peg a skin. (2) to crucify. der. mutakisi. syn. -bapula. fig. to choke, to th-rottle. rel. -takiseza (takiselize) to peg a skin for someone caus. -ta-kisisa (takisisize) to help to peg a skin

-takisa2 (takisize) v.i. (1) to jump for joy (speaking of many) (2) to make a demonstration of joy and excitement when on the point of going to war.

taku1 (li-) n. hoof.

taku2 (li-) n. (1) one single grain (maize, millet, etc.) (2) letter of the alphabet.

-takuha (takuhile) v.i. to become ef-faced, obliterated, deleted. erased

-takula1 (takuzi) v.t. to rub out, to erase, to efface; to cancel; to cross out; to dust, to wipe; to wash out, to cleanse. der. mutakuli, sitaku-liso. cf. -taula. rel. -takulela (taku-lezi) to ~ for someone: A mu ni ta-kulele mwanana yo mamina, na ni sa patehile; wipe that child's nose please, for I am still occupied. caus. -takulisa (takulisize) to help to ~. stat. -takuleha (takulehile) to be erasable, deletable, etc.: Mu-pende o munde ki o sa takulehi, a good quality paint is one which does not fade. int. -takulelela (ta-kulelezi) to wipe the lot. ref. -lta-kula (itakuzi) to wipe oneself: Mwan'a ka, si lili, itakule mioko; do not weep my child, dry your tears

-takula2 (takuzi) v.t. to beat the  national drums. syn. -fulumuna. cf. -liza.

takwa (takilwe) v.i. Sotho. to get drunk, intoxicated. der. sitakwa syn. -kolwa.

tala1, adj. green. spec. exp. Ku li tala ' everything is grcen, it is green everywhere!

tala2 (li-) n. Eng. tar.

tala3 (li- or ma-) n. hunger, famine

-tala4 (tezi) v.i. to become full; to abound; to be complete: Nuka i se i tezi, the river is already full; Ku tezi batu, there is a crowd of people; Batu se ba tezi, ku likani, the number of people is sufficient now.

-talala (talalile) v.i. to pass alone at a distance. rel. -talalela (talalezi) to ~ towards. caus. -talalisa (tala-lisize) to cause to ~.

talani, adj. unripe (kaffir corn): Mabele a sa li talani, the kaffir corn is not ripe yet. -taleka (talekile) v.t. Luyana. to present someone to the Litunga.

-talelana (taleani) v.i. to be full to the rim. fig. exp. ku talelana p‘lu. to have more than enough; ku tale-lana mali, to suffer from bleeding (afterbirth-haemorrhage).

taleho, n. puberty (giris) (from: -ita-leha) .

talenta (li-) n. Eng. talent (biblical) special aptitude, etc.

tali (li-) n. skin or cloth used to carry a child on the back. idiom. exp: Mwanana ya sa lili u shwela mwa tali, you can get nothing with-out asking (lit. a child who does not cry dies in the skin); Mutu h'a lileli tali ye sika mu pepa, nobody cares about someone he is not in-debted to.

-talifa (talifile) v.i. to become wise, intelligent, clever; to become ex-perienced. der. mutalifi, sitalifie  talifo, butali, butalifi. rel. -talifela (talifezi) (1) to become watchful: Se ni mu talifezi, ni ka mu swala; I have been watching him carefully, so I shall catch him (2) to learn from: Na ni talifezifa ku natiwanga, I owe my skill to having been caned quite often. (3) to cheat: caus. -talifisa (talifisize) to edu-cate, to show good ways of living ref. -italifisa (italifisize) to look after one's own education: Na ni italif size ka ku zamaya mwa mafasi a manata, it is by travelling through many countries that I have obtained experience, to pre-tend to be clever: U italifsa feela hakuna sa ziba he pretends to be clever but he knows nothing.

talifo, n. wisdom, intelligence, thinking power, brains; awareness, experience. (from: -talifa)

-talima (talimile) v.t. to look, to look at; to examine, to inspect. der. talimeho, mutalimelo, talimelo. cf: -bona, -tatuba. rel. -talimela (ta-limezi) to look attentively, to wait for, to expect: Ni mu talimezi la mabani, kono h'a sikaf ta, I was ex-pecting him yesterday~ but he did not arrive. caus. -talimisa (talimi-size) to show, to indicate. stat. -ta-limeha (talimehile) to appear, to seem: Kacenu ku talimeha kuli pula i ta ba teni, it appears that it will rain today. int. -talimelela (talimelezi) or -talimisisa (talimisisize) to look very attentively. rec. -talimana (ta-limani or talimanga to ~ fre-quently. red. -talima-talima (talima-talimile) to glance at. ref. a) -ita-lima (italimile) to look at oneself; to examine one's conscience; to look at each other; b)-italimisa (italimisize) to direct one's look in a certain direction: Yela, lumela, kini ha u italimisa kuxili ha u ni  bona? hey! good morning, why do you turn your head, pretending not to sce me?

talimeho, n. appearance (from: -talima).

talimelo, n. expectation (from: -talima).

-talinga (talingile) v.t. to tie firmly. der. mutalingelo. syn. -tama. rel. -talingela (talingezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -talingisa (talingisize) to help to ~. int. -talingelela (talinge-lezi) to tie very firmly; to tie com-pletely.

-taliya (taliile) v.t. to add too much water to relish when cooking it.

talu, adj. three: linaleli ze talu, thrce stars; mandu a malalu, thrce houses.

-taluhanya (taluhanyize) v.t. to dis-tinguish, to separate, to classify to explain, to expound. der. mutalu-hanyi, taluhanyo. cf. -talusa. rel. -taluhanyeza (taluhanyelize) to ex-plain to someone. int. -taluhanye-leza (taluhanyelelize) to explain fully leaving nothing in the dark. rec. -taluhana (taluhani) to differ: Luna batu lu taluhana ka mikwa ya luna, we all differ in customs and habits. or we have individual dif-ferences

taluhanyo (li-) n. distinction; classi-fication. (from: -taluhanya).

-taluka (talukile) v.i. to be clear, sharp (voice) fig. exp: Mutu yo u ta-lukile hahulu mwa hanu, this man knows how to bluff people.

-talula (taluzi) v.t. to spoil some-one's property by robbery, to de-prive der. matalu, linalu. rel. -talu-lela (talulezi) to wrong someone by stealing from one of his relatives: Ba ni talulezi mwan'a ka ka ku mu uzweza, they stole my child's goods int. -talulelela (talulelezi) to spoil everything by robbery. ref.-  italula (italuzi) to spoil one's own affairs: U italuzi i li yena ka ku ipu-laela mwan'a hae, he brought about his own misfortune by kill-ing his child

-talungusha (talungushize) v.i. see: -tolongosha.

-talusa (talusize) v.t. to explain, to describe, to define. to detail, to relate, to interpret. der. mutalusi, taluso, mutalusezo. cf. -toloka. rel. -taluseza (taluselize) to ~ to some-one. int. -taluseleza (taluselelize) to ~ fully. freq. -talusanga to ~ fre-quently: U sike wa no talusanga z'o sa zibi hande, do not try to explain things which you do not know well. ref. -ltalusa (italusize) to be evident, obvious manifest, unmis-takable, clear, piain: Taba ye i ita-lusa ili p~ona, this case is self-evi-dent or obvious.

taluso (li-) n. explanation; exposi-tion, commentary. (from: -talusa).

-tama (tamile) v.t. to tie, to bind, to tighten. der. mutami, sitamiso, mu-tamululi, tamiso, tamo, mutamelo, buitamo, tamano. syn. -manga, -ta-linga, cf. -bofa. fig. to accuse; to imprison. rel. -tamela (tamezi) to tie for someone. caus. -tamisa (ta-misize) to help to tie. fig. to cause someone's arrest U mu tamisEze ka ku mu toya, he caused his arrest be-cause he hates him. stat. -tameha (tamehile) to be tied; to be bound to do something: Ni tamehile kufe-leleza musebezi wa ka kacenu, I must finish my work today. int. -ta-melela (tamelezi) to tie the lot. fig. to force someone to stay where he does not like. syn. -bambelela. rec. -tamana (tamani) fig. to accuse each other. freq. -tamanga or -tamaka (tamakile) to have the habit of tying; to tie in different places. fig. to be inclined to accuse  falsely. inv. a) -tamuluha (tamulu-hile) to come undone, unfastened, untied, loose; to give birth (woman). b) -tamulula (tamuluzi) to untie. fig. to set free. red. -tama-tama (tama-tamile) to tie quickly, roughly. ref. -ltama (itamile) to tie up, to put a bandage on one's wound. fig. to promise, to make an oath, to swear: Ni itama kuli ha ni sa tola ni uzwa hape, I solemnly promise never to steal again.

tamaha, adj. roan colour (male); (with reference to female tamahana).

-tamalala (tamalalile) or -tatamala  (tatamalile) v.i. to defend a case with strong arguments. caus. -ta-malalisa (tamalalisize) to cause to ~.  ref. -itamalalisa (itamalalisize) to show stubbornness.

tamano (li-) n. reciprocal accusation. (from: -tama).

-tamba1 (tambile) r.t. Luyana. to buy a witchcraft medicine in order to obtain supernatural power. der. mutambisi, sitambiso, tambisano. rel. -tambela (tambezi) to kill someone in order to give power to a medicine bought from a witch-  doctor. (see: -pumela). caus. -tam-bisa (tambisize) to sell medicines to enable someone to become a witch. re. -tambisana (tambisani) to exchange witchcraft medicines. ref. -itambisa (itambisize) as rec.

-tamba2 (tambile) v.i. to be very tired, exhausted. der. matambisa. syn. -bomba, -topwela, -katala. caus. -tambisa (tambisize) to cause tiredness, exhaustion. fig. to tame: Ni ta ku tambisa haiba u sa utwi ze ni bulela, I will tame you if you won't listen to me. rec. -tambisana (tambisani) to fight until ex-- hausted. ref. -itambisa (itambisize) as rec.

 

-tambala (tambalile) v. i. to take a short walk. rel. -tambalela (tamba-lezi) to ~ to. caus. -tambalisa (tam-balisize) to accompany someone taking a walk. red. -tambalala-tam-balala (tambalala-tambalalile) to take a few steps.

tambani (li-) n. house-tick. fig. a persistent beggar.

-tambeka (tambekile) v.t. to hold out something; to give. der. mu-tambeki. rel. -tambekela (tambe-kezi) to ~ to or for someone: Mu ni tambekele yena mukeke wo, pass on to him that plate for me.

-tambikela (tambikezi) v.t. (1) to throw for. (2) to call people who are far away.

-tambiketa ( tambiketile ) v. i. as -tambeka.

-tamboka1 ( tambokile ) v. i. to walk majestically, to strut.

-tamboka2 (tambokile) v.i. to toddle, to totter (child). syn. -tambuka. caus. -tambokisa (tambokisize) to teach a little child to walk. ref. -tambokisa (itambokisize) to make one's first steps: Mwanana s'a kona ku itambokisa cwale, the child is al-ready able to toddle alone now.

-tambokisa (tambokisize) or -tam-bosa (tambosize) v.t. to beat the drums when the Litunga goes to the Kuta on special occasions.

-tambuka (tambukile) v.i. to make one's very first stops (child). syn. -tamboka ref.

-tambula (tambuzi) v.t. Luyana. to receive (mostly from the Litunga). rel. -tambulela (tambulezi) to re-ceive a gift from the Litunga on someone's behalf. caus. -tambulisa (tambulisize) to hand over to someone a present from the Li-tunga.

-tambwa (tambwile) v.i. to speak os-tentatiously. syn. -yenanga. der. mu-  tambwi, mutambwelo. rel. -tamb-wela (tambwezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -tamwisa (tambwisize) to cause to ~.

-tameleza (tamelelize) v.t. to accuse falsely. der. mutamelezi. syn. -njanga, -tamiliketa, -tamilikeza.

tamelezo (li-) n. false accusation. (from: -tameleza). syn. tamilikezo.

-tamiliketa (tamiliketile) v.t. as -ta-meleza.

-tamilikeza (tamilikelize) v.t. as -ta-meleza.

tamilikezo (li-) n. false accusation (from: -tamilikeza) syn. tamelezo.

tamiso (li- or ma-) n. anything used for tying. (from: -tama)

amo (li-) n. tie, bond. fig. accusa-tion. (from: -tama)

-tamuka (tamukile) v.i. to start rain-ing. cf. -lota. rel. -tamukela (tamu-kezi) to rain (the first drops): Pula i ni tamukezi, I felt the first drops of rain. freq. -tamauka (tamaukile) or -tamoka (tamokile) to start raining in big drops. fig. to speak illogi-cally; to speak nonsense, incoher-ent things; to tell cock and bull stories. rel. -tamokela (tamokezi) to tell someone incoherent stories. caus. -tamokisa (tamokisize) to cause someone to speak incoher-ently.

-tampakana (tampakani) v.i. to be full of dirt, of filth. flg. to be an evil-doer, to have a dark soul.

-tamuluha (tamuluhile) v.i. see: -tama.

-tamulula (tamuluzi) v.t. see: -tema. -tamuna (tamuzi) v.t. to eat the first fruits; to enjoy the first products of a new crop. der. katamu. syn. -oloka. caus. -tamunisa (tamunisize) to share out the first fruits of the scason

-tana1 (tanile) v.t. to kill in great numbers: Pula i til'o tana mulaka  kaufela, lightning killed all the cattle in the kraal.

-tana2 (tanile) v.i. to jump from one stone, etc. to another; to walk on a bridge made of rough poles. der. mutano, syn. shatoka. fig. to change work all the time.

-tanakana (tanakani or tanakanile) v.i. to sleep closely to each other; to lie in disorder (goods, etc.).

-tanala (tanezi or tanalile) v.t. to beat, to strike; to thresh corn; to kill in great numbers (fish, game, birds, etc.) der. mutanali. syn. -pula. rel. -tanalela (tanalezi) to ~ for someone. caus. tanalisa (tanalisize) to help to ~. int. -tanalelela (tanalelezi) to complete corn th-reshing. red. -tanala-tanala (tanala--tanalile) to thresh corn for a short while. ref. -itanalela (itanalezi) to thresh corn for oneself.

-tanamana (tanamani or tanamanile) v.i. to be shallow; to have no depth (canoe, wooden dish, etc.) der. lutana.

-tanda1 (tandile) v.t. to throw a bulb used as a ball in the tindi or cileke game. der. mutandi, sitandiso, mu-tandelo. fig. to annoy, to torment, to tease (of many against one). rel. -tandela (tandezi) to go to a certain place to play cileke. caus. -tandisa (tandisize) to join people playing cileke game; to supervise the game.

-tanda2 (tandile) v.i. to spend time: ku tanda sunda matu a sa ci, to spend a whole week without eating. cf. -tola.

-tandabala (tandabalile) v.t. to stretch out (the legs). syn. -tandala -namalala. rel. -tandabalela (tanda-balezi) to ~ in a certain direction. caus. -tandabalisa (tandabalisize) to cause to ~.

-tandala (tandalalile) v.i. to be 

   stretched out (the legs) syn. -tanda-bala, -namalala. rel. -tandalela (tandalezi) to ~ in a certain direc-tion. caus. -tandalisa (tandalisize) to cause to ~.

-tandalelwa (tandalezwi ) v.i. to be happy after finding an unexpected thing, to have the good fbrtune of finding an unexpected thing: Kacenu ni tandalezwi ku fumana nama, today I had the good for-tune of finding some meat.

-tandana (tandani or tandanile) v.i. to writhe in pain; to be in agony, to be in a death struggle. cf. -tand-ela. caus. -tandanisa (tandanisize) fig. to hold someone very strongly against his will ref. -ltandanisa (itandanisize) to feign agonizing pain; fig. to fight.

-tandela (tandezi) v.i. to breathe one's last. cf. -tandana.

tanga1 (li- or ma-) n. Eng. water tank.

-tanga2 (tangile) v.t. Luyana. to be the first to do something; to start; to influence der. mutangi, mu-tango, notanga. syn. -kala, -tateka.

-tangaela (tangaezi) v.i. to walk as a very weak person. der. mutangaeli, mutangaelisi. cf. -tanga-tanga. rel. -tangaelela (tangaelezi) to walk somewhere with difficulty due to illness. caus. -tangaelisa (tangaeli-size) to cause to ~. ref. -itangaelisa (itangaelisize) to try to walk al-though having great difficulty.

-tangalala (tangalalile) v.i. to be very happy, glad, joyful. syn. -nya-kalala, -taba' -wabelwa. rel. -tan-galalela (tangalalezi) to enjoy somothing: Ba tangalalezi–i cwalo? why are they so merry? caus. -tan-galalisa (tangalalisize) to cause joy, happiness.

-tangamana (tangamani) v.i. to be not easily pleased or satisfied:  Musali wa teni h 'a itumeli, u li ka mu ezeza se ni se, yena u li Mawe, ku tangamana kabe ki sa kulikuli!" oh! that woman is never grateful, and always says: if I had this and that, when ever you try to please her!

tangana, n. col. n. young men: tan-gana ya Kambule, the young men of Kambule. cf. sizana.

-tanganya (tanganyize)v.i. to be mad (speaking of a dog) der. mu-tanganyo. syn. -pulumuka, -tanya. caus. -tanganyisa (tanganyisize) to cause canine madness. ref. -itanga-nyisa (itanganyisize) fig. to drive oneself mad.

-tanga-tanga (tanga-tangile) v.i. to t lose one's balance, to reel. syn. ->- tantalika. rel. -tanga-tangela tD (tanga-tangezi) to ~ to: Zamaya, u 6~, y'o tanga-tangela koo, u ka ni wela; go and reel somewhere else or you will fall on me. caus. -tanga-tangisa  (tanga-tangisize) to cause to ~; to accompany someone walking with difficulty. cf. -tangaelisa. ref. -itanga-tangisa (itanga-tangisize) to pretend to be drunk (in order to make people laugh).

-tangeta (tˆngetite) v.t. to send ahead. der. mutangeti. rel. -tan-getela (tana.etezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -tangetisa (tangetisize) to help to ~.  ref. -ltangeta (itangetite) to go ahead.

-tanguka (tangukile) v.i. to stand erect, motionless, watching.

-tangukwa (tangukilwe) v.i. to start to be ill.

-tanguta (tangutile) v.t. to narrate or relate tales of olden times, folk tales, etc. der. mutanguti, litangu. cf. -shitanguta. rel. -tangutela (tangutezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tangutisa (tangutisize) to join someone, helping him to relate old tales.

 

-taniketa (taniketite) v.t. to foretell to someone events that are going to happen in his life (mostly acci-dents or death). cf. -sinula rel. -tan-iketela (taniketezi) to offend some-one by forecasting difficult future to one of his relatives: U sike wa ni taniketela mwanahesu ku shwa, do not forecast the death of my brother. ref. -itaniketa (itaniketite) to forecast hardship about one's own future.

-tanikeza (tanikelize) v.t. as: -tani-keta.

-tanta (tantile) v.t. to mistake some-one for somebody else.

-tantalika (tantalikile) v.i. to stag-ger, to lurch along; to lose one's balance. der. mutantaliki, syn. -tanga-tanga. rel. -tantalikela (tan-talikezi) to ~ to. caus. -tantalikisa (tantalikisize) to cause to ~; to ac-company someone walking with difficulty. ref. -itantalikisa (itantali-kisize) to simulate drunkenness (in order to make people laugh).

-tantauka (tantaukile) v.t. to eat greedily without care for others. int. -tantaukelela (tantaukelezi) to eat all the food greedily.

-tanuhela (tanuhezi) v.t. to turn against someone, to turn away from someone. syn. -fetuhela, -kwenuhela. rec. -tanuhelana (tanu-helani) to turn against each other: Se ba tanuhelani, ha ba sa utwana; there is no longer a good under-standing between them, they have turned against each other. ref. -lta-nuhela (itanuhezi) as rec.

-tanula (tanuzi) v.t. (1) to live ac-cording to a marital agreement (polygamy) to move from one wife's house to another's in turn (2) to pull a canoe over an obstacle from one pool to another when fishing. fig. to go from one pool to  another (crocodile). der. mutanulelo.

tanumuna (tanumuzi) v.i. to dig up roots of mituga trees in order to peel them and set mashandi.

 -tanutuka (tanutukile) v.t. to go from one house to another or from one yard to another: Mwanana u maswe ka tanutuka malapa mwa hae, it is a bad habit for a child to go from one house to another in  the village (in search of food). caus. -tanutukisa (tanutukisize) to cause to ~. 

tanya (tanyize) v.i. to show signs of ill, to be completely insane. der. li-tanya, butanya. syn. -pulumuka. caus. -tanyisa (tanyisize) to cause madness. ref. -itanyisa (itanyisize) to act as though completely mad; to be in a raving mad temper.

 -tanya2 (tanyize) v.i. to show signs of  weakness, of bad health (face, hair, etc.) caus. -tanyisa (tanyisize) to cause to ~.

 -tapa1 (tapile) v.i. to wash: ka tapafa  mubili, to wash one's body; to bathe, to swim. spec. exp. ka tˆpa silozi, to swim. der. mutapisi, sita- pelo, mutapelo. cf. -yowana. rel. -tapela (tapezi) (1) to swim towards: ika tapela mwabuse bwa nuka, to swim to the other bank of the river; (2) to use someone's water in washing: Ki ma–i ya ni tapezi mezi a ka? who used the water I had prepared? caus. -tapisa (tapi-- size) to wash, to cleanse; to help to swim, to make swim: ka tapisa likomu, to take cattle across a river (see: -tapisa:). freq. -tapanga to ~ frequently. red. -tapa-tapa  (tapa-tapile) to wash lightly; to bathe for a little while. ref. -itapisa (itapisize) to wash oneself.

 -tapa2 (tapile) v.i. to become tame, easy to manage; to be trained.  tapisa (tapisize) to tame (see: -tapisa). inv. -tapuluha (tapuluhile) to go back to wild habits.

-tapala (tapalile) v.i. to be impu-dent, insolent, impertinent. rel. -tapalela (tapalezi) to be disrespect-ful to someone. caus. -tapalisa (ta-palisize) to cause impertinence: Mwanana yo sesi mu tapalisa cwana, ki kuli pElu ya hae i keluhile; this child has an unhinged mind, this is the reason for his impertinence.

-tapanya (tapanyize) v.i. Sotho. to swear, to declare on oath: Ni tapa-nya pa pEl 'a Maxima kuli ha si na ya uzwize Mali, I swear before God that I did not steal the money. syn. -konka. -shanjala.

tapelo (li-) n. prayer, intercession, supplication. (from: -lapels).

tapi (li-) n. gen. n.) fish.

-tapisa1 (tapisize) v.t. to wash, to cleanse; to help to swim (see: -tapa1). der. mutapisi, mutapisezo. rel. -tapiseza (tapiselize) to ~ for someone. caus. -tapisisa (tapisisize) to help to ~. int. -tapiseleza (tapi-selelize) to ~ thoroughly. freq. -ta-pisanga to make a habit of wash-ing. red. -tapisa-tapisa (tapisa-tapi-size) to do a little bit of washing. ref. -ltapisa (itapisize) to wash one-self.

-tapisa2 (tapisize) v.t. to tame; to train, to enforce discipline. der. mutapisi, mutapisezo. (see: -tapa1¼ rel. -tapiseza (tapiselize) to ~ for someone. caus. -tapisisa (tapisisize) to help to ~. int. -tapiseleza (tapi-selelize) to tame all (of). rec. -tapi-sana (tapisani) fig. to subdue, to master each other. syn. -nyukana. freq. -tapisanga to tame animals frequently. ref. -itapiseza (itapise-lize) to tame for oneself.

tapo (li-) n. bead-necklace.

-tapuha1 (tapuhile) v.i. to be thin.  syn. ota.

-tapuha2 (tapuhile) v.i. to lose savour, to become insipid. syn. -sampuka, -amuba.

-tapula1 (tapuzi) v.t. to make taste-less, insipid. rel. -tapulela (tapulezi) to ~ for someone: U ni tapulezi bu-sunso bwa ka, ha be sa na munati my relish lost its savour, for you put too much water in it.

-tapula2 (tapuzi) v.t. to insult, to curse. der. Iitapa. syn. -lwaha. -sho-bola. rel. -tapulela (tapulezi) to offend someone by insulting a third person. freq. -tapaula (ta-pauzi) to insult much, to use abu-sive language. rec. -tapaulana (ta-paulani) to insult each other. ref. -itapaula (itapauzi) as rec.

-tapula3 (tapuzi) v.t. to untie hunting dogs and send them after game; to urge forward (cattle).

-tapuluha ( tapuluhile ) v. i. to pass water, to urinate. syn. -luta. sulula * mezi. rel. -tapuluhela (tapuluhezi) [ to urinate somewhere. caus. -tapu-[ luhisa (tapuluhisize) to help (a i child or a sick person) to pass I water.

|-tapwama (tapwami) v.t. to tread in mud, dung, etc.

-tapwanga (tapwangile) v.i. to walk a in muddy, watery places.

-tapweka (tapweile) v.t. to throw mud on an object, to dirty. freq. -tapwateka (tapwatekile) to bes-mear.

tapwi! ideoph. (se li ~!) refers to any object falling in water. syn. cupwi! tupwi!

-tapwikela (tapwikezi) v.i. to disap-pear under the surface of water cf. -ndumwi kela. cuas. -tapwikel isa (tapwikelisize) to cause to ~. int. -tapwikelela (tapwikelezi) to disap-pear in a certain place under the surface of water.

 

-tapwita (tapwitile) v.i. & v.t. to splash about, to tumble in the water; to bob on the water (ducks) to agitate water: Banana mu si ke mwa tapwita mezi ao, hakuna ya ka y'o a ka hape; chil-dren don't splash all that water out for nobody is going to draw any more.

-tasa (tasize) v.i. to be new (moon): Kweli i tasize, it is the new moon. rel. -taseza (taselize) to appear to someone (speaking of the moon): Kweli i lo taselize kwa Lealui, we observed the new moon when we were at Lealui.

-tasambwa (tasambwile) v.i. to speak ostentatiously der. Iita-sambwa, litambwa, malasambwa. syn. -tambwa, -tasanga. cf. -ye-nanga. rel. -tasambwela (tasamb-wezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -ta-sambwisa (tasambwisize) to cause to ~

-tasanga (tasangile) v.i. as -ta-sambwa.

-taseza (taselize) v.t. to scold, to abuse, to slang someone. syn. -omanya, -kalimela, halifela.

tasi1 adv. down, under, below: Butuku bwa hae bu se be li kwa tasi hahulu, mane h'a sa kona ni ka bulela; he is in a very serious con-dition, and he cannot even speak any more; sintolo sa ka se si ya hahulu kwa task the business in my store is going down and down.

tasi2 prep. (kwa ~ a; mwa ~ a) down, under, underneath, below: Ni boni nova kwa tas'a likota (kwa tasi a likora) I saw a snake under the trees.

-tasuka (tasukile) v.i. to gush forth, to spout out, to squirt out (water) to spurt (blood); to fly (spark) fig. to burst out in speaking. rel. -tasu-kela (tasukezi) to ~ towards. fig.  to burst out against someone caus. -tasukisa (tasukisize) to cause to ~ fig. to cause to burst out in speak-ing freq. -tasauka (tasaukile) to spurt in one continuous streak fig. to burst out angrily. ref. -itasukela (itasukezi) fig. to scold each other

tata1, adj. difficult hard, tough: kota ye tata, a hard wood; nzila ye tata, a difficult road; bupElo bo bu tata, a hard life; musebezi o tata, a tough work

tata2, adv. (ka ~) strongly, vigo-rously, firmly with difficulty, not easily: Busunso bufumanwafela ka tata, relish can only be found with great difficulty

-tata3 (tatile) v.t. to wind (string, rope, etc.); to curl (hair etc.); to twist (as mashandi roots or fibre to make a rope) der. mutati mutatelo, sitatiso, cf. -bonda. rel. -tatela (tatezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tatisa (tatisize) to help to ~ stat. -tateha (tatehile) to be easily twista-ble rec. -tatana (tatani) to become mixed up, entangled (wire, rope, etc ) inv. -tatulula (tatuluzi) to untwist, to unwind, etc. (see: -tatu-lula). ref. -itata (itatile) to curl each other's hair

-tatafala (tatafalile or tatafezi) v.i. to become difficult, to become hard to convince: Taha ya hae i ne i tatafezi hahulu kwa makalelo, his case had been very difficult at the beginning; U tatafalafela, ki wena sifosi; you resist without reason, you are guilty. rel. -tatafalela (tata-falezi) (1) to become difficult at a particular point: Taba ya mina i ta-tafalelafa bupaki bwa buhata, your case becomes difficult where false evidence comes in; (2) to harden one's feclings against someone: U ni tatafalela fela, hakuna se ni kufo-selize; you are hardening your  feelings against me for no reason, I did not wrong you caus. -tatafalisa (tatafalisize) or-tatafaza (tatafa: lize) to harden, to influence some-one so that he becomes hard to convince (see:-tatafaza)

-tatafaza (tatafalize) v.t. qual to harden, to make difficult der. mu-tatafazi. relt -tatafaleza- (tatafale-lize) to ~ for (against) someone caus. -tatafalisa (tatafalisize) to cause difficulty. freq. -tatafazanga to be inclined to make things diffi-cult ref. -itatafaza (itatafalize) or itatafalisa (itatafalieize) to harden one's feelings; to resist stubbornly -tatahana (tatahani) v.i. (1) to be superimposed, doubled (blankets, etc ) (2) to come one after the other to follow in succession (peopie, letters, etc.)

-tatahanya (tatahanyize) v.t. to double (clothes, blankets, etc.); to put one upon the other.

-tatalana (tatalani) or -tatalakana (tatalakani) v.i. to crackle (fire), to crackle when being roasted (maize, etc ) fig. to speak angrily. rel. -ta-talanela (tatalanezi) fig. to speak very angrily to someone caus. -ta-talanisa (tatalanisize) or-tatalaka-nisa (tatalakanisize) to cause (fire) to crackle; to cause (maize) to pop by roasting too close to hot ashes fig. to provoke someone's angrily-spoken reaction freq. -tatalaka-nanga fig. to be inclined to speak angrily

-tatama (tatami or tatamile) v.t. (1) to follow; to be second to some-one. (2) to chase Ba tatami lisholi, they chased the thief syn. -landa-meka, -shenja, matisa. cf. -latelela. rel. -tatamela (tatamezi) to chase for someone caus. -tatamisa (tata-rnisize) to help to chase, rec. -tata-mana (tatamani) to follow each  other, to succced each other. syn. -tomahana.

-tatamala (tatamalile) v.i. as -tama-lala.

-tatana (tatani) v.i. to wreathe (of smoke, etc), to twine, to be inter-laced (of ribbons, etc ); to be in-terwoven (of threads, etc.)

-tatauka (tataukile) or -tatoka (tato-kile) v.i. to speak very angrily for a long time. der. mutataukelo. syn. -omana, -lokota. rel. -tataukela (ta-taukezi) to scold someone for a definite reason. caus. -tataukisa (tataukisize) to cause to ~. ref.-itataukisa (itataukisize) to scold each other very angrily.

-tataula (tatauzi) to demolish; to tear to rend (garment etc ) der. matatauli. cf. -yahulula -lutulula. fig. to tear to pieces, to devour (as a lion with its prey) rel. -tataulela (tataulezi) to pull down a house for someone. caus. -tataulisa (tatauli-size) to help to demolish. int. -ta-taulelela (tataulelezi) to demolish completely. syn. -kukisa, -apea, rel. -tatehela (tatehezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -tatehisa (tatehisize) to help to ~. to supervise cooking. int. -tatehelela (tatehelezi) to ~ everything freq. -tatehanga to be accustomed to cook, to be used to cooking: Mu no tatehanga lico ze nde, do try always to cook good food ref. -itatehela (itatehezi) to cook for oneself

-tateka (tatekile) v.t. to start, to begin (manual work, dance, etc.): S'a tatekile ku luka museme wa ka, he has already started to make my mat der. mutateki, matatekelof syn. -kala. cf. -ungeka. rel. -tatekela (tatekezi) to ~ for someone

-tatela (tatezi) v.t. to load a gun der. mutateli, mutatelo. fig. to be very angry: Kacenu u tatezi. h'a pu-  nyiwi mwa pata; today he is very cross, people fear to look at him. rel. -tatelela (tatelezi) to ~ for someone; to ~ with a definite in-tention N'a mu tatelezi tobolo kuli a mu bulaye, he had loaded his gun with the intention of killing him caus. -tatelisa (tatelisize) to cause to ~

-tateza (tatelize) v.i. & v.t. to roll something round with a rope, to coil, to wind, to roll (snake): Mabani, noZa i ni tatelize kwa mautu, kono ha i sika ni luma; a snake wound round my fect yesterday, but it did not bite me ref. -itateza (itatelize) to wind, to roll itself (snake)

tato, n. will, determination, resolu-tion, intention; desire, self-will from: -lata)

-tatoka (tatokile) v.i. see: -tatauka.

tatu (li-) n. medicine protecting against any kind of harm (witch-craft) syn. nkau.

-tatuba (tdubile) v.t. to examine, inspect or survey (officially). der. mutatubi, tatubo, mutatubelo. cf. -nyaka, -talima. rel. -tatubela (tatu-bezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -ta-tubisa (tatubisize) to help to ~. int. -tatubelela (tatubelezi) to examine thoroughly (all the school chil-dren, all the works. etc.) rec. -ita-tuba (itatubile) to examine oneself, to examine one's conscience.

tatubo (li-) n. examination, inspec-tion (tatubonyana, test). (from: -tatuba).

-tatuha (tatuhile) v.i. (rare) to get out of water; to leave the flooded plain. syn. -omboka.

-tatula (tatuzi) v.t. to start hoeing, cultivating. der. mutatuli. rel. -tatu-lela (tatulezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tatullsa (tatulbize) to help to ~.

 

tatuluha ( tatuluhile ) v. i. to be c ome unwound (string, rope, etc.), un-curled (hair, etc ), untwisted (ma-shandi roots, etc) fig. to regain one's good temper int. -tatuluhe-lela (tatuluhelezi) to become fully untwisted fig. to cool down com-pletely

-tatulula (tatuluzi) v.t. to unwind (string, rope, etc ), to uncurl (hair, etc.), to untwist cf. -tamulula. rel. -tatululela (tatululezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tatululisa (tatululi-size) to help to ~.

-tatulusa (tatulusize) v.i. to be the first to catch a fish in a fishing party, or to kill an animal in a hunting party

tau (li-) n. Iion syn. inambso. cf. munumba. fig. a greedy person.

taula1 (li-) n. divining object (see: li-taula) (from: -laula)

-taula2 (tauzi) v.t. Eng. to towel, to wipe (with a towel, an handker-chief, a duster, etc.) der. taulo, si-tauliso. cf. -takula. rel. -taulela (taulezi) to wipe for. caus. -taulisa (taulisize) to help to ~. int. -taule-lela (taulelezi) to ~ completely ref. -ltaula (itauzi) to dry oneself (with a towel)

taulo (li- or ma-) n. Eng. towel, any-thing used for wiping; handker-chief; woman's head-dress (from: -taula)

tauni or taundi (li- or ma-) n. Eng. town, city.

taya (li- or ma-) n. Eng. tyre.

-taza1 (tazize) v.i. to vomit, to belch. der. mataza, lutazo, mutazezo. rel. -tazeza (tazelize) to ~ in or upon; to feed (of birds): Linyunywani li ta-zezanga bana ba zona lico, birds feed their young by dropping food down their throats. caus. -tazisa (tazisize) to cause to ~. fig. to make someone give up some evil  habit idiom: exp: Na ni ta ku tazisa mukwa wa hao wo mane u taze ni linkau z'o mEzize zŽ ku pulumuna; I will make you get rid of your evil habits as well as your madness caused by witchcraft medicines!

-taza2 (tazize) v.t. to fill up rel. -tazeza (tazelize) to ~ for someone int. -tazeleza (tazelelize) to ~ com-pletely.

-tea1 (teile) v.i. to go to toilet (a child).

-tea2 (teile) v.t. to set a trap; to lay a bow-net. der. mutei, siteo, siteiso, muteelo. fig. to betray rel. -teela (teezi) to ~ for someone caus. -teisa (teisize) to help to ~. int. -tee-lela (teelezi) to set all traps; to lay all bow-nets. inv. -teulula (teuluzi) to take out of a snare a trapped bird or animal, etc. ref. -iteela (iteezi) to ~ for oneself.

-tea3 (teile) v.t. to bow down: Ni til'o tea tohofafasi ku mu–'a ka, I came to pay my respects to my Lord.

-tea4 (teile) v.t. to stretch out one's hands in order to receive some-thing.

-tea-tea1 (tea-teile) v.i. (women) to show joy by dancing before the Li-tunga.

-tea-tea2 (tea-teile) v.i. to be about to set (speaking of the sun) cf. -pazula, likela.

tebe (li-) n. shield (war shield) fig. protector.

-tebeta1 (tebetile) v.t. to slander, to denigrate, to calumniate. syn. -seba, -sawana, -ungwatala, mun-jula.

-tebeta2 (tebetile) v.i. Luyana. to emit wind (fart). der. mitebe.

tebuho' n. Sotho gratitude, thank-fuiness (from: lebuha).

-tebuka (tebukDe) v.i. (1) to hang down (lower lip on account of old age) (2) to lean (wall, hut, etc.) syn.  -pwecuka. fig. to sit idly, lazily, slothfully. caus. -tebukisa (tebuki-size) to cause to ~

-tebula (tebuzi) v.t. to curl up one's lip as a sign of dissatisfaction: U sike wa tebula mulomo, ni wena ni ku Sile sina ba ba–wi, do not show dissatisfaction (by curling up lips), for I have given you what I gave to others caus. -tebulisa (tebulisize) to cause to ~.

tee! interj. expressing bursting idiom. exp: U li tee, u pazuhe fahali ike biemba bya Nalikwanda! may you be struck dead and shatter into a thousand pieces! (lit: burst asunder like fragments of the Na-likwanda).

-teeba (teebile) v.i. Luyana. to be lucky, fortunate blessed.

-teeka (teekile) v t. (1) to take care of, to look after (a child or a weak person); to provide for: Kamita mu no teeka banana ha mu ca lico, do always provide for the children when you are eating food; (2) to paddle alongside the river bank (in order to ensure protection). cf. -kengeka. rel. -teekela (teekezi) to take care of someone on behalf of a third person

teeta! interj. expressing surprise of fear idiom. exp: Teeta, lu ka sabela kai, ki kale a li shelula! gosh ! where shall we escape to, for we are al-ready involved in his case

-teeleza (teelelize) v.t. to listen to at-tentively, to hearken to, to give heed to- to understand: KauSela lu teelelize s'o si bulela, we all under-stand what you are saying der. mu-teelezi. cf. -mamela, -tokomela. caus. -teelezisa (teelezisize) (1) to accompany somebody who is going to listen to someone's case (2) to call for silence in order to allow people to listen. rec. -teele-  zana (teelezani or teelezanile) to listen to each other's arguments freq. -teelezanga to have the habit of listening attentively

teka1 (li- or ma-) n. (one's) side, waist

-teka2 (tekile) v.t. as -teeka.

-tekala (tekalile) v.i. to be left, to remain (water in a container)

-teka-teka1 (teka-tekile) or tenga-tenga (tenga-tengile) v.t. to fondle a child syn. -tengateka.

-teka-teka2 (teka-tekile) v.t. to be agitated (as a liquid in a vessel being carried)

-tekelela (tekelezi) v.i. to know well, to know thoroughly cf. -ziba. idiom. exp: ku shwa itekelelwa, to die in an unknown way

-tekema (tekemile) v.i. to be loose (axe, hoe, etc.) to wobble (jelly, meat, etc.) to shiver, to shake (dancer, etc. ).

-tekesela (tekesezi) v.i. to tremble with fear, to quiver; to dance (shaking).

tekeseli (li-) n. lid of an iron pot

tekiso (li-) n. sale, selling (from: -lekisa).

teko (li-) n. price, cost, value (from: -leka).

teku (li-) n. handie of a spear fig. tall, thin, good looking young man. fig. exp: ku tiba ni liteku, to go for good A sa li ku ca mali a ka, u tibile ni liteku, h'a sa bonwa; since he borrowed my money, we don't see him any more, he has gone off for good (lit: he disappeared com-pletely as a spear).

tekuliso (li-) n. habit of informing people about the welfare of others or about one's own health (from: -lekula).

tekulo (li-) n. visit (from: -lekula).

-tela (telile) v.t. to pay a tax (any kind of tax) der. mutelisi, mutelo,  butelisi. rel. -telela (telezi) to ~ for someone or something caus. -telisa (telisize) to collect taxes. int. -telelela (telelezi) to pay all taxes ref. -ltelela (itelezi) to pay one's own tax.

telee! interj. expressing redness Lizazi li li tepee, se It likela cwale the sun is red, so it's going to seti Ha ni t'ofita mwa mulapo o muinwi, na Ghana kuli telee, ki mwan'a lizwif fela! when I reached a cer-tain stream in the plain, I found a large number of antelopes!

telekano (li-) n. divorce (by mutual agreement) (from:-leleka).

teleko (li-) n. divorce, expulsion (from: -leleka).

-telela (telezi) v.i. to slip; to be slippery: ka telelafa munenene, to slide on a slippery place, Fani kwa telela, it is slippery over there. fig. to show good health: Mubili wa hae wa telela, u pita hande; she is in good health, and her body shows all the signs of it! cf. -shelumuka. telele, adj. long, high, tall: Nzila ye telele, a long way, mazazi a mate-lele, many days.

telisano (li-) n. consultation; mutual planning (from:-lelisana)

telo (li-) n. plan; plot (from: Bela).

-telumuka (telumukile) v.i. to slip down, to slide down, to cycle downhill very fast. cf. -shelumuka.

-tema1 (temile) v.i. to curdle, to coa-gulate, to clot syn. -kemena. cuas. -temisa (temisize) to cause to ~.

-tema2 (temile) v.t. Luyana. to cut syn. -lema. cf. -puma.

temalo (li-) n. habit, custom, famili-arity syn. twaelo. (from: -lemala)

-temanga (temangile) v.i. to go on talking (hoping to raise arguments when others deliberately keep silent)

-tema-tema (tema-temile) v.i. to  have a nervous tic.

-tembuka (tembukile) v.i. (1) to look for syn. -bata. (2) to work hard and alone cf. -sebeza. freq. -tembauka (tembaukile) (1) to look for some-thing here and there (2) to persist in working hard.

-tembula (tembuzi) v.t. to praise someone; to call a child by special and endearing names, praising him

-tembwala (tembwalile) v.i. to sit gaping. caus. -tembwalisa (tembwa-lisize) to cause to ~: Wena, sesi ka tembwalisize cwalo, wa kula nji? why do you sit gaping like this, are you sick?

tembwe (bo-) n. rainbow syn. namb-wamutalati.

-temuna (temuzi) v.i. to look back, to look round to syn. -heta, -setuka. freq. -temauna (temauzi) to look back again and again (in fear). ref. -ltemuna (itemuzi) as -temuna (see: -itemuna)

temuho (li-) n. observation. (from: -lemuha)

temuso (li-) n. warning, notice, cau-tion; advice, hint, announcement, proclamation (from:-lemuha)

temu-temu (noun taken adverbially) expressing surprise and embarras-sment (when asked questions which cannot be answered or when caught in the act)

-tenda (tendile) v.t. Luyana. to do, to make. der. mutendewa. syn. -eza.

-tendeleka (tendelekile) v.i. to zigzag on a bicycle der. kanamutendele.

-tengama (tengami or tengamile) v.i. to lean on one side (canoe, moon crescent, etc ) rel. -tengamela (tengamezi) to lean to: Kweli i tasize, i tengamezi kwa metro; it is the new moon and it points to the north. caus. -tengamisa (tengami-size) to cause to ~: Mu sike mwa  tengamisa mukolo ka ku ina neku li li li–wi, lu ka lwela, do not make the canoe tilt by sitting all on one side otherwise it will capsize.

-tengateka (tengatekile) v.t. to take care of. syn. -teka-teka. cf. -baba-lela.

-tenga-tenga1 (tenga-tengile) v.i. to rock and roll about (as a canoe shaken by waves). der. matenga-tenga. syn. -tengauka. caus. -tenga-tengisa (tenga-tengisize) to cause to ~.

-tenga-tenga2 (tenga-tengile) v.t. see: -teka-teka.

-tengauka (tengaukile) v.i. as-tenga-tenga.

-tengeka (tengekile) v.t. to tilt; to bend, to bow. syn. -tengama caus. rel. -tengekela (tengekezi) to ~ to-wards: Tengekela kwanu. ni bone kapa ku na ni busunso mwa piza ya hao. tilt your pot so that I can see if there is enough relish in it.

-tengela (tengezi) v.i. to sweat, to perspire. syn. -fufulelwa. cf. -shwa-luka, -tukutelwa. caus. -tengelisa (tengelisize) to cause to ~.

-tengeleza (tengelelize) v.t. to put round; to encircle, to surround: Mu sike mwa tengeleza liso kaufela, na ni ka inela kai? don't completely encircle the fire-place, where shall I sit if you do? U tengeleze hande piza, i ta suluhela banana; prop up the pot carefully otherwise it will fall onto the children. syn. -tengili-keza.

-tengenya (tengenyize) v.t. to ba-lance something on the head der. mutengenyi.

-tengilikeza (tengilikelize) v.t. as-tengeleza.

-tenguka (tengukile) v.i. to get ac-customed to: Mutu yo u tengukile, ki mw'a inezi; this man has now got the habit of doing so, it is second nature to him. rel. -tengukela  (tengukezi) to ~ somewhere: U tengukezi mwa sikenge, she got the habit during her initiation. caus. -tengukisa (tengukisize) or tengula (tenguzi) to familiarize.

-tengula (tenguzi) v.t. to mislead. ref. -itengula (itenguzi) to get into the habit of (doing something).

tente (li- or ma-) n. Eng. tent; tar-paulin; awning.

te–i, adv. there. spec. exp: mukwa wa te–i, the proper way (of doing something).

-tepa (tepile) to become loose; to hang down: to sag: Muhala u tepile, the rope is loose; Ki mucembele, linama za hae se li tepile; he is an old person, his flesh is no longer firm. caus. -tepisa (tepisize) (1) to loosen (2) to show signs of future calving: l‚omu ya ka i se i tepisa, i tuha i zwala; my cow is near calv-ing, as we can see from its udder.

-tepa-tepa (tepa-tepile) v.i. to totter, carrying a heavy load. syn. -tota. rel. -tepa-tepela (tepa-tepezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -tepa-tepisa (tepa-tepisize) to cause to ~.

tepe (li-) n. tender, delicate plant prepared as vegetable and used as relish fig. a spineless person.

-tepelela (tepelezi) v.i. Sotho. to become discouraged, tired, daunted, disheartened. cf. -swafa caus. -tepelelisa (tepelelisize) to discourage, to dishearten. ref. -itepeleza (itepelelize) to consider oneself as weaker than others, to develop an inferiority complex.

-tepeta (tepetile) v.i. to be loose distended; to be slack (person). der. matepeta. cf. -teputuka, -nema. rel. -tepetela (tepetezi) to walk slackly somewhere. caus. -tepetisa (tepetisize) to cause looseness.

-tepuka (tepukile) v.i. to hang down. cf. -lepelela. rel. -tepukela (tepu-kezi) to be hanging down: Mutai u

 

   tepukezi fafasi, the branch is hang-ing down caus. -tepukisa (tepuki-size) to cause to ~.

-teputuka (teputukile) v.i. to walk very slowly and lethargically; to be like a jelly-fish. cf. -tepeta.

-tesuka (tesukile) v.i. to slip; to sprain (wrist, knee-cap. etc.)

-teta1 (tetile) v.i. to crack (as a tree being cut down and on the point of falling).

-teta2 (tetile) v.i. to squeak, to shrick (from pain) der. muteto. caus. -tetisa (tetisize) to cause to ~.

-tetela (tetezi) v.t. to cut bushes in a forest garden. syn. -panda. der. mu-teteli. rel. -tetelela (tetelezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tetelisa (teteli-size) to order or to help to ~.

-tetenya (tetenyize) v.i. to feel tired after an excess of food or drink; to have a hang-over.

-teula (teuzi) v.t. to surpass (by in-telligence, cleverness, etc ) syn. -fita, -eshula.

-teya (teile) v.t. see: -tea.

-teya-teya (teya-teile) v.i. see: -tea-tea.

-tia (tide) v.i. see: -tiya.

-tiba1 (tibile) v.i. (1) to sink, to founder: Mukolo wa ka u tibiae, my canoe sank. (2) to be flooded Msimu a Lana s'a tibiae, our fields are already under water. der. butibo. fig. to keep silent fig. exp: A sa li ku tiba ni magi a Lana, h'a sa bonwa; since he went with our-money, we have not heard from him. syn. -lwela. rel. -tibela (tibezi) to sink in a certain place caus.-tibisa (tibisize) to cause the sinking of; to flood. int. -tibelelela (tibele-lezi) to inundate completely ref. -itibisa (itibisize) to cause one's canoe to capsize

-tiba2 (tibile) v.t. (1) to cork (2) to obstruct, to stand in the way, to  block the way. der. sitibo, sitibiso,   tibelo. rel. -tibela (tibezi) to hinder, to prevent from, to forbid: Ku maswe ku tibela mute litukelo za hae, it is bad to refuse a person his rights. caus. -tibisa (tibisize) to cause to ~. rec. -tibelana (tibelani) to oppose each other freq. -ti-banga to ~ frequently. inv. -tibu-lula (tibuluzi) to uncork, to unstop, to open (bottle, etc.) fig. exp: ka ti-bulula lizebe, to listen very care-fully to ref. a). -itiba (itibile) fig. to stop one's ears. spec. exp: ku itiba lizebe, to pretend not to hear, to refuse to hear. b) -itibela (itibezi) to deprive oneself of something spec. exp: ka itibela mazibuho, to deprive oneself of blessings.

tibalo (li-) n. forgetfulness (from: -libala).

-tibana (tibani or tibanile) v.i. to become obstructed, blocked up (usually used in the past tense) mushitu o tibani, a dense forest; spec. exp: Ku tibana mala. to be constipated; ka tibana lizebe, to be deaf. caus. -tibanisa (tibanisize) to cause to ~.

-tibanya (tibanyize) v.t. to obstruct, to block up; to stun, to deafen: ka tibanya mute lizebe, to repeat the same thing to someone all the time, to talk twaddle.

-tibeka1 (tibekile) v.i. to fall in, to cave in, to collapse: Mukoti u tibe-kile, bats ba shwile; the mine collapsed and people died.

-tibeka2 (tibekile) v.t. to lay the foundations of a house; to start the building of a village when or where human victims were sacri-fied (obs)

-tibela (tibezi) v.t. to prevent from doing something: Mata, u y'o tibela likomu zani, li ka y 'o kena mwa simu ya mute; run quickly and prevent those cattle from getting into someone's field (see: -tiba2 rel. der.  mutibeli, mutibelelo. rel. -tibelela (–ibelezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tibelisa (tibelisize) to order or to help to ~

-tibelela (tibelezi) v.i. to camp, to encamp, to pitch camp der. muti-beleli, matibelelo, mutibelelo. caus. -tibeleza (tibelelize) to receive travellers and provide a camping place for them

tibelelano (li-) n. mutual expecta-tion. (from: -libelela).

tibelelo (li-) n. expectation (from: -libelela).

tibelo (li-) n. hindrance, obstruc-tion, obstacle; opposition; preven-tion. syn. kaniso (from: -tibela).

-tibuha (tibuhile) v.i. to become de-teriorated, spoiled; to fall down (plaster).

-tibula1 (tibuzi) v.t. to beat and make fall (plaster) fig. to beat someone severely. der. mutibuli, mutibulelo, mutibulo, sitibuliso rel. -tibulela (ti-bulezi) to ~ for someone caus. -ti-bulisa (tibulisize) to order or to help to ~. int. -tibulelela (thibule-lezi) to completely take off (the plaster of a wall, of a hut, etc.) rec. -tibulana (tibulani) fig. to beat each other severely freq. -tibulanga fig. to be inclined to beat (people) ref. -ltibula (itibuzi) as rec.

tibula2 (li-) n. hole pierced at the bottom of a calabash in order to let out the whey when making sour milk syn. -tubula.

-tibuluha (tibuluhile) v.i. to become uncorked (bottle, etc ) to become opened (container, etc )

tibulula (tibuluzi) v.t. to uncork, to unstop, to open (bottle, etc ) der. mutibululi, sitibululiso. rel. -tibulu-lela (tibululezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tibululisa (tibululisize) to help to ~.

 

tieho (li-) n. delay, lateness. (from: -lieha).

tifo (li-) n. fee, payment, fine. (from: -lifa).

-tiinya (tiinyize) v.i. to rub the eye-l-id lightly with the finger-tip cf.-pikita. fig. exp: Ni ta ka tEinya mwa meto ha u sa utwi, I will make you wake up if you persist in not understanding. ref. -ltiinya (itii-nyize) to rub one's eye with the tip of the finger.

-tiisa (tiisize) v.t. to affirm, to insist, to certify, to confirm, to approve; to strengthen, to tighten, to conso-lidate; to persevere: Ni tiisa niti, I insist that I am telling the truth; Ha mu ota muhala, mu u tifse, mu sike mwa ota Tanya; when twisting a rope, do it firmly, not loosely; Mu tiise musebezi wa mina ka tata, do your work with perseverance der. mutiisi, tiiso. rec. -tiisana (tii-sani) to help each other to perse-vere. ref. -itiisa (itiisize) to encour-age oneself; to become stronger, to grow more robust. syn. -ikoko-tola, -ikokoteza. idiom. exp: U itii-size he looks well, he has put on weight.

-tiiseza (tiiselize) v.i. & v.t. to perse-vere; to insist; to keep holding tightly: confirm: Mu tifseze mwa buitamo bwa mina, do persevere in keeping your promises. der. tii-sezo. syn. -tundamena, -pihelela. int. -tiiseleza (tiiselelize) to endea-vour with patience

tiisezo, n. perseverance, persist-ence, tenacity, confirmation (from -tiiseza).

tikanyezo (li-) n. measurement (from: -likanyeza).

tikanyo (li-) n. size, proportion; dose (med) spec. exp: ka tikanyo, with moderation (from: -likanya).

-tikinya (tikinyize) v.t. Eng. to  tickle der. buzikinyani. rel. -tiki-nyeza (tikinyelize) to ~ for some-one caus. -tikinyisa (tikinyisize) to help to ~.

-tikitiba (tikitibile) v.t. Eng. to detect, to inquire, to investigate; to bring to light. der. mutikitibi, bu-tikitibi, mutikitibelo. cf. -sefa.

tiko (li-) n. (1) trial, (2) test, (3) temptation. (from: -lika).

tikwa! interj. expressing nauseous, loathsome kind of odour: Ku li tikwa! it stinks, it's rotten!

-tila (tilile) v.t. to make designs, drawings with a hot poker (pyro-graphy) der. katilotilo rel. -tilela (tilezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tilisa (tilisize) to order or to help to ~.

tilakita (li- or ma-) n. Eng. tractor (also sitilakita).

tilei (li-) n. Eng. tray: Ba lukanga li-tilei ka mibisi ya makenge, they make trays with makenge roots

tiloko, n. murmur, grumbling; dis-satisfaction, preoccupation about the future; forbodding, forewarn-ing, presentiment, apprehension (from: -liloka)

-tilula (tiluzi) v.t. to release some-one from a food taboo. rel. -tilulela (tilulezi) to ~ for someone: Mu t'o ni tilulela mwan'a a, u shwa tala; come and release my child from the food taboo you ordered him to observe, for he is starving ref. -iti-lula (itiluzi) to free oneself from the observance of a food taboo to start up, to stand up precipita-tely; to quake; to get frightened when caught in the act.

-tilumuna (tilumuzi) v.t. to caution, to warn, to find fault with; to scold rel. -tilumunena (tilumunezi) to warn on behalf of someone

tima1 (li-) n. garden, field, ploughed ground syn. simu (from: -lima)

 

-tima2 (timile) v.t. to refuse to give; to give . parsimoniously der. muti-mani, butimani. syn. -–oma,– ota. rel. -timela (timezi) to refuse for a reason: Ni mu timezi buhata bwa hae, I refused to help him because of his lies caus. -timisa (timisize) to cause to ~ int. -timelela (time-lezi) to definitely refuse to give. rec. -timana (timani) (1) to deprive oneself of something: Ku itima lico, to fast.

-tima3 (timile) v.i. to go out, to die out (fire), to burn out: Mulilo u timile, the fire died out

-tima4 (timile) v.t. to extinguish; to put out (fire, light, etc ) to turn off (gas), to switch off (electric light), to blow out (candle) der. mutimi, sitimiso. syn. -timuna. rel. -timela (timezi) to ~ for someone caus. -timisa (timisize) to help to ~ fig. to destroy completely, to mas-sacre: ku timisa lifolofolo, to cause havoc among game (see: -timeza) int. -timelela (timelezi) to put out all the fires

timana (li-) n. a verse (hymn, poem, scripture).

timba1 (tutimba) n. see: katimba. n. Eng. timber, log

-timba3 (timbile) v.t. Luyana. to hate der. sitimbo. syn. -toya.

-timboka (timbokile) v.t. to leave alone, to abandon someone, to forsake (habit of children in playing) syn. -siloka.

-timbula (timbuzi) v.t. to look at with rancour, to look daggers at, to cast an evil look der. litimbu, mutimbulelo. rel. -timbulela (timbu-lezi) to look at someone with ran-cour: S'o ni timbulela cwalo kini? why are you giving me such an evil look? why do you look daggers at me? caus. -timbulisa (timbulisize) to cause to ~ rec. -timbulana (timbu lani) to look wlth rancour at each other ref. -itimbula (itimbuzi) as rec.

timbuu (li-) n. Luyana. kind of small reed. cf. Iimbinda.

timbwe (bo-) n. see: ntimbwe.

-timela (timezi) v.i. to die, to perish der. timelo. syn. -shwa,-sinyeha, -lateha, -tokwahala, -tunumana, -tu-tubala, -fa. fig. to disappear, to vanish, to leave no trace: Usike wa hupula kuli s'o ezize sika timela kwa I batu, do not think that what you did won't be known rel. -timelela (timelezi) to die in a certain place: U il'o timelela kwa Livingi, he died in Livingstone caus. -timeza (time-lize) to cause the death of, to cause to perish (see: -timeza).

-timelelwa (timelezwi) v.t. to forget: Ne ni se ni ku timelezwi, I had al-ready forgotten you. syn. -libala.

timelo, n. death, destruction. syn. Iifu (from: -timela).

timeza (timelize) v.t. to destroy, to kill, to massacre. syn. -bulaya. cf. -sinya. (see: -tima3 cuas. fig. ref. -lti-meza (itimelize): spec. exp: ku iti-i meza mitala, to endeavour to hide E one's guilt, one's culpability

-timpula (timpuzi) v.t. to draw water with a cup or any other object syn. -ka. rel. -timpulela (timpulezi) to ~ for someone caus. -timpulisa (timpulisize) to help to ~ freq. -timpaula (timpauzi) to ~ repeat-edly ref. -ltimpulela (itimpulezi) to ~ for oneself.

-timuka (timukile) v.i. to be cross, to be sulky, to be angry. syn. -kemuka, -nyema, -halifa.

-timukela (timukezi) v.i. to cease boiling when the fire dies out: Piza ya ka i timukezi, my pot is no longer boiling as the fire is out.

-timuna (timuzi) v.t. (1) to put out a 'veldt' fire, to put out an outbreak  of fire syn. -tima3 (2) to cool hot water (by adding some cold water); to weaken a strong drink by adding water der. mutimuni, si-timuniso. fig. to appease some-one's anger, to soothe. rel. -timu-nela (timunezi) to ~ for someone caus. -timunisa (timunisize) to help to ~

-timwena (timwezi) v.t. Luyana. as-timuna.

-tina (tinile) v.t. to dress, to put one's clothes on (esp: trousers, shorts, kilt, skirt, etc.). der. muti-nisi, sitino, mutinelo cf. -apala. rel. -tinela (tinezi) to ~ somewhere: ku tinela kwa mukunda, to dress in pri-vacy fig. exp: ku tinelafa noka, to work very hard, to tighten one's belt caus. -tinisa (tinisize) to help someone to ~. inv. -tinulula (tinu-luzi) to undress ref. -itinisa (itini-size) to ~ oneself: Mukuli wa luna s'a kona ku itinisa, our sick friend is now able to dress himself.

tindi (li-) n. kind of bulb used as a ball which, in the cileke game, has to be hit with pointed sticks (sce: sumpu)

-tineha (tinehile) v.i. to become tired or disYusted with something cf. -katala, -tinwa. caus. -tinehisa (tinehisize) to cause to ~

-tinga (tingile) v.t. Luyana. to twist; to wind. der. Ilingo. fig. exp: ku tingela mutu liano, (1) to lay a trap to catch someone; (2) to find someone a way out of difficulty caus. -tingisa (tingisize) fig. to help to lay a trap to catch someone: Ki na ya mu tingisEze liano, kabe a sika mu swala lisholi lani; I helped him lay the trap, otherwise he wouidn't have caught that thief inv. -tingu-tula (tingutuzi) to untwist (see: -tingutula)

-tingeta (tingetite) v.t. to tie by  twisting. fig. to involve someone in trouble

-tinguluka (tingulukile) v.t. to encir-cle, to shut in; to go, to run round something: Ki mwila ku tinguluka ndu, it is a taboo to circle a house cf. -potoloha, caus. -tingulukisa (tingulukisize) to cause to ~

-tingutula (tingutuzi) v.t. to untwist. rel. -tingutulela (tingutulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tingutululisa (tingutululisize) to help to ~ inv. -tingutulelela (tingutulelezi) to ~ completely

-tintilika (tintilikile) v.i. to walk about naked in the house (speak-ing of a fat person). cf. -tuntulika. rel. -tintilikela (tintilikezi) to ~ somewhere caus. -tintilikisa(tintili-kisize) to cause to ~.

-tintuka (tintukile) v.i. (1) to fade, to lose colour: Lisila la ka li tintukile my material has lost its colour; (2) to undergo a great change in one's health caus. -tintukisa (tintukisize) or -tintula (tintuzi) to cause to ~. 

-tinulula (tinuluzi) v.t. sce: -tina inv.

-tinwa (tinilwe (v.t. to become tired or disgusted with someone or something: Ni tinilwe ki mikwa ya hae, I am disgusted by his habits cf. -tineha, -katala. caus. -tiniswa (tinisizwe) to experience disgust

tipa (li-) n. knife; tƒpa ya soloto, folding knife, pocket knife, pen-knife

-tiputuka (tiputukile) v.i. (1) to come out in great quantity (as pus out of an abscess) (2) to come out in great numbers (people) rel. -tipu-tukela (tiputukezi) to go to a cer-tain place in great numbers caus.-tiputukisa (tiputukisize) to cause people to go somewhere in great numbers

-tiputula (tiputuzi) v.t. to drain an abscess syn. -punya.  -tisa (tisize) v.t. to bring der. mutisi. rel. -tiseza (tiselize) to bring to caus. -tisisa (tisisize) to order or to help to bring to cauvse to bring int. -tiseleza (tiselelize) to bring the lot rec. -tisana (tisani) to bring each other to (a place): Ni utwile kuli ba tisani kwa Kuta, I heard that they mutually brought their case to the court ref. -ltisa (itisize) to come to: U itisEze i li yena, she came by herself

tite (ma-) n. piece of ground either virgin or uncultivated for a long time

-titihana (titihani) v.i. to be over-crowded, to lack space, to be huddled up: Litoli li titihani hahulu, likomu li ka itwanisa busihu: the poles are fixed too close together, the cattle can fight during the night syn. -pitihana. caus. -titiha-nya (titihanyize) to bring closely together (see: -titihanya)

-titihanya (titihanyize) v.t. to press together, to huddle, to put too close together syn. -pitihanya cuas. -titihanyisa (titihanysize) to help to bring closely together

-titika (titikile) v.t. to heat, to bruise insistently caus. -titikisa (ti-tikisize) to help to ~

-tiya (tiile) v.i. to be firm, steady, resolute der. matielo or matiyelo. rel. -tiyela (tiyezi) to cling to, to fasten on to; to rely on caus. -tiisa (tiisize) (sce: -tiisa)

tiyeho or tieho, (li-) n. delay, pro-crastination (from:-lieha)

-toba1 (tobile) v.i. to run away unseen, to slip away, to decamp, to escape to desert to slink away: U tobile mwa tolongo, he escaped from prison der. mutobi, mutobisi, butobi. rel. -tobela (tobezi) to decamp somewhere; to desert someone fig. to leave someone  alone (by dying): Musal'a ka u ni tobezi, my wife died suddenly and left me alone. caus. -tobisa (tobi-size) to cause or to help to decamp, to desert; to abduct ref. -itobisa ( (itobisize) to run away with someone, to elope: Mwangala u itobisize ni munna. Mwangala ran away with a man

-toba2 (tobile) v.t. to apply fomenta-tions der. mutobi. syn. sindela. fig. exp: ku toba pElu ya mutu, to com-fort to calm, to console someone rel. -tobela (tobezi) to ~ for some-one caus. -tobisa (tobisize) to assist someone m applying fomenta-tions red. -toba-toba (toba-tobile) to apply warm compresses. ref. -itoba (itobile) to apply warm com-presses on one's body.

tobeli (li-) n. plundering, looting (from: -lobela)

-tobisa (tobisize) v.t. to untie a calf to allow it to go and suck its mother der. mutobisi. cf. -lukulula. rel. -tobiseza (tobiselize) to ~ for someone rec. -tobisana (tobisani) fig. to go one after another: Ha mu ya kwa ku nwa mezi, mu n'o tobi-sana; when you go to drink water, go one by one

-toboha (tobohile) v.i. to give up, to forsake, to renounce der. muito-bohi, buitoboho, tobohano. fig. to forget all about an absent person or a dead person caus. -tobasa (to-bosize) to make someone re-nounce or forget about his claims: Ba nifile kanama ka kanyinyani, ku ni tobosafela; they gave me a small portion of meat, just to make me forget about it (see: -tobosa). rec.-tobohana (tobohani) to give up trusting each other, to give up hope of secing each other again ref. -itioboha (itobohile) to give up, to renounce; to do without, to de prive oneself of something, to deny oneself something, to abstain from something: Na, ni se ni itobo-hile mwa lika kaufela; as for me, I have no more desires or preten-tions, I gave up all of them

tobohano (li-) n. reciprocal forget-fulness (from: -toboha).

toboi, n. half-dry grass in morasses after the flood season

-tobola1 (tobozi) v.t. to detach mealie cobs from the stalk leaving the spathe. syn. -boyola.

-tobola2 (tobozi) v.i. to speak much syn. -bulela. rel. -tobolela (tobolezi) to speak to caus. -tobolisa (toboli-size) to cause to speak

tobolo (li-) n. gun (any kind of gun) fig. thief

-tobosa (tobosize) v.t. to make someone renounce, give up, forget something: Ki peto, u yo tobosa Malozi kuli Nawa a man'o eza si-tangu u tobile; that's all, go and tell the chiefs to forget about Nawa for he left for good after he was in-volved in that scandal. rel. -tobo-seza (toboselize) to cause to ~. int. -toboseleza (toboselelize) to make someone give up, renounce com-pletely

-tofoka (tofokile) v.i. to have noth-ing in the stomach, to be acutely hungry, to be pining for food

-tofola (tofozi) v.t. to cause some-one to be acutely hungry. der. mui-tofoli. ref. -ltofola (itofozi) to be bent with hunger.

-tofota (tofotile) v.i. to be tender, soft, ripe: Ya ka mango ya tofota, i buzwize; my mango is soft, so it is ripe. der. matofotelo, katofotelo.

toho (li-) n. head fig. chief, head-man, headmaster, etc fig. exp: toho ya nuka, source of a river; toho ya taba, the main point of a case;  matu wa toho-tata, a strong headed man.

tohonolo (li- or ma-) n. good luck, good fortune, privilege, good omen, blessing syn. litohonolo.

-tohonolofaza (tohonolofalize) v.t. Sotho. to bless der. tohonolofaza. syn. -fuyola.

tohonolofazo (li-) n. blessing, benediction syn. mbuyoti. (from -tohonolofaza)

-tokola (tokozi) v.t. to dig (make) a canal; to cleanse a canal, a ditch, etc der. mutokoli, mutokolisi, sito-koliso. mutokolelo. cf. -yepa, -kom-bola. rel. -tokolela (tokolezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tokolisa (toko-lisize) to order or to help to ~ int. -tokolelela (tokolelezi) to clean out every canal ref. -itokolela (itokolezi) to cleanse one's ditches with-out the help of others.

-tokola2 (tokozi) v.t. to cut off large pieces of meat cf. -puma. freq. -tokaula (tokauzi) to cut off many large pieces of meat; to tear away pieces of meat (as a wild animal from its prey).

-tokola3 (tokozi) v.i. to belch. caus. -tokolisa (tokolisize) to cause to ~

-tokolomoha (tokolomohile) or -tokomoloha (tokomolohile) v.t. to cease to take care of someone, to leave alone, to abandon cf. -tuhela, -lisela.

-tokoma (tokomile) v.i. to make a noise when boiling.

-tokomela (tokomezi) v.i. & v.t. to mind, to heed; to take care of: U tokomele, u ta ca mulilo, mind the fire, or you will burn yourself; Mu tokomele mwanana a sike a zwela-zwela kwande, u ta shwa silami; take care of the child and do not let him go out, otherwise he will get cold der. mutokomeli, tokomelo. syn. -babaleh. rel. -tokome  lela (tokomelezi) to ~ on behalf of someone caus. -tokomelisa (tokomelisize) to enjoin to ~ rec. -tokomelana (tokomelani) to take care of each other inv. -tokomoloha (tokomolohile) to cease to take care of, to abandon ref. -itokomela (itokomezi) to take care of oneself

tokomelo (li-) n. care, carefulness, mindfulness, heed; prudence (from: -tokomela)

-tokota (tokotile) v.i. (1) to breathe with difficulty, to gasp; to rattle (in one's throat), to be at one's last gasp, to be in the throes of death syn. -tosaela. (2) to roar (leopard) der. mutokoti, litokota, mutokotelo. rel. -tokotela (tokotezi) fig. to rep-rimand severely caus. -tokotisa (tokotisize) fig. to reprimand each other very severely.

-tokwa (towile) v.t. to want; to be in need of, to lack; to miss: Ni tokwa kuli mu ye kwa Mulenehi kamuso, I want you to go to the Capital to-morrow, Na, ni tokwile nako ya ku ya kwate–i; I certainly have no time to go there; Ni kile na ya kwa-tehi ka nako yeh wi, kono n 'a y'o mu tokwa; I went there one day, but I missed him adv.exp: kutokwa, not at all far from it ! der. mutokwi, butokwi, tokwahalo. rel. -tokwela (tokwezi) to want, to need some-thing for someone: Ni tokwezi mwan'a ka mali a sikolo, I need money to pay my child's school-fees caus. -tokwisa (tokwisize) to deprive someone of something: U ni tokwisize nihaiba kanama kakanyinyani, he did not give me even the slightest piece of meat int. -stat. -tokwahala (tokwahalile) to be needed (see: -tokwahala). freq. -tokwanga to usually nced ref. -itokwisa (itokwisize) to deprive oneself

 

-tokwahala (tokwahezi or tokwaha-lile) v.i. (1) to be rare, to be precious; (2) to be no more, to die syn. -shwa, -timela, -sinyeha, -lateha. (3 ) to be needed rel. -tokwahalela (tokwahalezi) to die somewhere: U tokwahalezi mwa musipili, he died while on a trip spec. exp: ku tokwahalelwa ki mwana, ki musali, ki munna, etc to lose (through death) a child, a wife, a husband, etc freq. -tokwahalanga to be usually needed

-tola1 (tolile) v.i. to smear one's skin with vaseline der. sitolelo. int. -tolelela (tolelezi) to smear one's whole body with medicinal ointment

-tola2 (tolile) v.t. Luyana. to find a lost thing syn. -nopa.

-tola3 (tozi) v.t. to spend time: Lu tozi mazazi a mabeli mwa Lealui, we spent two days in Lealui spec. exp: Mu tozi! good afternoon! (lit: you spent a good time of rest) cf. -tanda. caus. -tolisa (tolisize) to cause to ~

-tola4 (tolile) v.i. to commit an incestuous act, to do an immoral thing to call for bad luck in doing some-thing evil der. sitola butola, mitolo. rel. -tolela (tolezi) to bring bad luck to someone by doing him wrong ref. -itolela (itolezi) to call for mutual bad luck in doing wrong to each other

-tola aux. v. giving the meaning of continuation in the action: Ha ni sa tola ni kutela tehi, I shall never do it again (lit: I shall not continue doing it)

-toliya (toliile) v.t. to annoy, to worry, to bother (by loud talking or laughing) caus. -toliisa (toliisize) to cause to disturb with

-tolisa (tolisize) v.t. to mock, to torment, to plague, to rag der. toliso.  cf. -kataza, -swenya, -nyandisa. toliso (li-) n. mockery, torment, plaguing (from -tolisa)

tolo1 (li-) n. dream (from: -lola) tolo ye maswe, a bad dream

tolo2 (li-) n. kudu antelope.

-toloka (tolokile., v.t. to interpret, to translate orally der. mutoloki, butoloki, mutolokelo cf. -fetula. rel. -tolokela (tolokezi) to ~ for someone

tolomani (li-) n. empty tin.

tolombita (li-) n. Eng. trumpets bugle

tolongo (li-) n. prison, gaol (jail) ku kenya mutu mwa tolongo, to imprison

-tolongosha (tolongoshize) v.t. to explain fully. to detail all things correctly der. mutolongoshi, mutolongoshelo. rel. -tolongoshela (tolongoshezi) to ~ to someone caus. -tolongoshisa (tolongoshisize) to cause to ~: Kini sesi mu tolongo-shisize cwalo litaba za matapa kwa kuta? what made her relate in detail private matters before the court?

-toma1 (tomile) v.t. to found; to es-tablish; to erect; to fix ku toma mulao, to establish a lwa, to legislate spec. exp: Pula i tomile, it is raining in the distance there is a curtain of rain in the distance der. mutomi, mutomo, mutomelo. rel. -tomela (tomezi) to ~ for someone or somewhere caus. -tomisa (tomi-size) to help or to cause to ~ ref. -itomela (itomezi) to ~ for oneself

-toma2 (tomile) v.t. to pole with a paddie, pushing forward der. mutomo. rel. -tomela (tomezi) to ~ in a certain direction

-toma3 (tomile) v.i. to stand firmly: Yena ki musali, u tomile hande, she is really a well built woman (u tomile ~ has large, shapely legs)

 

tomahana (tomahani) v.i. to follow each other, to succeed each other: Mu zamaye ka ku tomahana mwa mukoloko, walk in single file. syn. -tatamana.

-tomahanya (tomahanyize) v.t. (1) to join, to connect: Mu tomahanye feela mabala a matelele, join together long rafters only. (2) to explain things in a logical order rel. -tomahanyeza (tomahanyelize) to ~ for someone.

-tomana (tomani or tomanile) v.i. to squat, to remain sitting for a long time (because of illness or old age) syn. -ungumana.

tombo! interj. not so! Tombo, u hane, u sike wa eza cwalo! no, refuse to do so!

-tombola (tombozi) v.t. to deprive someone or cause him to suffer loss of property or privileges: Ba ni tombozi, nifumani buhobe bafelize: they deprived me of buhobe, I found they had just finished eating syn. -sotisa. cf. -kabelela, -yawa. rel. -tombolela (tombolezi) to offend someone by depriving a person of food, work, etc: Mutu yani u til'o ni tombolela bana ba ka, kacenu ha ba sika kula hande; that man deprived my children of their food, so they are not satisfied ref. a) -itombola (itombozi) to deprive oneself of food; to sacrifice b) -itombolisa (itombolisize) to deprive oneself in favour of others.

tombomoyo, adv. (always used with: -shwa, to die): ku shwa tombomoyo to die. giving all irrefutable signs of death

-tomelela (tomelezi) v.t. to overfill, to fill up and heap over

-tomenena (tomenezi) v.t. to persist in doing something; to follow someone, to imitate someone Yani h'a tomenenwi, that person has no  equal (cannot be imitated) der. mutomeneni, tomeneno. cf. swalelela, -hanelela, tundamena. caus. -tomenenisa (tomenenisize) to cause someone to persist in doing something

tomeneno, n. persistence in doing something (from:-tomenena).

-tomoha (tomohile) v.i. usually used with pilu): ku tomoha pilu, to be very sad der. matomola. rel. -tomohela (tomohezi) to sympathize, to have pity upon, to be merciful so caus. -tomohisa (tomohisize) to cause sadness ref. -itomohisa (ito-mohisize) to make oneself suffer, to worry oneself.

-tomola (tomozi) v.t. to take (thorns, etc ) out of the body with the help of an instrument der. mutomoli, sitomoliso, mutomolelo. fig. to help someone out of difficulty; to remove a troublesome person from a village: Ba lu tomozi silumi se ne si lu kataza mwa hae, they helped us by expelling the sorcerer who was worrying us from the village rel. -tomolela (tomolezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tomolisa (tomolisize) to help to ~ ref. -itomola (itomozi) oneself to take a thorn, etc out of one's body fig. to get rid of a worrying person: Mutu h'a koni ku itomola muutwa o mu kataza ku itomola, it is impossible for anybody by himself to get rid of a harmful person

-tompa (tompile) v.t. Sotho. to show respect to; to honour; to be polite to der. mutompehi, butompehi, tompo, tompololo. syn. -kuteka. stat. -tompeha (tompehile) to be respectable, to be honourable rec. -tompana (tompani) to show mutual respect inv. -tompolola (tompolozi) to dishonour, to be disrespectful to someone, to revile (see: -tompo-  lola) ref. -itompa (itompile) to respect oneself

tompo, n. Sotho. politeness, rever-ence, honour (from:-tompa).

-tompoloka (tompolokile) v.i. Sotho. to become powerless (speaking of a witchdoctor whose power has been outdone by a more powerful influence) syn. -sompoloka.

-tompolola (tompolozi) v.t. Sotho. to dishonour, to be disrespectful to someone, to revile. syn. -nyefula, -shauta. rel. -tompololela (tompolo, lezi) to dishonour for a certain reason U ni tompololezifa kwai ya ka ye ni mu timile, he reviled me because I refused to give him snuff rec. -tompololana (tompololani or tompololanile) to show mutual disrespect ref. -itompolola (itompolozi) to dishonour oneself; to dishonour each other

tompololo (li-) n. Sotho. lack of politeness, of reverence; reviling dishonour (from: -tompa inv.

-tompokelwa (tompokezwi) v.i. to sow late: Mueumwaha lu tompokezwi, this year we have sown too late cf. -kotokelwa.

-tona (tonile) v.i. (1) to have the eyes open, to be awake: Lufitile ba sa tona, we arrived before they went to sleep; (2) to be visible: Na ni bona kuli bwanda bo ha bu toni handefa lisila le. to me it seems this thread is not visible on this material der. mutoni, mutonisi, mutonelo. fig. to be alert, lively, perky, bright, sharp, quick-witted rel. -tonela (tonezi) to sit up for, to watch over: ku tonela situpu. to watch over a dead body caus. -tonisa (tonisize) to keep company with people in the evening fig. to awaken someone's intelligence freq. -tonanga to have the habit of going to bed late red. -tona-tona  (tona-tonile) to sit up or watch for a short while

-tonda (tondile) v.t. to be discon-certed about the loss of something der. lutondeleti, mutondeleti. rel. -tondela (tondezi) to be suspicious about someone who might have stolen missing things caus. -tondisa (tondisize) to accuse someone of having taken a missing thing. int-stat. -tondahala (tondahalile) to be missing: Ku tondahala mwanana mwa hae mwani. a child is missing in that village rec. -tondisana (tondisani or tondisanile) to accuse each other of having taken a missing thing

-tondoka (tondokile) v.i. to mourn for a dead person. der. mutondo-kelo. cf. -bonka. caus. -tondokisa (tondokisize) to cause to ~

-tondomoka (tondomokile) v.i. see -ndondomoka.

-tondomona (tondomozi) v.t. see -ndondomona.

-tonela (tonezi) v.t. to search for something (with a fishing-spear, a stick, etc): Ba ile kwa ku tonela likulu, they went to search for tortoises

-tonga (tongile) v.i. to groan, to moan, to wail. der. mutongi, sitongo, mutongelo. caus. -tongisa (tongisize) to cause to ~. red. tonga-tonga (tonga-tongile) fig. to be unwell: H'a zuhi hande, wa tonga-tonga mazazi a; he is not well these days ref. -itongisa (itongisize) to feign iliness by groaning

-tongama (tongami or tongamile) v.t. to run after to chase (animals) Nja ya ka i tongami kafolofolo, my dog is chasing an animal syn. -manama, -matisa, -tatama, -landameka, -shenja. cf. -putuma. fig. to be (going) after someone rel. -tongamela (tongamezi) to  chase for a reason: Wena s'o ni tongamezi cwana ki sika mani? why are you after me like this? ref -itongama (titongami or itongamile) fig. to survey, to watch each other. -tongoka (tongokile) v.i. to grumble, to murmur, to be discontented, dissatisfied: to complain; to protest. der. -mutongoki, tongoko, mutongokelo. syn. -bilaela,– o–oleha, honona. caus. -tongokisa (tongokisize) to cause to ~. rec. -tongokana (tongokani or tongokanile) to com-plain to each other. ref. -itongoka (itongokile) as rec.

tongoko (li-) n. grumbling, murmuring dissatisfaction, complaint, protest (from: -tongoka).

-tongola (tongozi) v.t. to uproot, to deracinate (with the hand, a hoe, etc.) der. mutongoli, sitongoliso, mutongolelo. fig. to find out, to dis-cover (a mistake, a fault, a weakness of any kind, etc.): Ni ku tong-ozi, wena, ha u zibi Sikuwa; I have discovered that you don't know English at all!

-tongomana (tongomani) v.i. to start sitting for a while when recovering from illness: Mukuli wa luna u s'a tongomana fafasi, our patient is now able to sit for a while. syn. -toomana.

-tongomona (tongomozi) v.t. to shell maize cobs. der. mutongomoni. syn. -toomona. rel. -tongomonela (tongomonezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tongomonisa (tongomonisize) to help to ~. int. -tongomonelela (tongomonelezi) to shell all the maize cobs.

|-tongoshola (tongomonelezi) to shell all the maize cobs.

-tongoshola (tongoshozi) v.t. to relate things, explaining in detail unnecessarily . rel. -tongosholela (tongosholezi) to ~ to someone.

 

-tonipa (tonipile) v.t. Sotho. see: -tompa.

-tonoka (tonokile) v.t. Luyana. to look for: Ni katezi ku tonoka tipa ya ka, ha ni i boni; I have been looking for my knife, but I can not find it. syn. -bata.

-tonya-tonya (tonya-tonyize) v.t. to prod something in order to see if it is ripe. syn. -sina-sina.

-toola (toozi) v.t. to pick up (bones from meat, flies from milk, etc.) rel. -toolela (toolezi) to ~ for someone: U si ci, pili ni ku toolele masapo; do not eat (the fish) before I take the bones out. caus. -toolisa (toolisize) to help to ~.

-toomana (toomani or toomanine) v.i. to sit down (speaking of a sick, weak or aged person); to sit down in order to avoid work: Ni ku boni kale, wa sa li ku toomonafafasi, ha u beleki; I have been observing you for a long time, you are just sitting down doing nothing.

-toomona (toomozi) v.t. to shell maize cobs. der. mutoomoni. syn. -tongomona. fig. to reveal every-thing when giving evidence. rel. -toomonela (toomonezi) or -toomonena (toomonezi) to ~ for some-one; to shell maize cobs into something: lla ni na mukeke wa ku toomonena mbonyi ya ka, I have no basin into which to shell my maize. caus. -toomonisa (toomonisize) to help to ~. fig. to cause someone to reveal everything when giving evidence. int. -toomonelela (toomonelezi) to shell all the maize cobs. rec. -itomonisa (itomonisize) to help each other shell maize cobs.

-topotoka (topotokile) v.i. (1) to come out in great numbers (people from an assembly hall, etc.) (2) to fall in great quantity (rain): Pula i topotokile hahulu  basihu bwa kacenu, it rained very heavily last night. rel. -topotokela (topotokezi) to go somewere in great numbers. caus. -topotokisa (topotokisize) to cause to ~.

-topwela (topwezi) v.i. to be very tired, to be exhausted. syn. -bomba, -tamba, -katala. caus. -topwelisa (topwelisize) to cause to ~.

-tosa (tosize.) v.t. to find unexpectedly (an animal in the 'veldt', the body of a dead person, etc.). der. mutosi.

-tosaela (tosaezi) v.i. to be stil[ breathing (speaking of a dying person), to be at one's last gasp. syn. -tokota. rel. -tosaelela (tosaelezi) fig. to find refuge or comfort somewhere.

-tosangisa (tosangisize) v.t. to press hard with questions in order to obtain evidence. rel. -tosangiseza (tosangiselize) to ~ for a definite purpose. rec. -tosangisana (tosangisani) to ~ (speaking of two people). ref. -itosangisa (itosangisize) as rec.

tota1, adv. truly, really: Ona, ki mulyani tota; this is a really good medicine.

-tota2 (totile) v.t. Luyana. to totter, to walk with short and swift steps (speaking of a person overburdened) . syn. -sheshela, shina-shina, -tepa-tepa. fig. to taxi on the tarmac (aircraft). rel. -totela (totezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -totisa (totisize) to cause to ~.

-totobela (totobezi) v.i. to sink in mud: Komu ye totobezi mwa sileze, ha mu sa i akufeli, ya shwa, if you don't hurry up and rescue the cow which has sunk in mud, it will die. caus. -totobelisa (totobelisize) or -totobeza (totobelize) to cause to ~. 

-totofala (totofezi) v.i. Sotho. to become stupid. caus. -totofaza (to-  tofalize) to stupefy, to cause madness: Matokwani a totofalize ba banata, hemp has been the cause of many people's madness.

-totoloka (totolokile) v.i. to remain watery (as mealie meal of bad quality when cooked).

-totolola (totolozi) v.i. to produce air-bubbles (fish, etc.)

-totolosa (totolosize) v.t. to speak endlessly. der. mutotolosi.

-totomoka (totomokile) v.i. to run in order to jump. fig. to enter into a discussion in order to accuse someone's opponent..

-totona (no past tense) v.i. to lose strength, flavour (tobacco mixed with too much mulilima) caus. -totonisa (totonisize) to cause to ~.

tou (li-) n. elephant; ivory; ivory bracelet. syn. ndopu.

toyal, n. whey.

-toya2 (toile) v.t. to hate, to detest, to abhor. der. mutoiwa, sitoyo, toyano. syn. -ndimba, -timba, -zwikama. rel. -toyela (toyezi) to ~ for a reason: Ba mu toyezi buikumuso bwa hae, they hate him for his excessive pride. caus. -toisa (toisize) or -toyisa (toyisize) to cause to ~. rec. -toyana (toyani) to hate each other. rel. -toyanela (toyanezi) to hate each other for a reason: Ba toyanezi fa muzeko wa bona wa mubu, they have hated each other since they had a land dispute. int. -toyanelela (toyanelezi) to hate each other without hope of reconciliation. ref. -itoisa (itoisize) to cause oneself to be hated: U ta itoisa batu haiba u itokwisa likute cwalo, you will provoke people's hatred if you behave in such a bad way.

toyano1 (li-) n. reciprocal hatred. (from: -toya).

toyano2 (li-) n. mutual casting of  spell, mutual bewitchment. (from: -loya).

-toyola (toyozi) v.t. to pierce, to burst through; to wound with a stick: Ki kale ba toyola mulupa wa mutu. they have burst somebody's drum ! syn. -punya. rel. -toyolela (toyolezi) to ~ causing harm to someone. caus. -toyolisa (toyolisize) to cause to ~.

-toza1 (tozize) v.i. to be lame; to limp, to hobble. der. mutozi. syn. -cu–uta, pa–ata, -pankata. rel. -tozeza (tozelize) to ~ somewhere caus. -tozisa (tozisize) to cause to ~; to accompany a lame person.

-toza2 (tozize) v.t. to smear someone's skin with vaseline. (see: -tola). der. mutozi, mutozezo, sitozezo. cf. -sasa. rel. -tozeza (tozelize) to ~ for someone: Ike mu ni tozeze yena mafula h'a ka lobala; please rub him with the ointment, when he goes to bed. caus. -tozisa (tozisize) to help to ~.  int. -tozeleza (tozelelize) to smear completely someone's body with vaseline. ref. -itoza (itozize) to smear one's skin with vaseline

toze (li-) n. seed (of pumpkins, water melons, etc.). cf. peu.

tu! interj. expressing silence, quietness, calmness: Nifumani mwa hae ku li tu! I found that it was completely quiet in the village.

-tuba (tubile) v.t. to break, to crush, to smash: ku tuba limota, to batter down a wall fig. exp: ku toba buloko, to sleep long, Munwana u li munwi ha u tubi nda, unity is strength (lit: a single finger cannot crush a louse); ku tuba munzi, to spoil good understanding between members of a family. der. mutubi, situbiso, kutubaminzi. cf. -pyata. -bulaya. rel. -tubela (tubezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tubisa (tubisize) to  help to ~. stat. -tubeha (tubehile) to become broken: Lii li tubehile, the egg is broken. int. -tubelela (tu-belezi) to ~ the whole lot. rec. -tubana (tubanike) fig. to come to blows. freq. -tubaka (tubakile) to break into pieces. ref. -itubaka (itubakile) fig. to strike each other repeatedly.

-tubaka (tubakile) v.i. to work hard; to be in a hurry. der. mutubaki.

tubana (li-) n. deep circular wooden vessel with lid.

-tubauka (tubaukile) v.i. to bubble up (boiling water); to rise up (spray over a cataract).

-tubeta (tubetite or tubetile) v.t. to kiss fig. exp: ku tubeta ndombe, ku siya muwayo to enjoy a gift, forgetting the giver (lit: to kiss a barbel fish and leave aside the fishing spear that killed it). rec. -tubetana (tubetani or tubetanile) to kiss each other, ref. -itubeta (itubetite)

-tubilikana (tubilikani or tubilikanile) v.i. to do any kind of work hurriedly cf. -mbwimbwilikana.

-tubuka (tubukile) v.t. to cause a rash on the skin: Mwanana u tubukilwe ki sikalanga, the little child has a rash caused by small pox. cf. -tutuluka. int. -tubukelela (tubuke-lezi) to cause a rash covering the whole body.

-tubula1 (tubuzi) v.i. & v.t. to undress, to strip, to take away one's ornaments. fig. exp: U mu tubuzi, he divorced her. der. mutubulelo, katubulelo. rel. -tubulela (tubulezi) to undress (a child or a sick person) on another's behalf; to give a personal garment to somebody: U tubulele bo m'aho kwa liapalo za hao, bona ba zamaya mubili fande; give some of your dresses to your mother, look, she is poorly  dressed. caus. -tubulisa (tubulisize) to help to ~. int. -tubulelela (tubu-lelezi) to undress completely. ref.-itubula (itubuzi) to undress oneself. fig. exp: ku itubula bulena, to resign, to abdicate (king).

-tubula2 (tubuzi) v.t. to give a tribute to the Litunga (a lapsed custom) der. nubu.

-tubula3 (tubuzi) v.i. to blossom: Likota se li tubula mwa mushitu, mwaha s'ofelile! the trces are already blooming in the forest, so the year is coming to an end.

tubula (li-) n. hole pierced at the bottom of a calabash in order to let out the whey when making sour milk. syn. tibula.

-tubulula (tubuluzi) v.t. to take some food out of the pot still on fire. (taboo referring to the belief that someone doing so might be accused of some fault in front of many people). der. mutubululi, mutubu. cf. -tumununa. rel. -tubululela (tubululezi) to ~ for someone. -tubutula (tubutuzi) v.t. to take little by little (out of a bag, a basket, etc.); to draw money out of the bank again and again. rel. -tubutulela (tubutulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tubutulisa (tubutulisize) to help or to cause to ~. int. -tubutulelela (tubutulelezi) to ~ the whole lot.

tuelo (li-) n. Sotho. wages, reward, salary (from: -luela).

tufa (li-) n. large earthen pot or ca-labash used for making sour milk.

-tuhal (tuhile) v.i. Sotho. to go away; (also used adverbially in the following expressions): ku tuha cwale, henceforth ku tuhafo, since then. ku tuha– ohola, since last year, etc.

-tuha2 aux. v. giving a meaning of nearness in time, soon: Ba tuha ba fita, they will soon arrive.

 

-tuhela1 (tuhezi) v.t. to give up; to abandon, to leave behind; to leave alone: Ni se ni tuXezi bucwala, I have given up drinking. Musali yani ni mu tuhezi kakuli n'a na ni buzwa hahulu, I have abandonned that woman because she was very lazy Tuhela kaze i ka kunwalula. leave the cat alone, otherwise it will scratch you! syn. -lisela,-tokolomoha or tokomoloha. caus. -tuhelisa (tuhelisize) to cause to ~: Ni mu tuhelisize musebezi, I dismissed him from his work. int. -tuhelela (tuhelezi) to leave completely alone: Kini ha mu tuhelezi banana ba nze ba sinya mezi? why did you leave the children spoiling water? rec. -tuhelana (tuhelani) to stop mutual friendly relations.

-tuhela2 (tuhezi) v.t. to bring forth new leaves. syn. -shoshela.

-tuka (tukile) v.i. to catch fire, to burn. syn. -lyakama. cf. -ca. rel. -tukela (tukezi) to burn somewhere: Mulilo wani u tukela kwahule, that fire is burning far away. caus. -tukisa (tukisize) to set fire, to kindle.

-tukaela (tukaezi) v.i. to walk clumsily. syn. -tuntaeh. rel. -tukaelela (tukaelezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -tukaelisa (tukaelisize) to cause to ~.

(tukelo (li-) n. right, privilege, pre-rogative; justice, equity: Ba mu timile litukelo za hae; they deprived him of his rights. (from: -luka).

tukisezo (li-) n. plan, project, intention, care: Mutu kaufela u na ni tukisezo ya hae y'a filwe ki Mulimu, everybody is living according to a plan prepared by God. (from: -lukisa).

tukiso (li-) n. preparation, arrangement. (from: -lukisa).

tukol used with prep 'kwa' to form  the adverb: kwatuko, aside, apart; in private: Mu bee libyana kwatuko, put the goods aside. Mu y'o ambolela kwatuko, go and discuss in privacy.

tuko2 prep. beside, near: kwatuko a mukwakwa, near the road.

tuku, n. food from the previous harvest: Luna, lu sa ca mbonyi ya tuku; we are still eating last year's maize.

tuku-bakebo, idiom. exp. Luyana: let us pull together. cf. -tukuongote.

tukufala (tukufezi) v.i. to be worried; to be in pain. der. tukufalo. rel. (passive form with active meaning) -tukufalelwa (tukufa-lezwi) to desire ardently to do something: U tukufalezwi ku feza musebezi wa hae, he is very anxious to finish his work. syn. -kalahalelwa.

tukufalo, n. worry, pain. (from: -tukufala).

-tukufaza (tukufalize) v.t. to worry, to torment, to tease. der. mutukufazi, tukufazo. syn. -kataza, -shupa. swenya rel. -tukufaleza (tukufale-lize) to worry for a reason: U ni tukufaleza–i? why are you worrying me? rec. -tukufazana (tukufazani) to grieve each other. ref. -itukufaza (itukufalize) as rec.

tukufazo, n. torment, teasing. (from: -tukufaza).

-tukulal (tukukile) v.i. to become possessed by a spirit to be in a trance fig. to crave for something. caus. -tukukisa (tukukisize) to cause to ~. ref. -itukukisa (itukukisize) to pretend to be possessed by a spirit

-tukuka2 (tukukile) v.i. to come out; to be pulled out, extracted, uprooted. syn. -kumuha, nyukuka.

-tukulal (tukuzi) v.t. Luvale. to kill in  some obscure way, by taking the person's soul out of his body (witchcraft). der. mutukule. syn. -hola, -yomona. fig. to follow a craving desire. ref. -itukulisa (titukulisize) to cause oneself to be be-witched.

-tukula2 (tukuzi) v.t. to sift kaffir-corn by giving a circular movement to the sieve. der. mutukuli, situkuliso, matuka, mutukulelo. rel. -tukulela (tukulezi) to~ for some-one. caus. -tukulisa (tukulisize) to help or to order to ~. stat. -tukuleha (tukulehile) to be able to be sifted easily. int. -tukulelela (tukulelezi) to sift the whole lot.

tukuluho, n. frcedom, emancipation, independence, liberty. (from: -lukuluha).

tukululo, n. act of setting free, of giving independence. (from: -lukulula).

-tukumana (tukumani) v.i. to sit down listlessly, dispiritedly. caus. -tukumanisa (tukumanisize) to cause to ~.

tukuongote, idiom. exp. Luyana: let us unite together. cf. tukubakebo.

-tukutal (tukutile) v.t. to rob, to sack, to ransack, to despoil, to plunder. der. mutukuti, mutukutelo. syn. -uzwa, -falaza. rel. -tukutela (tukutezi) to offend somebody by robbing another: Ba ni tukutezi mwan'a ka libyana za hae, they have despoiled my child's personal effects. int. -tukutelela (tukutelezi) to ~ completely: Ba tukutelezi ndu ya hae kaufela, they completely ransacked his house.

-tukutelwa (tukutezwi) v.i. to sweat, to perspire. der. situkutuku. syn. -fufulelwa.

tukwa, adj. dark-grey (male); (with reference to female: tukwana).

-tulal (tutile or tuzi) v.t. to over-  come, to defeat, to conquer; to win. der. mutuli, tulo. syn. -fenya. pass. -tulwa (tuswi) to be defeated, conquered to be unable (to do something): Ni ka tulwa, ni palelwe ku pila ni wena, haiba u zwela pili mwa mikwa ya hao; I shall no longer be able to live with you if you continue to live such a life. rel. -tulela (tulezi) to overcome for someone: Jesu u lu tulezi lifu, Jesus overcame death for us. caus. -tulisa (tulisize) to help to ~. int. -tulelela (tulelezi) to ~ completely. -tula2 (tulile) v.t. to forge (metal). der. mutuli, butuli, situliso, mutulelo. rel. -tulela (tulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tulisa (tulisize) to help to ~. stat. -tuleba (tulehile) to be forgeable: Butale bo ha bu tulehi hande, this ore is not forgeable. int. -tulelela (tulelezi) to forge all that has to be forged. ref. -itulela (itulezi) to forge for oneself.

-tula3 (tulile) v.i. to jump. der. mutuli, situliso, mutulelo. fig. to trespass, to transgress: Ku tula mulao ki ku ikenya mwa ziezi, to trangress the law means getting into trouble. rel. -tulela (tulezi) to jump over: Tauya tulela Munali, mi ya mu loba lizoho; the lion jumped over Dr. Livingstone and broke his arm. caus. -tulisa (tulisize) to help to jump fig. to cause to trespass. freq. -tulaka (tulakile) to jump with joy. red. -tulaka-tulaka (tulaka-tulakile) as freq.

-tula4 (tulile) v.i. to be expensive, to be very dear. caus. -tulisa (tulisize) to make something dearer, to raise the price of something.

-tulana (tulani) v.i. to collide; to clash. der. tulano. syn. -ngubana. rel. -tulanela (tulanezi) to strike against each other somewhere, to come into collision somewhere.  caus. -tulanisa (tulanisize) or -tulanya (tulanyize) to cause a collision; to mix things of different kinds. fig. to prepare a cocktail.

tulano (li-) n. collision, clash (from: -tulana).

-tula-tula (tula-tulisize) to cause to ~: U ni tula-tulisa pilu, you make my heart palpitate.

-tuleha (tulehile) v.t. to give a clyster, to give enema der. mutulehi, situlehiso, tuleho. rel. -tulehela (tulehezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tulehisa (tulehisize) to help to ~.

tuleho (li-) n. clyster. (from: -tuleha).

-tulela (tulezi) v.t. to make a decision; (Litunga) to judge in favour of someone.

-tulisa (tulisize) v.t. to manure a garden (by means of cattle). der. matulisi, butulisi, cf. -nunisa. rel. -tuliseza (tuliselize) to ~ for some-one. caus. -tulisisa (tulisisize) to order or to help to ~. int. -tuliseleza (tuliselelize) to manure a whole garden. freq. -tulisanga to ~ habitually. red. -tulisa-tulisa (tulisa-tulisize) to leave cattle for a short time in a garden for them to manure it. ref. -ituliseza (ituliselize) to manure one's own garden by means of cattle.

tulo (li-) n. victory, conquest, triumph. (from: -tula).

-tulubana (tulubani or tulubanile) v.i. to show signs of weakness, of bad health. syn. -tanya. cf. -fokola. caus. -tulubanisa (tulubanisize) to cause to ~. ref. -itulubanya (itulubanyize) to show signs of personal carelessness, leading to bad health.

-tuluka (tulukile) v.i. to come down, to descend, to dismount: N'a wezi fafasi h'a li a tulukefa pizi ya hae, he fell when trying to dismount from his horse. fig. to abdicate, to  resign. rel. -tulukela (tulukezi) (fafasi) to come down; to fall upon inadvertently: Kozi i lu tulukezi sina lumonyi lwa pula, the danger fell upon us with the speed of lightning. fig. to abdicate for a reason: U rulukezi bumaswe bwa hae, his shortcomings compelled him to resign. caus. -tulukisa (tulukisize) to take down: Ni sa tulukisa rnwan'a ka, pili a anye; I am first taking down my child for I want him to suck. ref. -itulukisa (itulukisize) (oneself) to get down from (somewhere).

-tulula (tuluzi) v.t. to take, to put down: I se li manzibwana, mu tulule ndembela; lower the flag, for it is already late in the afternoon. der. mutululi. cf. -paheka inv. fig. to expel to depose, to discharge. rel. -tululela (tululezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. a) -tululisa (tululisize) to help to ~; b) -tulusa (tulusize) to take down: Tulusa mwana, ni mu tubete; put the child down, I want to kiss him.

tululi, adj. black with white spots (male); (with reference to female: tuluzana).

tuluma (li-) n. very large earthen pot. syn. ntuluma. cf. ntozi.

-tulumuka (tulumukile) v.i. to be raised (voice, sound etc.): Linzwi la hae li tulumukiie hahulu ka buhali, he is raising his voice in anger. (lit: his voice goes up with anger). Ni utwile maoma a tulumuka kwa Lealui kacenu, I heard the maoma sounding in Lealui today. -tulumuna (tulumuzi) v.t. to beat drums energetically. syn. -liza.

-tulyama (tulyami or tulyamile) v.i. to enter the water (people, cattle, etc.) syn. -ombama, -mbwambwama.

tulyeka (tulyekile) v.t. to drive into  water (cattle, etc.).

-tuma1 (tumile) v.i. to be well-known, noted, famed, renowned der. butumo. rel. -tumela (tumezi) to be well-known (for): U tumezifa ku bulaya tau, he owes his repu-tation to the lion he killed. caus. -tumisa (tumisize) to make known, to publicise. ref. -itumisa (itumisize) to boast, to blow one's own trumpet.

-tuma2 (tumile) v.t. Luyana. to send. der. numwana. syn. -luma.

tumana, interj. serving to underline a sentence: Ba nifile ni na kacenu, tumana wena ba ku file mabani; I had my share today, but don't look surprised for you had yours yesterday.

-tumba (tumbile) v.i. to swell, to bulge; to begin to ripen (abscess, etc. caus. -tumbisa (tumbisize) to cause to ~.

-tumbeka (tumbekile) v.t.to burn, to set afire, to set ablaze. der. mutumbeki, litumbekela. syn. -cisa, -nungeka. rel. -tumbekela (tumbekezi) to harm someone by setting some-thing ablaze (house, yard, etc.). caus. -tumbekisa (tumbekisize) to cause to ~. int. -tumbekelela (tumbekelezi) to burn completely.

-tumbuka (tumbukile) v.i. to burn, to be on fire, to be alight. caus. -tumbukisa (tumbukisize) to cause to ~. (see: -tumbula1).

-tumbula1 (tumbuzi) v.t. to light (a fire, a lamp, a candle, etc.) der. mutumbuli, situmbuliso, mutumbulelo. syn. -yakisa. rel. -tumbulela (tumbulezi) to light for someone. caus. -tumbulisa (tumbulisize) to help or to order to make fire. ref. -itumbulela (itumbulezi) to light (a fire) for oneself. fig. exp: Ku itumbulela mulilofa toho, to heap coals of fire on one's head.

 

-tumbula2 (tumbuzi) v.t. to castrate, to emasculate, to geld der. mutumbuli, situmbuliso, mutumbulelo. syn. -fahula. caus. -tumbulisa (tumbulisize) to help to ~. 

tumbulumbulu, n. pl. very worrying small flies lodging themselves in eyes and ears; kind of honey-flies.

-tumbwela (tumwezi) v.i. to quiver, to shiver (only used to express a nervous momentary quivering of the skin).

-tumbwiliketa (tumbwiliketite) v.i. to express one's joy by saying tumbwili-tumbwili when making a first catch, etc. (fish, wild fruit, etc .).

tumelelano (li-) n. agrcement, contract, mutual undertaking, private understanding; negotiation; treaty. (from: -lumela rec.

tumelelo (li-) n. permission, consent (from: -lumela rel.

tumelisano (li-) n. mutual greeting (from: -lumelisa rec.

tumeliso (li-) n. salutation, greeting. (from: -lumelisa). tumelo, n. faith, belief, creed; con-sent, approval. (from: -lumela).

tumo1¼ (li-) n. bridie. (from: -luma).

tumo2 n. biting (from: -luma).

tumo3, n. sending (from: -luma).

-tumpwikela (tumpwikezi) v.i. to fall into water. caus. -tumwikelisa (tumpwikelisize) or -tumpwikeza (tumpwikelize) to cause to ~.

-tumuka (tumukile) v.i. to emerge. cf. -cimbuka, -yuyuka. fig. to come out (hidden matters, etc.) rel. -tumukela (tumukezi) to emerge somewhere: Kubu ne tumukezi hahulu fakaufi ni mukolo wa luna mabani, a hippopotamus emerged very close to our canoe yesterday. caus. -tumukisa (tumukisize) or -tumusa (tumusize) to cause to emerge, to bring out of water.

 

-tumununa (tumunuzi) v.t. to accuse someone in front of many. syn. -tungumuna, -zumununa. cf. -tubulula.

-tumusa (tumusize) v.t. (ku ~ linzwi) to raise the voice. cf. -shieka.

-tumuseza (tumuselize) v.t. to put a white bead-necklace on a pregnant woman (as a protection against tabooed questions con-cerning her pregnancy, questions which might harm her if asked by people unaware of her condition), to declare a woman pregnant officially in order to avoid embarrassing questions.

tuna, adj. large, big, great, huge; spacious; important, considerable.

tunango, n. pl. details: Taba ya hae ba i ile mwa tunango twa yona kaufela, mi ba i pumbuzi; they went into all the details of his case and brought everything out into the open.

-tundaela (tundaezi) v.i. to swing one's shoulders when walking (mostly in order to make oneself admired). der. mutundaelelo.

-tundamena (tundamezi) v.t. to persist, to persevere in doing something; to try again; to go after, to make after, to pursue, to harass: Ku maswe ku tundamena musali a nz'a ku hana, it is a bad habit to persist against a woman's will. der. mutundameni, mutundameno, tundamo. syn. -tiiseza, -pihelela. caus. -tundamenisa (tundamenisize) to cause to ~.

tundameno or tundamo, n. persistence, perseverance firmness, steadiness (from: -tundamena).

-tundana (tundani or tundanile) v.i. to resist very strongly: N'a tundana knono ki kale ba mu hona; he tried to resist, but they have mastered  him. der. mutundani. cf. -ndundana. rel. -tundanela (tundanezi) to ~ for a reason. caus. -tundanisa (tundanisize) to cause to ~. ref. -itundanisa (itundanisize) to wrestle.

-tundubala (tundubezi or tundubalile) v.i. to be hunch-backed. der. situnda, tundubala. syn. -kundumana.

tundubala, n. melody of a dance which follows immediately a girls' initiation and during which initiated girls choose new names. (from: -tundubula (tundubuzi) or -tuntubula (tuntubuzi) v.t. to undertake a very long journey: Mwanana ya kumafa, ku tundubula musipili a li nosi! such a young child, to undertake such a long trip alone! caus. -tundubulisa (tundubulisize) to cause to ~. ref. -itundubulisa (itun-dubulisize) to impose a long journey on oneself.

-tunduka (tundukile) v.i. to have the shoulders bent forward. syn. -tundwala.

-tunduluka (tundulukile) v.i. to swell, to puff out (rice, etc.) to increase in volume; to go a long way (food). der. mutunda. fig. to refuse to listen, to be obstinate. syn. -yuyuluka. rel. -tundulukela (tundulukezi) fig. to resist someone: caus.

-tundulukisa (tundulukisize) to cause to ~.  freq. -tundulukanga fig. to make obstinacy a habit: Usike wa no tundulukelanga ba bahulu, ba ta ku nyisa; stop obstinately resist-ing adults, or they will beat you.

tundumeka (tundumekile) v.t. to hold fast a large barbel fish, etc. which has been speared. fig. to manage to live for a time with a wife whose character caused her many previous divorces.

-tundwala (tundwalile) v.i. to have  the shoulders bent forward. syn. -tunduka.

-tunga (tungile) v.i. to be deep. der. butungi. caus. -tungisa (tungisize) to deepen.

-tunga-tunga (tunga-tungile) v.i. to swing, to sway, to rock (canoe). der. litunga-tunga-la-wato.

-tungeka (tungekile) v.t. to start making the roof of a hut (previously, this was done before putting up the walls). der. mutungeki, situngu, situngekiso. rel. -tungekela (tungekezi) to ~ for someone caus. -tungekisa (tungekisize) to help to. ref. -itungekela (itunge-kezi) to ~ for oneself.

tungolo, n. pl. flexible and very re-sistant sticks used for the construction of shelters, awnings, canopies, etc.

-tungula1 (tunguzi) v.i. to appear in the distance, very far away (village, tree, etc.) cf. -tunumana.

-tungula2 (tunguzi) v.i. to crow (cock).

-tungula3 (tunguzi) v.t. to beat a small drum sikamwa. rel. -tungulela (tungulezi) to ~ in rhythm with a larger one.

-tungumuna (tungumuzi) v.t. to point at or to call someone out of a group. der. mutungumuni. cf. -tumununa.

-tungununa (tungunuzi) v.t. to solve a riddle der. mutungununi.

-tungwela (tungwezi) v.t. to stab (in water), with a second spear, a fish, an otter, an iguana, etc. already caught.

-tunka (tunkile) v.t. to hurt a sore, a wound. stat. -tunkeha (tunkehile) to be exposed to being hurt (sore, etc.) ref. -itunka (itunkile) to hurt one's sore.

-tuntaela (tuntaezi) v.i. to walk clumsily. syn. -tukaela. rel. -tuntae-  lela (tuntaelezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -tuntaelisa (tuntaelisize) to cause to ~.

-tuntulika (tuntulikile) v.i. to toddle (as a child or a fat person). der. mutuntuliki. cf. -tintilika. rel. -tuntulikela (tuntulikezi) to in a certain direction. caus. -tuntulikisa (tuntu-likisize) to cause to ~. red. -tuntu-lika-tuntulika (tuntulika-tuntuli-kile) to ~ here and there.

-tuntunya (tuntunyize) v.t. to hit without piercing right through (spear, bullet, etc.).

-tunuh (tunuhile) or -tunuka (tunu-kile) v.i. to go away, to leave be-cause of someone's ill-treatment. cf. -saba. rel. -tunuhela (tunuhezi) to take refuge somewhere. caus. -tunuhisa (tunuhisize) to cause to ~. (see: -tunula).

-tunula (tunuzi) v.t. to cause to leave through ill-treatment. rel. -tunulela (tunulezi) to cause some-one to leave and take refuge some-where; to offend someone by causing a person to go away: Ki mina bashemi ba ka mu ni tunulezi musali; it is you, my parents, who caused my wife to leave me.

-tunumana1 (tunumani) v.i. to appear in the distance: Nalikwanda ki wani u taha u tuxumani; look, there comes the Nalikwanda cf. -tungula. fig. to run swiftly.

-tunumana2 (tunumani or tunuma-nine) v.i. to die suddenly, unexpec-tedly; to fall dead (as a large animal killed in hunting). der. mu-tunumaneno. syn. -shwa, -timela, etc.

-tunumeka (tunumekile) v.t. to kill: Ki kale a tueumeka tou ka tobolo ye tuna, he has just killed an elephant with a rifle. syn. -bulaya.

-tunya1 (tunyize) v.i. to burst, to ex-plode, to blow up. caus. -tunyisa  (tunyisize) to cause to ~; to shoot, to fire a gun.

-tunya2 (tunyize) v.t. to kill (with fire-arms): Ba u ni kataza ni ta ku tunya ka tobolo, if you torment me I shall kill you with a gun. syn. -kunupa.

-tunya3 (tunyize)v.i. to rise (dust, smoke, vapour). cf. -tushana. Musi--o-tunya, the Victoria Falls (lit: the smoke that rises). caus. -tunyisa (tunyisize) to cause to ~. rel. -tu-nyiseza (tunyiselize) to inconveni-ence someone by causing dust, etc. to rise: Zwenila, mu ni tunyi-seza maluli; get away, you are making dust.

-tunya4 (tunyize) v.t. to grow (white-hair): Kacenu s'a hulile, mane s'a tunya limbi; he is getting old, his hair is turning grcy caus. -tunyisa (tunyisize) to cause to ~.

tunyanyu, n. pl. tip of the toes. syn. Iinyanyu: ku zamaya ka tunyanyu, to tiptoe. (from: -nyanyuka).

tunyi! interj. used with plural: Mina banana tunyi! hey you children! cf. tuwe!

tupa (li-) n. rod, wand; twig, stick.

-tupanya (tupanyize) v.t. to waste; to scatter; to misuse; to squander. der. mutupanyi. cf. -sinya. rel. -tu-panyeza (tupanyelize) to squander somebody's goods, etc. caus. -tu-panyisa (tupanyisize) to cause to ~.  int. -tupanyeleza (tupanyelelize) to ~ completely.

-tupela (tupezi) v.t. to add too much water to a drink (beer, etc.): Buc-wala bo, bu utwahala buhali, kono ba bu tupezi mezi a manata; this is strong beer, but they added too much water to it.

-tupumuka (tupumukile) v.i. to come out (as sour milk out of a ca-labash). der. mutuputupu. cf. -tu-putka.

 

-tupumuna (tupumuzi) v.t. to pour out (as sour milk out of a calabash; as serious matter or pus out of an abscess, etc.). rel. -tupumunela (tupununezi) to ~ into or for. caus.-tupumunisa (tupumunisize) to cause to ~. int. -tupumunelela (tupumunelezi) to ~ the whole contents.

-tuputuka (tuputukile) v.i. to come out in great quantity or numbers as serous matter out of a sore; as people out of a gathering. etc.) cf. -caputuka.

-tuputula (tuputuzi) v.t. to press out (as pus out of an abscess).

-tupwaeta (tupwaetile or tupwaetite) v.t. Luyana. to investigate in order to ascertain something.

-tupwama (tupwami or tupwamile) v.i. to fall into a liquid (as a fly into milk or water) and spoil it: Mu mamele mwanana yo u ta tupwama mwa silubu sesi cisa, mind that child, he will fall into the drum of hot mash and scald himself.

-tupweka (tupwekile) v.t. to put in water, to soak. syn. -ombeka, -putweka, -mbwambweka. rel. -tupwekela (tupwekezi) to ~ for someone.

tupwi! ideoph. referring to the sound made by something talling into water. (from: -tupwikela). -tupwikela (tupwikezi) v.i. to fall into water (an object). caus. -tup-wikelisa (tupwikelisize) to cause to ~.

-tusa1 (tusize) v.t. to help, to aid, to assist; to oblige, to support, to relieve; to give. der. mutusi, tuso, sit-usiso, tusano. rel. -tuseza (tuselize) to oblige someone by helping somebody: Na ni ya kwa Mongu, mu ni tuseze mwan'a ka sa ku ca; as I am going to Mongu, please see that my child has something to eat. rec. -tusana (tusani) to help each  other. freq. -tusanga to ~ frequently. ref. -itusa (itusize) to help oneself (to do anything), to relieve oneself, etc.

-tusa2 (tusize) v.t. (1) to remove, to take away, to carry away: Mu tuse mikeke fa tafule, take the plates away from the table; (2) to subtract (arithmetic): Haibe mu tusa 4 mwa 10, ku siala bukai? what remains if you subtract 4 from l0? syn. -zwisa. rel. -tuseza (tuselize) to ~ for someone. int. -tuseleza (tuselelize) to remove completely.

tusano (li-) n. mutual help. (from: -tusa1).

-tuseha (tusehile) v.i. to recover, to get better, to convalesce, to recuperate. cf. -fola.

ushambwe, n. pl. tricks to make people laugh. (from: -shambweka).

-tushana (tushani) v.i. to rise up (smoke). syn. -twishana. cf. -tunya.

tuso (li-) n. help, assistance, aid; favour, service; use: Ku bilaela u sa liki, ha ku na tuso; to complain without trying to do is of no use. (from: -tusa1).

-tusuka (tusukile) v.i. to come out (as soil from a mole-hill, or pus from an abscess). freq. -tusauka (tusaukile) to ~ in many places.

-tusula (tusuzi) v.t. to push up (as a mole making its hill).

-tuta1 (tutile) v.t. to filter, to strain: ku tuta bucwala, to filter beer. der. mututi, matuto, situtiso, bututi. rel. -tutela (tutezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tutisa (tutisize) to order or to help to ~. stat. -tuteha (tutehile) to be fit, for filtering, for straining. int. -tutelela (tutelezi) to ~ the whole lot. inv. -tutulula (tutuluzi) to filter for the second time. ref. -itutela (itutezi) to ~ for oneself.

-tuta2 (tutile) v.i. & v.t. (1) to change one's residence, to move from one  place to another, to shift: Ba tutile nohola ku ya kwa Lwena, they moved to the Lwena last year (2) to move, to remove, to carry things from one place to another: Ba palezwi ku tuta libyana kaufela, they have not been able to remove all the goods. der. mututi, mututo. cf. -shimbuluka. rel. -tutela (tutezi) to ~ somewhere. caus. -tutisa (tutisize) to help or order to ~. int. -tutelela (tutelezi) to change one's residence for good. red. -tuta-tuta (tuta-tutile) to change one's residence often to shift frequently

-tuta3 (tutilej v.i. to increase in volume or quantity: Laisi i tuta hahulu ha u ka i apea ka mezi a likani, rice expands considerably when you cook it in the proper quantity of water. der. situtiso. rel. -tutela (tutezi) fig. (situation or position) to grow better or worse. idiom. exp: Lifasi li mu tutezi, everybody has turned against him. Bufumu bu mu tutezi, his wealth has increased. caus. -tutisa (tutisize) to cause to ~.

-tutana (tutani) v.i. to move in great numbers (people). rel. -tutanela (tutanezi) to ~ towards.

tuto (li-) n. Iesson, teaching, sermon; education, culture. (from; -luta).

tutu, n. goods, property, belongings; houschold furniture; luggage, baggage.

-tutubala (tutubezi or tutubalile) v.i. to die, to expire, to pass away. syn. -shwa, -timela, -tokwahala, -sinyeha, -lateha, -tunumana.

-tutubaza (tutubalize) v.t. to cause the death of someone; to kill. syn. -bulaya.

-tutubuluha (tutubuluhile) v.i. Sotho. to open one's eyes. (rare)

-tutula (tutuzi) v.t. to shake off dust.  der. mututuli, situtuliso. cf. -fufula. fig. to detail: ku tutula litaba, to ex-plain things in great detail. rel. -tutuela (tutulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -tutulisa (tutulisize) to help to ~. stat. -tutuleha (tutulehile) to fall (leaves) (see: -tutuleha). int. -tutulelela (tutulelezi) to shake off dust completely. ref. -itutula (itutuzi) to shake off dust from onets clothes. -tutuleha (tutulehile) v.i. to fall down (leaves). fig. to become dis-persed: Batu ba tutulehile mwa Kuta, hakuna ni yo mukana ya siezi: the people have all dispersed from the Court, and there is not a single man left behind. rel. -tutulehela (tutulehezi) to fall in or upon: Matali a tutulehezi mwa lapa, leaves have fallen into the yard. caus. -tutulehisa (tutulehisize) to cause to ~.

-tutuluka (tutulukile) v.i. to have an eruption med. cf. -tubuka. caus. -tutulukisa (tutulukisize) to cause an eruption, a rash on the skin.

-tutulula1 (tutuluzi) v.t. to pull a rope (tug-of-war).

-tutulula2 (tutuluzi) v.t. to choose, to take out of many; to buy a lot of things: U il'o tutulula sintolo kaufela, he emptied the whole store. int. -tutululelela (tutululelezi) to buy the whole lot.

tutuma (li-) n. heap of earth, artificial mound.

-tutuma (tutumile) v.i. to tremble. to shiver (from fear, cold, etc.). der. tutumelo. syn. -ngangama, -njanja. cf. -mbwembweta. caus. -tutumisa (tutumisize) to cause to ~. -tutumbwa (tutumbwile) v.i. to walk proudly in new clothes in order to attract attention.

tutumelo, n. trembling, shivering. (from -tutuma).

-tutumuka (tutumukile) v.i. to get  warm (speaking of the sun): A{aliha ki a mande ka afuluha lizazi ha li se li tutumukile, in winter it's better to paddle when the sun has warmed up a bit.

tutwa (li-) n. giraffe.

tuu! interj. (ku li ~ ! se li ~ !) it is quiet. syn.: ka li nee! se li see!

tuu1 (li-) n. exit of a bow-net.

tuu2 (li-) n. kind of beans.

-tuuka (tuukile) v.i. (1) to disappear, to be exterminated. to become rare (wild animals, birds, fish, etc. due to irresponsible hunting or fishing). (2) to die (of many people): Bate ne ba tuukile hahulufa butuku bwa nacinkwa, a lot of people had died during the small-pox epidemic. int. -tuukelela (tuukelezi) to disappear completely, to become extinct.

-tuula (tuuzi) v.t. (1) to make disappear: Lifolofolo ba li tuuzi, they have exterminated all the animals. (2) to cause death: Buloi be tuuzi bate, sorcery has caused the death of many people.

-tuuma (tuumile) v.i. to boom like cataracts; to make a great noise (like that of many people mourning together). cf. -cuuma.

-tuumuka (tuumukile) v.i. to grow in intensity (like the wailing of many people mourning together).

tuuta, n. shyness, timidity (shown in refusing food when desiring it). syn. makuku, macelatuko.

-tuwa1 (tuwile) v.i. to walk in deep water (as during the flood season). cf. -paa.

-tuwa2 (tuwile) v.i. to weep, to mourn, to lament, to cry, to bewail. syn. -lila.

tuwe! interj. you! (sing): Wena mute tuwe, u no utwa! you fool can't you understand?

-tuweka (tuwekile) v.t. to take cattle  across a river.

-tuyuka (tuyukile) v.i. to pop, to burst (as grains of corn puffing out in hot ashes). der. matuyu-tuyu. freq. -tuyauka (tuyaukile) or -tuyoka (tuyokile) same meaning.

-tuyula (tuyuzi) v.t. to thrash severely (with a whip or a rope). rel. -tuyulela (tuyulezi) to ~ for someone. freq. -tuyaula (tuyauzi) to ~ repeatedly. rel. -tuyaulela (tuyaulezi) to ~ repeatedly for some reason: Ba mu tuyaulezi bu-sholi bwa hae, they thrashed him severely because of his habit of thieving. caus. -tuyaulisa (tuyaulisize) to cause to beat repeatedly. rec. -tuyaulana (tuyaulani) to ~ each other repeatedly. ref. -ituyaula (tituyauzi) as rec.

twaa! interj. expressing whiteness: Ha lo y'o zuha, be se be sire, se ka li twaa! we got up, after dawn and the sun was clear and bright: I se li munda, libala se it li twaa! the flood has come and the plain is already white (reflexion of the sky in water.)

-twaela (twaezi) v.i. & v.t. to become accustomed, used to; to be in the habit of (doing something); to make it one's practice to (do something); to learn how to deal with (something): U twaezi ka zamaya ka mahutu, he is accustomed to walking on foot. Ma mute yang ni twaezi bupilo bwa hae! oh, I am used to the character of that man! der. twaelo, sitwaelelo, twaezo, twaelano. cf. -lemala. rel. -twaelela (twaelezi) to become a friend of someone. caus. -twaeza (twaelize) to accustom, to make familiar, to get someone into the habit of doing something. rec. -twaelana (twaelani) to become close friends. ref. -itwaelisa (itwae-  lisize) or -itwaeza (itwaelize) to make oneself used to, to accustom oneself to do something: ka itwaeza bate, to make friends.

twaelano, n. friendship, familiarity; concord. (from: -twaela).

twaelo, n. habit, custom. syn. temalo. (from: -twaela).

twaezo, n. familiarisation; way in which a person makes someone accustomed to something or familiar to someone.

twahako (li-) n. repeated insult. (from: -lwaha).

-twaleta (twaletite) v.t. to carry or to send goods ahead; to precede the Litunga whenever he leaves the palace for the Court. der. mutwaleti. ref. -itwaleta (itwaletite) to go ahead of others.

-twanga (twangile) v.i. to pride oneself on something; to boast of one's exploits, to be proud or arro-gant syn. -ikuhumusa, -ikunga. cf. -inuneka. rel. -twangela (twangezi) to be proud with the intention to belittle someone; to be arrogant to someone; to refuse to submit to or to obey someone: Na, ha ni lati mute ya ni twangela; I certainly do not like someone who is arrogant with me. caus. -twangisa (twangi-  size) to cause to ~.

twani (li-) n. kind of lynx.

twano (li-) n. fighting. (from: -lwana).

-tweka (twekile) v.i. Sotho. to be clean, to be holy (rare).

-twela (twezi) v.t. to spy, to reconnoitre. der. litwela, butwela. cf. -shoka, -nangela.

twetu! interj. expressing cleanliness: Kwa toho ya hae ka li twetu, his head has been completely shaved Libala li cite, li li twetu! the plain has been burnt and is now completely clean! (from: -twetuka).

-twetuka (twetukile) v.i. to be completely clean. der. twetu!

-twetula (twetuzi) v.t. to cleanse thoroughly, to wipe thoroughly. cf. -kenisa.

twi! interj. expressing the falling down of a body: A mu swala ka tata, mi a mu Hi twifafasi; he held him firmly and knocked him down. cf. pu!

-twima (twimile) v.i. to be dis-pleased, to be vexed. cf. -nyema, -halifa. caus. -twimisa (twimisize) to displease, to vex.

-twishana (twishani) v.i. see: -tushana.

<div>U

U u, Pronounced as in 'true'. Occasionally, if followed by a, e or i, it is pronounced as a 'w1 (e.i.: mualala mwalala; muenyi mwenyi, etc.). 'u', when followed by 'o', retains its normal pronunciation, but  sometimes the letter is substituted by another 'o1 (i.e.: muokameli mookameli, etc.). when two 'u's occur together, the normal vowel's sound is repeated: mauku.

u, pers. pron. subj. second and third  person of the singular: you; he, she.

u, pron. sing. subj. and obj. of nouns (class: mu -mi) it: Museme wo u lukilwe ki mani? by whom has this mat bten made? (lit: this mat (it) has been made by whom?). Ki Mubita ya u lukile, it is Mubita who made it.

-ubela (ubezi) v.t. to build a dyke or a terrace to stop or to bridge water in the flooded plain; to heap up ground in order to protect villages on the plain against destruction caused by the flood: Suba sa Nani-kelako si ubezwi ka 1905, the terrace of Nanikelako was made in 1905. der. muubeli, suba, siubeliso. cf. -yumbela. rel. -ubelela (ubelezi) to ~ for someone caus. -ubelisa (ubelisize) to help to ~.

ukama (ukami or ukamile) v.t. to fall upon (as a lion on its prey).

ukauke (bo-) n. kind of tree (its fruit is believed to protect against miscarriage).

uke, n. see: buke.

-ukula (ukuzi) v.t. to skim (cream, fat, etc.). der. muukuli, siukuliso. fig. to speak, leaving important matters in the dark: A ukula fela litaba za fa halimu, a siya ze tuna; he revealed only trifling matters but hid the important ones. rel.-ukulela (ukulezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -ukulisa (ukulisize) to help to ~. int. -ukulelela (ukule-lezi) to skim completely.

-ukumela (ukumezi) v.t. to peep at; to observe with curiosity: U sike ke wa ukumela batufa lihaulo, do not peep at people through the window. der. muukumeli. syn. -yunda. cf. -nangela. caus. -ukume-lisa (ukumelisize) to cause to ~.

-ulula (uluzi) v.i. Luyana. to cause shivering (as winter wind).

 

-ululuka (ululukile) v.i. to become eroded.

-ululula (ululuzi) v.t. to erode; to take the plaster off a wall, etc.: Likomu li ululuzi mikomena ya ka, the cattle trod upon and damaged my garden-beds. fig. to cause the death of many people. rel.-ulululela (ulululezi) to cause damage to someone's garden-beds by treading on them caus. -ululu-lisa (ulululisize) to cause to ~. int. -ulululelela (ulululelezi) to destroy completely by treading upon.

-ulumana (ulumani) v.i. to muse, to remain silent, quiet. syn. -ulwala. cf. -kutumana.

-ulumuka (ulumukile) v.i. to run together (speaking of many people). der. suulu-ulu, suulumuko. rel. -ulumukela (ulumukezi) to ~ in a certain direction. caus. -ulumukisa (ulumukisize) to cause to ~.

-ulusa (ulusize) v.t. to winnow away (chaff). der. muulusi. fig. to reveal secrets; to slander; to vilify a benefactor. rel. -uluseza (uluselize) to ~ for someone.

-uluta (ulutile) v.i. to move about (people in a large gathering). der. liuluta. syn. -nyewa-nyewa.

uluu! interj. expressing malediction.

ulwala (ulwalile) v.i. to keep silent, to keep quiet. syn. -ulumana cf. -kutumana.

-uma (umile) v.t. to threaten, to menace. caus. -umisa (umisize) to cause someone to ~.

-uma-uma (uma-umile) v.t. (1) to speak, feigning ignorance. (2) to start a rumour going. caus. -uma-umisa (uma-umisize) to cause to ~: Sesi ku uma-umisa cwana ki sika mani, kiiii ha u sa buleli niti? Why don't you say the truth, instead of  leaving in the dark something you know !

-umba (umbile) v.t. to build a shelter (with mats, grass, etc.) der. muumbi, muumbo, siumbiso. fig. to surround, to fence in, to encircle an important person in order to see him rel. -umbela (umbezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -umbisa (umbisize) to help to ~. int. -umbelela (umbelezi) to complete the building of a shelter. inv. -umbulula (umbuluzi) to destroy a shelter. ref. -ikumbela (ikumbezi) to build one-self a shelter.

-umbuka (umbukile) to be higher, taller than others: Komu ya ka i umbukile likomu kaufela mwa muiaka, my cow stands higher than any other in the kraal.

-umbuna (umbunine) v.i. to make noise in speaking (of people bting too far away to be understood). der. maumbunwa.

-umbungana (umbungani) v.i. to sit silently showing a sulky face.

-umbwaeta (umbwaetite) v.t. to play a soft melody on a silimba.

-umela (umezi) v.t. to ferment becr. der. muumeli, mumela. rel. -umelela (umelezi) to ~ for someone.

-umuka (umukile) v.i. Luyana. to be weaned. cf. -kwa.

-umuna (umuzi) v.t. Luyana. to wean cf. -kwa caus. caus. -umunisa (umunisize) to cause to ~: Kini sesi ku umunisize mbututu ye nyi-nyani cwana? what gave you the idea of weaning such a small baby?

-unda1 (undile) v.i. (1) to disappear (as the trace of a wound or a track or a trail on the ground). (2) to burn out (fire); to fade, to grow dim (colours). (3) to near one's end (old person).

-unda2 (undile) v.i. to keep still in order not to be seen. cf. -ipata. rel.

 

 -undela (undezi) to ~ with a definite intention: Mutu yani u undezini fani? why is that man keeping still over there?

 undi-wa-nyangela, n. Luyana. multitude, large crowd. ef. mukumbi.

-undula (unduzi) v.t. to chase away, to drive away, to expel; to dismiss, to discharge, to sack. syn. -lundula, -leleka, -zwisa, -undumisa.

 -undumana (undumani) v.i. to sit by oneself, to do nothing. syn. -itulela, -nontomana.

 -undumisa (undumisize) v.t. to chase away, to drive away, to expel; to dismiss, to discharge. syn. -undula, -lundula, -leleka, -zwisa.

 -undumuka (undumukile) v.i. to disperse, to scatter (crowd). syn. -ungumuka, -ndumuka, -ngumuka cf. -hasana.

 -undumuna (undumuzi) v.t. to chase away, to drive away, to expel; to discharge, to dismiss. syn. -undula, -undumisa.

 -undungana (undungani) v.i. to be cross, angry.

 -undunganya (undunganyize) v.t. to annoy, to worry, to cause trouble, to weary, to bother, to bore. der. muundunganyi. syn. -kataza, -shupa, -filikanya. cf. -nyandisa. rel. -undunganyeza (undunganyelize) to act against someone's will in disturbing people: U sike ke wa ni undunganyeza bana ba ka mwa hae cwalo, do not cause such trouble to the people of my village (otherwise they will all run away). caus.- undunganyisa (undunganyisize) to cause to ~.

 -unela (unezi) v.t. to deliver, to save, to rescue. der. muuneli. syn. -lamulela, -yamunwena. caus. -unelisa (unelisize) to help to ~. rec. -unelana (unelani) to help each other in hardship.

 

unga1 (ungile) v.t. to bring together, to gather together, to get together (people, things, etc.): spec. exp: ku unga mulilo, to stir a fire. fig. exp: ku unga maseho, to start a married life. (lit: to set out bricks under the pot so that it may stand firmly). der. muungi. syn. -kopanya. rel. -ungela (ungezi) to ~ for someone.

-unga2 (ungile) v.i. to buzz, to hum (insects). to hiss lightly (rain heard in the distance) der. liunga-muwilu.

-ungeka (ungekile) v.t. to start, to begin a dance (by beating drums). der. muungeki.

-unguka (ungukile) v.i. to come to an end (dance).

-ungula (unguzi) v.t. to bring to an end, to finish; to conclude, to settle. der. mungulo. syn. -feza. caus. -ungulisa (ungulisize) to order to ~. freq. -ungutuka (ungutukile) to disperse, to scatter (at the end of a dance. syn. -undumuka).

-ungumana (ungumani or ungumanile) v.i. to sit silently . syn. -conkomana. cf. -shushu man a , -tomana . rel. -ungumanela (ungumanezi) to sit silently waiting for something. caus. -ungumanisa (ungumanisize) to cause to ~. ref. -ikungumanena (ikungumanenine) to sit silently overcome by hardship.

-ungumuka (ungumukile) v.i. see: -undumuka.

-ungumuna (ungumuzi) v.t. see: -undumuna.

-ungwatala (ungwatalile) or -ungwala (ungwalile) v.t. to slander, to calumniate, to despise, to defame, to denigrate. syn. -seba, -sawana, -tebeta.

unomwaha or unumwaha, adv. this year. (also: munumwaha).

-unsufala (unsufezi) v.i. Sotho. see: -nsufala.

-unsufaza (unsufalize) v.t. Sotho.  see: -nsufaza.

unungu (li-) n. Luyana. cleverness, good knowledge: Luyana. exp: Unungu-wa-mataba ni ku mutualeti, knowledge of a marshy spot enabling one to get through without too many difficulties is obtained from the person in front. fig. wisdom is obtained from those with experience.

-unyumana (unyumani) v.i. to take a rest and sleep a little while, to spend the night somewhere on a journey.

upa, n. east, the orient. syn. mapazulelo a lizazi.

-usa (usize) v.t. to make designs with coloured strings on mats. der. yuso. rel. -useza (uselize) to ~ for someone.

-uta1 (utile) v.t. to feed; to bring up: Ki na ya mu utile, kono h 'a na tuso ni na; I brought him up, but he is of no help to me. der. muuti, siuto, siutiso, muutelo. syn. -fepa. rel. -utela (utezi) to ~ on another's behalf. caus. -utisa (utisize) to help to ~. stat. -uteha (utehile) to be brought up: Mwanana yo u utehile hande, this child received a good education. ref. a) ikuta (ikutile) to meet one's own needs. b) -ikutela (ikutezi) to provide food for one's family.

-uta2 (utile) v.i. to become rusty; to get mouldy, musty. der. muuta. caus. -utisa (utisize) to cause to ~. -utuka (utukile) v.i. Luyana. to run. syn. -mata.

utungu, n. Luyana. swampy, marshy, boggy, spongy place.

-utwa (utwile) v.i. & v.t. to hear, to listen; to feel, to taste, to under-stand: Wena kini ha u sa utwi? why can't you understand? spec. exp: ku utwa butuku, to feel pain, to suffer (physically or mentally); ku  utwa mulao, to obey, ku sa utwa, to be obstinate. der. muutweli, muutwisisi, kutwisiso, maikuto, buikuto, kutwano. cf. -teeleza. rel. -utwela (utwezi) to hear for; to feel for; to taste for. spec. exp: ku utwela mutu butuku, to sympathize with some-one rec. -utwelana butuku, to sym-pathize with each other. caus. -utwisa (utwisize) to cause to ~. spec. exp: Ku utwisa mutu butuku, to cause someone's sufferings. int. -utwelela (utwelezi) also -utwelelela (utwelelezi) to understand thoroughly. int-stat. -utwahah (utwahezi or utwahalile) to be under-standable: to be clear: kwa utwahala, of course (it is understandable, evident, comprehensible). caus. -utwahaza (utwahalize) to proclaim (to make known). rec.-utwana (utwani or utwanile) to understand each other; to be intimate friends; rel. -utwanela (utwanezi) to understand each other for some purpose. ref. -ikutwa (ikutwile) to feel oneself in good health; rel. -ikutwela (ikutwezi) to pay attention to, to pay heed to, to take notice of; caus. -ikutwisa (ikutwisize) to taste: ku ikutwisa ze  munati, to enjoy good things.

-utwahala (utwahalile) sce: -utwa int. -stat.

-utwisisa (utwisisize) to understand thoroughly.

uwi, n. Luyana. darkness: Lu inzi mwa uwi, we are in darknesss fig. ignorance.

-uya (uyile) v.t. Luyana. to gather natural 'products1 (fish, wild fruit, etc.) der. suyelelo. syn. -sela. cf. -taama.

uzwa (uzwize) v.t. to steal, to thieve, to burgle, to rob. der. muuzwi, meuzwezo. rel. -uzweza (uzwelize) (1) to steal from a person: Ba mu uzwelize libyana za hae, they stole his personal effects, (2) to steal for someone: U uzwelize bana ba hae lico, she stole food for her children. caus. -uzwisa (uzwisize) to accuse of theft: Ku maswe ku uzwisa mutu u sika mu swala, it is a bad habit to accuse a person of theft before you have evidence of his culpability. int. -uzweleleza (uzwelelelize) to steal everything, leaving nothing behind. ref. -ikuzweza (ikuzwelize) to steal for one-self.

<div>V

V, v. Pronounced as in English.

veine, n. Eng. wine.

viki (li-) n. Eng. week. syn. sunda.

viniga, n. Ena.. vinegar.

 vwinyuka (vwinyukile) Toka-Leya to turn back, to look behind suddenly. cf. -heta, -temuna.

<div>W

W, w Pronounces as in English.

wa1 pers. pron. subj. 2nd and 3rd person of the singular (with a verb having no object or having a simple pronoun as object): you he, she: Wa bona, you see; Wa ba bona, you see them; Wa zamaya, he is leaving; Wa mu hupula, she remembers him.

wa2 pron. subj. (class: mu-ba and mu-mi) used when the verb has no object or no other object except a simple pronoun: Musizana wa tusa, the girl she helps; Mulilo wa ni futumaza. the fire (it) warms me.

wa3 poss. part. (class mu-ba and mu-mi): Ki mutu wa Mulena, he is a servant of the Litunga Museme wa hae u maswe, his mat is in bad condition

-wa4 (wile) v.i. to fall, to tumble. der. siwiso, siwela. fig. to agree, to ac-quiesce, to assent; to be convinced: U wile, ha sa na z'a bulela; he is convinced, and has no more to say. spec. exp: ku wa mapo, tol give up; ku wa maye, to rest when I out of breath. rel. -wela (wezi) to fall upon, to fall into: U wezwi ki lihalimu, he was struck by lightning. caus. -wisa (wisize) to make fall syn. -bita. fig. to persuade, to convince. rel. -wiseza (wiselize) to make fall in. fig. exp: ku wiseza taba likamba, to come to a decision. int. -welela (welezi) to completely fall down. fig. to be entirely convinced. rec. -welana (welani) to wrestle. ref. -ikwisa (ikwisize) to let oneself fall down to make each other fall down. idiom. exp: Kota ye mezi ha i ikweli, a person strong enough to look after himself will  not die of hunger. (lit: a young and strong tree does not easily fall down.

-waba (wabile) v.i. Luyana. to be very glad, happy, joyful. syn. -nya-kalala, -tangalala.

-wabelwa (wabezwi) v.i. Luyana. as -waba.

-wakaela (wakaezi) v.i. to go from place to place begging, or without purpose. syn. -wakasha2

-waskasha1 (wakashile) v.i. to rustle (maize leaves, etc.).

-wakasha2 (wakashile) v.i. as -wakaela.

-wala-wala (wala-walile) v.i. to boil (speaking of relish in a small pot). wale, dem. pron. (class: mu-mi) 4th degree: that over there: Mushitu wale u maswe, that forest over there is bad (full of wild beasts).

wani, dem. pron. (class: mu-mi) 3rd degree: that: Muzauli wani u na ni muluti o munde, that muzauli tree has a very cool (good) shade.

-wauka (waukile) v.i. to become of greyish appearance. (this verb expresses the change appearing in the colour of the skin due to dust, sickness or old age). caus. -waukisa (waukisize) to cause to ~.

-wawaila (wawailile) v.i. see: -–wanwaila.

-wawata (wawatile) v.i. to be sour, to be acid, bitter, astringent: Lemune ya wawata, lemon is sour. syn. -shakumuka.

-waya (waile) v.t. to fish with a fishing spear. der. muwayi, muwayo, siwaiso. cf. -shumba. fig. to guess: Wena u wayafela, taba ye ha u i zibi; you are just guessing and you don't know how the  matter stands. rel. -wayela (wayezi) to ~ for someone. fig. to express unfounded suppositions. red. -waya-waya (waya-waile) fig. to try and try again, to try one's best. ref. -ikwaela (ikwaezi) For -ikwayela (ikwayezi) to ~ for oneself.

waya (li- or ma-) n. Eng. wire.

wayalesi (li- or ma-) n. Eng. wireless set, radio, transistor radio.

wayama (bo-) n. idiot. (from: -yaama) .

-wayana (wayani or wayanile) v.i. to talk nonsense, to jabber, to speak incoherently. der. siwayani. syn. -ngayana, -yabana, -yambutuka.

-wekuma (wekumile) v.i. to be blown up (as fire) by wind, to be red hot (as embers), to burn fiercely. syn. -eya, -yekuma.

-welana (welani) v.i. to wrestle. (see -wa rec

-welela (welezi) v.i. to faint. cf. -omelela. -weluka (welukile) v.i. to come up (through infiltration): Mezi a mataba a weluka kapili ka nako ya matabula, it is during the rainy season that water comes up abundantly in the marshes. der. li-weluwelu. syn. -sheluka. freq. -welauka (welaukile) to gush, to spring out (of).

wenga, n. marriage feast. (see: -sinawenga).

wengu! interj. expressing the act of cutting off: A mu puma munwana a mu li wengu! he cut off his finger! (from: -wengula).

-wengula (wenuzi) v.t. to cut off (something). cf. -puma. rel. -wengulela (wengulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -wengulisa (wengulisize) to cause to ~.

-wenkula (wenkuzi) v.t. see: -wengula.

weta1 (bo-) n. Eng. waiter. (from: -weta2).

 

-weta2 (wetile) v.i. Eng. to work as a waiter, to serve at table. der. weta, buweta. rel. -wetela (wetezi) to ~ for someone.

-wetuluka (wetulukile) v.i. to recover one's spirits after fainting to come to.

-wetulula (wetuluzi) v.t. to help someone to recover his spirits after swooning; fig. to give food to a very hungry person.

-wewema (wewemile) v.i. to shake with anger; to rave, to storm. rel.-wewemela (wewemezi) to ~ against someone. caus. -wewemisa (wewemisize) to cause to ~.

-wewenya (wewenyize) v.t. to slander, to calumniate. syn. -kwekwenya -tafuna fig.

-weya (weyile) v.i. to ruminate (animals).

-weyauka (weyaukile) v.i. to walk with difficulty being handicapped by a disease of the hips.

-weyuka (weyukile) v.i. to become strained, sprained: ku weyuka mwa ngongo ya lizoho, to sprain one's wrist; ku weyuka mulomo, to have a distorted mouth (due to a stroke, etc.).

-weyula (weyuzi) v.t. to strain, to sprain.

wi! interj. expressing darkness: Ku li wi! it is very dark!

wiko, n. west, the occident, syn. ma-likelelo a lizazi.

wili (li- or ma-) n. Eng. wheel.

-wiliya (wiliyile) v.i. to go to and fro (many people, cattle, etc.). rel. -wiliyela (wiliyezi) same meaning caus. -wiliisa (wiliisize) to cause to ~.

-wimuka (wimukile) or -wimukela (wimukezi) v.t. to beat, to strike.

-wina (winile) v.i. & v.t. Eng. to win. der. muwini. cf. -tula. rel. -winela (winezi) to obtain for someone: U  winezi bana ba hae naha, he obtained much land for his children. caus. -winisa (winisize) to cause or to help to ~. ref. -ikwinela (ikwinezi) to win for oneself: U ikwinezi mupuzo, he won himself a prize.

-windimana (windimani) v.i. to run quickly. syn. -ndaamana, -landamana, -ngwilimana, -ndimana.

windo (li- or ma-) n. Eng. window cf. lihaulo.

 

wo, dem. pron. (class: mu-mi) 1st and 2nd degrce: this, that: Museme wo ki wa ka, this mat is mine.

wolupulete (li- or ma-) p. Eng. wall-plate (roof timber).

woo! interj. expressing wonder, mirth or derision (as when seeing someone fall down, etc.).

wulukutu! interj. see: lukutu!

-wulumuka (wulumukile) v.i. see: ulumuka.

<div>Y

Y. y, Pronounced as 'y' in 'yes . It never has the 'i' vowel sound.

ya1 (1) pron. subj. sing. (class: (i) -li). used when the verb has no object or no other object than a simple pronoun, it: Nja ya ka ya ni utwa, my dog (it) obeys me. (2) pron. subj. pl. (class: mu-mi) (when the verb has no object); they: Miseme ya tusa, mats (they) are helpful.

ya2 (1) poss. part. sing. (class: (i) -li); of: Ndu ya bona, their house. (2) poss. part. pl. (class: mu-mi); of: Minganda ya Nayuma i lendile hahulu, Nayuma palm-trees rise very high (the palmtrees of Nayuma, etc.).

ya3 rel. poon. sing. (class: mu-ba) who, which, that: mubeleki ya sepahala, a faithful servant (a servant who is faithful).

-ya4 (ile) v.i. to go, to leave. spec. exp: ku ya ku ile, for ever and ever. cf. -zamaya. rel. -yela (yezi) to go to, to go for, to go on another's behalf. spec. exp. ku yela seli sika, to know caus. -isa (isize) to take to,  to convey. int. -yelela (yelezi) to go for good. ref. a) -ikela (ikezi) to go where one desires; b) -ikisa (ikisize) to go where one has decided: U sike wa ikisa kwa tau yani, i ta y'o ku holofaza; do not go after that lion, it will hurt you.

-yaama1 (yaamile) v.i. to gape at someone or something. der. wayama. rel. -yaamela (yaamezi) same meaning. caus. -yaamisa (yaamisize) to cause to ~.

-yaam (yabanisize) to cause to ~.

-yabeka (yabekile) v.t. see: -nyabeka. -yabuka (yabukile) v.i. (1) to step from the path, to leave the path. (2) to menstruate. syn. -keluha, -fapuha. rel. -yabukela (yabukezi) to leave the path at (a place), to deviate towards, to branch off. caus. -yabukisa (yabukisize) to cause to ~.

-yabula1 (yabuzi) v.t. to take off small pieces of meat or fish from a plate of relish and eat it with buhobe.

 

-yabula2 (yabuzi) v.t. to lift up the fishing-line when angling (with or without a catch) der. muyabulelo. cf. -shuta. fig. to arrest someone out of many suspects.

-yaha (yahile) v.t. & v.i. (1) to build, to erect, to construct: Ndu ya ka ni i yahilen ohola, I built my house last year. (2) to dwell, to reside: Mwa soli sa Mbeta ku yahile batu ba babaiiata, many people live on Mbeta Island. der. muyahi muya-hisi, muyaho, siyahisi, siyahiso, siyahululiso, muyahelo, buyahi, cf. -nganga, -panga. rel. -yahela (yahezi) to build for someone. caus. -yahisa (yahisize) to cause, to order or to help to build. fig. to edify, to encourage virtuousness, to enlighten: Milao ye minde i yahisa sicaba, good laws edify a nation. rec. -yahisana (yahisani or yahisanile) to reside peacefully with others. stat. -yaheha (yahehile) to be built in the right way: Ndu ya hae i yahehile hande, his house is very well built. int. -yahelela (yahelezi) (1) to build all houses that have to be built; (2) to reside somewhere for good: Yena u yahelezi ku ba ha m 'ahe; that man is staying with his mother's family permanently. inv. -yahulula (yahuluzi) to pull down (a house, a kraal, etc.). (see: -yahulula). ref.-icahela (icahezi) or -ikahela (ikahezi) to build for oneself.

-yahulula (yahuluzi) v.t. to pull down (kraal, house, etc.) cf. -panga (inv. rel. -yahululela (yahululezi) to ~ for someone caus. -yahululisa (yahululisize) to cause, to order or to help to ~. int. -yahululelela (yahululelezi) to ~ completely.

-yaiwa (yailwe) v.t. see: -yawa.

-yaka1 (yakile) v.i. & v.t. (always used with mulilo) (1) to catch fire  (as a house during a conflagration, clothes too near the fire, etc.). (2) to take fire-brands, embers, from somebody's place in order to light one's own fire. fig. exp: Hakuna ya yaka mulilo ku yena, mutu yo; nobody can approach that man, for he is a difficult man. rel. -yakela (yakezi) to for someone. fig. -yakelana (yakelani) to be on friendly terms. caus. -yakisa (yakisize) to light a fire; rel. -yakiseza (yakiselize) to send someone to light fire on one's own or another's behalf: A ku y'o ni yakiseza kwai ya ka ku bani ba ba zuba, ask those people smoking to light this cigarette for me. rec. -yakisana (yaki-sani) fig. to live in concord, to care for each other: Batu bani ha ba yakisani mulilo, those people are not on good terms. rec. -yakanela (yakanezi) as -yakisana. ref. -icakela (icakezi) or iyakela (iyakezi) to bring fire for oneself.

-yaka2 (yakile) v.t. ku yaka pula: to calm a thunder storm, to drive back rain (action believed to be in the power of a rain-maker). der. muyaki, siyakiso, muyakelo. rel. -yakela (yakezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yakisa (yakisize) to cause to ~.

-yakama (yakami or yakamile) v.i. to be quick-tempered, impuisive. rel. -yakamela (yakamezi) to do something impuisively; to show a great interest for something: Wena, pilu ya hao i yakamezi fela ku ca, you have only one interest, food! caus. -yakamisa (yakamisize) to cause to ~.

-yakuka (yakukile) v.i. to stand up suddenly and go quickly. freq. -yakauka (yakaukile) to ~ repeatedly.

-yakwana (yakwanile) v.t. to gather  fire-wood. der. muyakwani. rel. -yakwanela (yakwanezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yakwanisa (yakwanisize) to order or to help to ~. ref. -icakwanela (icakwanezi) or -iyakwanela (iyakwanezi) to ~ for oneself.

-yala (yalile) v.t. to spread, to lay out (mat, bedding, etc.). der. muyali, muyaleb, buyalo, siyalo. fig. to expose a case before some-one: ku yala bupakifa pil'a kuta, to bear witness, to give evidence before the court. rel. -yalela (yalezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yalisa (yalisize) to help to ~. int. -yalelela (yalelezi) to spread out all blankets, mats, etc. inv. -yalula (yaluzi) to fold. (see: -yalula). ref.-icalela (icalezi) or -iyalela (iyalezi) to prepare one's bedding.

-yalamana (yalamani) v.i. to be well built (only with reference to womens' loins).

yale (1) dem. pron. sing. (class: mu-ba) 4th degrce; that over there: Mushimani yale, u matela kai? where is that boy over there run-ning to? (2) dem. pron. sing. (class: (i) -li) 4th degree that over there: Kota yale i lengiiwe ki pula, that tree over there has been struck by lightning.

-yalela (yalezi) v.t. (mostly used with malelo): ku yalela malelo: to build small dykes with gaps there fishing-traps (bow-nets) can be set. der. muyaleli, bualelo. rel. -yalelela (yalelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yalelisa (yalelisize) to help to ~. int. -yalelelela (yalelelezi) to com-plete the building of all the dykes of a fish-pond (before flood water subsides). ref. -icalelela (icalelezi) or -iyalelela (iyalelezi) to build one's own dyke in a fish-pond.

-yaleta (yaletite or yaletile) v.t. (1)  to make a nest. (2) to put reeds in a pot to prevent fish from burning (when preparing relish). der. siya-leto, mayaleto, siyaletiso.

-yaluka (yalukile) v.i. to grow (animals): Likuhu za hae li yalukile hande, his chickens have grown successfully. int. -yalukelela (yalukelezi) to grow (the whole lot).

-yalula (yaluzi) v.t. to fold up onets bedding, mats, blankets, etc. der. muyaluli. cf. -puta. fig. (1) to take eggs, birds out of the nest; (2) to take (lions' cubs) outside the lair in order to teach (them).

-yamba (yambile) v.t. (1) to cast a net: ku yamba lituwa, to cast the large net; (2) to surround (warrior-ants, etc.: Sului ne si lu yambile kacenu, warrior-ants surrounded us today. der. muyambi, muyambisi, muyambelo, buyambi. fig. to attract, to catch people (as a prostitute). rel. -yambela (yambezi) to cast a nest for someone. caus. -yambisa (yambisize) to help to cast a net. inv. -yambula (yambuzi) to take a net out of water. (sce: -yam-bula). ref. -icambela (icambezi) or iyambela (iyambezi) to fish for oneself with net.

-yambaela (yambaezi) to wander about, to have no fixed dwelling-place. der. muyambaeli. caus. -yambaelisa (yambaelisize) to cause to ~.  ref. -lcambaelela (icambaelezi) or -iyambaelela ,iyambaelezi) to flee away (a person in difficulty, in distress).

-yambalakana (yambalakani or yambalakanile) v.i. to spread out (creepers, etc.).

yambelwa (bo-) n. Luyana. a person unable to follow good advice; a strong-headed person. (from: -amba).

-yambukela (yambukezi)v.i. to be  infectious, contagious. catching (disease). caus. -yambukisa (yambukisize) or -yambuseza (yambuselize) or -yambu,iseza (yambukiselize) to infect someone, to communicate a contagious disease to someone.

-yambula1 (yambuzi) v.t. to take a net out of water, to pull a net to the shore. der. muyambuli. rel. -yambulela (yambulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yambulisa (yambu-lisize) to help to ~.  inv. -yambulula (yambuluzi) to fold a net after fishing.

-yambula2 (yambuzi) v.t. Luyana. (1) to inherit the character of one's parents; (2) to contract a contagious disease: U yambuzi butuku bwa manansa ku mukete, he contracted syphilis from so-and-so.

-yambutuka (yambutukile) v.i. to speak at random, to jabber; to rave, to be delirious; to have nightmares. der. muyambutuki. syn. -yawana. rel. -yambutukela (yambu-tukezi) to speak at random to someone. caus. -yambutukisa (yambutukisize) to cause to ~.

-yamunwena (yamunwe–i) v.t. to help someone to carry a heavy thing. fig. to give a hand to some-one overburdened (whatever may be the kind of his hardship). der. muyamunweni. syn. -tusa, -unela. cf. -lamulela.

-yamununa (yamunuzi) v.t. to pour water for the second, third etc. time into a boiling pot of relish.

-yana (yanile) v.t. (1) to tip, to give a present to a dancer in order to encourage him; (2) to give to people unwilling to show their gratitude. der. muyani. rel. -yanela (yanezi) to give a present to a dancer on someone's behalf.

-yanda (yandile) v.t. (1) to spread  to expose meal in the sun in order to dry it. (2) to stretch out one's legs, one's arms. syn. -yandalala.

-yandalala (yandalalile) v.i. to stretch out one's legs, one's arms. syn. -yanda (2) rel. -yandalalela (yandalalezi) to ~ towards.

-yandinga (yandigingile) to stir food (meal, small fish, etc.) spread out in the sun until it dries up. der. muyandingi, siyandingiso, muyan-dingelo. rel. -yandingela (yanding-ezi) to ~ for someone.

yandi-ya-Nambwae, n. Luyana. reed mats specially made for the yard of the Litunga's palace.

-yanduka (yandukile) v.i. to break out, to spread (fire): Mulilo u yandukile, ni palezwi ku u tima ni li nosi, the fire spread, I couid not put it out by myself. rel. -yandukela (yandukezi) to ~ somewhere: Mulilo u yandukezi mwa soli sa Mulena, the fire broke out and reached the Litunga's island (destroying everything). caus. -yanaukisa (yandukisize) to cause to ~.

-yanduluka (yandulukile) v.i. to dawn (the day): Ku se ku yandulukile, day is already dawning. syn. -patalala, -sa. tig. to spread out (news, rumours, etc.): Litaba za hae li ce li yandulukile, his case is already a matter of common knowledge. caus. -yandulukisa (yandulukisize) fig. to cause the spreading of news, rumours.

-yandulula (yanduluzi) v.t. to hold, well stretched out: Mu yandulule lisila, lu bonefo li kuma; hold the material fully out, so that we may see its length.

-yaneha (yanehile) v.t. to dry in the sun, to spread in the sun (blanketsz clothes, food, etc.). der. muyanehi, siyanehelo, ntayaneheb. rel. -yanehela (yanehezi) to ~ for someone.  caus. -yanehisa (yanehisize) to order or to help to ~. inv. -yanuna (yanuzi) to take out of the sun. sce: -yanuna.

-yanga1 (yangile) v.t. to pluck fruit from a trce; to gather vegetables. der. muyangi. cf. -koyola, -kulumuna, -yangula. rel. -yangela (yangezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yangisa (yangisize) to help or to order to ~. int. -yangelela (yangelezi) to pluck all the fruit from a trce. ref. -icangela (icangezi) or-iyangela (iyangezi) to ~ for one-self.

-yanga2 (yangile) v.t. to abduct, to take someone's wife. der. muyangi.

-yangata (yangatile) v.t. to carry with both hands. rel. -yangatela (yangatizi)

-yangela (yangezi) v.t. to take a piece of someone's clothes in order to cause him harm through the aid of a witchdoctor. rel. -yangelela (yangelezi) to ~ for someone.

-yangula (yanguzi) v.t. to pluck fruit from a tree. syn. -koyola -kulumuna. cf. -yanga. rel. -yangulela (yangulezi) to ~ for someone: A ku y'o yangulela munyan'a hao kwa mango, go and pluck some mang-oes for your brother. caus. -yangulisa (yangulisize) to help to ~.  int. -yangulelela (yangulelezi) to pluck all the fruit from a tree. ref. -icangulela (icangulezi) to ~ for oneself

-yangwela (yangwezi) v.t. to rescue, to deliver, to save; to release or liberate anything caught by a crocodile, a lion, etc. Munna yo ya na ni mwaa u yangwezi komu ya hae kwa tau, that brave man saved his cow from the lion's mouth. syn.-lamulela. rel. -yangwelela (yangwelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -  yangwelisa (yangwelisize) to help to ~.

yani, (1) dem. pron. sing. (class: mu-ba) 3rd degree: that: Mutu yani, wena u mu boni lili? when did you see that man? (2) dem. pron. sing. (class (i) -li) 3rd degrce; that: Nja yani i na ni lubilo, that dog is very swift.

-yanuna (yanuzi) v.t. to take out of the sun; to fold up things which had been spread out. der. muya-nuni, siyanunelo. rel. -yanunela (yanunezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yanunisa (yanunisize) to order or to help to ~.

-yapa (yapile) v.t. to relieve someone (of a burden, of a heavy work, etc.). rec. -yapana (yapani or yapanile) to relieve each other in turn when carrying a heavy load, etc. ref. -icapa (icapile) as rec.

yasee! excl. (used only in women's recitative songs sung to welcome the Litunga).

-yata (yatile,. v.t. to bleed, to cut an artery (operation mostly performed by African doctors to relieve someone from toothache eye troubles, etc.). der. muyati, siyatiso, muyatelo. fig. to help to stop a little child crying in giving him food. rel. -yatela (yatezi) to ~ on someone's behalf. caus. -yatisa (yatisize) to cause to ~.

-yatanga (yatangile) v.i. to give orders, speaking loftily, aware of one's dignity. syn. -tambwa, -yenanga.

yau! interj. expressing surprise at seeing clearly: Ha ni y'o liyau, se ni li mwahal'a litou! before l had time to realize it, lwas already surrounded by the elephants! (see: -yauka).

-yauka (yaukile) v.i. (1) to see clearly (after having been unable  to do so): Ha ni y'o yauka fa meto, na bona mbumbe ye tuna i ni talimezi, when I was able to see clearly, a huge black cobra was staring at me. spec. exp: Buloko bu ni yaukilefa meto cwale, I am fully awake and can see clearly now. (2) to get dispersed (clouds): Kwa halimu ku se ku yaukile cwale, the sky is clear now.

-yaula (yauzi) v.t. to foretell, to pro-phesy (competency~ capacity of certain witchdoctors in the past). -yauluka (yaulukile) v.i. (1) to be easily influenced, misled; to be pliable: Usike wayauluka ka mikwaya ba bainwi, do not just follow others' habits without reflection; (2) to frequently leave one's husband for another; (3) to leave a herd for another (cattle). syn. -yembuluka. der. muyauluki, muyaululi, muyaululwa, nyaulu. rel. -yaulukela (yau-lukezi) to leave one occupation for another: U sike wa siya musebezi ku yaulukela lipapali, do not leave your work just to run after amuse-ments. caus. -yaulukisa (yaulukisize) or -yaulula (yauluzi) to influence someone in any way; to mislead. (see: -yaulula).

-yaulula (yauluzi) v.t. (1) to mislead, to influence someone in any way; (2) to appropriate something: Ha ni zibi ya yauluzi mukekana wa ka, I don't know who appropriated my dish. der. muyaululi. syn. -yembulula. rel. -yaululela (yaululezi) to offend someone by secretly appro-priating something belonging to him. ref. -icaululela (icaululezi) to appropriate secretly for oneself things belonging to others.

-yawa (yawile) v.t. to suffer a loss, to be bereaved of. cf. -sotisa, -kabelela. caus. -yawisa (yawisize) to cause to ~. spec. exp: ku yawisa  mutu bapilo bwa hae, to take someone's life (witchcraft). ref. -icawisa (icawisize) to be responsible for one's own loss.

yawakala! ideioph. expressing the sound made by someone or something falling down: H'afita a wela fafasi yawakala! when he arrived he suddenly fell down.

-yawana (yawani or yawanile) v.i. to speak at random, to jabber; to rave, to be delirious; to have nightmares. der. -siyawani. syn. -yambutuka, -ngayana, -wayana. rel. -yawanela (yawanezi) to speak at random to someone. caus. -yawanisa (yawanisize) to cause to jabber. ref. -icawanisa (icawanisize) to feign deliriousness: Mutu yo u icawanisafela, u kona ku lufa nitiya taba; this man makes a pretence of raving, but he can very well show us the truth about this case.

-yaweka1 (yawekile) v.t. (1) to cover someone with a blanket, etc. (2) to put a necklace round someone's neck: Musali yani u itwezi, bati, se ba mu yawekile sifaha! that woman is pregnant, look they have put a necklace round her neck!

-yaweka2 (yawekile) v.t. to cheat, to deceive. der. malyawe. syn. -puma, -kwasheka, -onga, -pelemeka or -belemeka.

-yawela (yawezi) v.t. to weed (in gardens). syn. -tahula. cf. -sheula. rel. -yawelela (yawelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yawelisa (yawelisize) to order or to help to ~.

-yaya (yayile) v.t. to deny, to recant, to disaffirm, to retract, to abjure. der. muyayalomo. rel. -yayela (yayezi) to offend someone by denying something: Wena u yayezi musal'a hao litaba ka ku saba tolongo; you denied your wife's de-claration for fear of prison. caus. -  yayisa (yayisize) to cause to ~. rec. -yayelana (yayelani) to accuse each other of denying things. freq. -yayanga to ~ frequently.

-yayata (yayatile) v.i. to show one's dissatisfaction by speaking a lot (children). rel. -yayatela (yayatezi) to bother someone by speaking a lot. caus. -yayatisa (yayatisize) to cause to ~.

-yayatisa (yayatisize) v.t. to bring things unasked for: Kini wena ha u y'o yayatisa mukeke o ni sika ku luma? why on earth are you bring-ing a dish I did not ask for?

-yayuka (yayukile) v.i. to be scaled (fish).

-yayuka (yayukile) v.i. to be scaled (fish).

-yayula (yayuzi) v.t. to scale. der. muyayuli, mayayu, siyayuliso. rel. -yayulela (yayulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yayulisa (yayulisize) to help to ~. int. -yayulelela (yayulelezi) to scale all the fish.

-yebuha (yebuhile) v.i. to come off (peel, onions's skin; paring of vegetables; human skin, etc.).

-yebula (yebuzi) v.t. to peel, to skin (vegetables, fruit, etc.). der. muyebuli, muyebulisi, sivebuliso, buikebuli. fig. to refuse to give. rel. -yebulela (yebulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yebulisa (yebulisize) to help to ~. int. -yebulelela (yebulelezi) to ~ the whole lot. ref. -ikebula (ikebuzi) or -icebula (icebuzi) to slough, to cast its skin (snake): Ni fumani noha i nze i ikebula, I found a snake in the process of casting its skin.

-yekuma (yekumile) v.i. to be fanned by wind (fire); to burn fiercely (embers). der. mayeku-yeku. syn. -eya, -wekuma.

yela! interj. used to attract attention: hey! Yela, a mu sabe, nja ye  pulumuka ki yeo! hey, look out, there is a mad dog!

-yela-yela (yela-yelile) v.i. to wander about; to go here and there in search of something. cf. -kwena-kwena. caus. -yela-yelisa (yela-yelisize) to chase; to cause to wander about: Sesi mu yela-yelisa cwalo ki tala, it is hunger that makes him wander about like this.

-yelana (yelani or yelanile) v.i. as -yela-yela.

-yelemba (yelembile) v.i. see: -elemba.

-yema (yemi or yemile) v.i. (1) to stand up, to rise to onets feet, to get onto one's feet; (2) to be upright, to be vertical, perpendicular, plumb; (3) to stop: Mota iyemi, the car has stopped. (4) to be stag-nant: U sike wa nwa mezi a yemi, do not drink from stagnant water. spec. exp. (a) ku yema ndangamwa, to stand and work without taking a rest; (b) ku yema nonga, to stand straight as a pole; (c) Pula i yemi, there is a drought; (d) ku yema mwa hae, to be pregnant (e) ku yema mutu maswe, to hate some-one and criticize whatever he may do (good or bad); (f) ku yema mutu kasumatondo, to have a grudge against someone. der. muyemeli, siyemo, kemelo. rel. a) -yemela (yemezi) to wait for; to stand for, to defend, to assist someone; b) -yemelela (yemelezi) to watch over (shepherd, policeman. etc.) caus. -yemisa (yemisize) (1) to raise up, to lift up, to hold up, to help to stand u p: ku yemisa musumo, to hold up a pole; ku yemisa mukuli, to help a sick person to stand up; (2) to stop: ku yemisa mota, to stop a car. rec. -yemelana (yemelani) to wait for each other, to defend each other.

 

-yembana (yembani) v.i. to be always on the move, to go purposelessly from place to place. der. muyembani. cf. -shulya-shulya. rel.

-yembanela (yembanezi) to look persistently for something or someone: Na ha ni koni ku yembanela musali ya sa ni lati, I definitely cannot persist in trying to marry a woman who does not love me. caus. -yembanisa (yembanisize) to cause to ~.

-yembuluka (yembulukile)v.i. (1) to change one's mind easily, to be fickle, to be pliable; to be easily influenced, misled. (2) to change frequently one's husband or wife: Musali yani u yembulukafeela, ha si hanata a tiisa manyalo; that woman never stays long with one husband. (3) to leave home (dog): Nja ya ka i yembulukile ni naha, my dog has left for good. der. nyembuluko, buembuluki. syn. -yauluka. rel. -yembulukela (yembulukezi) to leave an occupation for another one, to change one plan for another, etc.: Niha u ka pumiwa ki mutu, u sike wa siya musebzi wa hao ku yembulukela kusili, even if you might be tempted by someone, do not leave your work just to try to find another job somewhere else. caus. -yembulukisa (yembulukisize) to cause to ~.

-yembulula (yembuluzi) v.t. (1) to influence someone in any way; to mislead; (2) to appropriate something. syn. -yaulula. rel. -yembulela (yembululezi) to offend someone by appropriating secretly some-thing belonging to him.

-yenanga (yenangile) v.i. to speak sloly and softly, to speak haughtily aware of one's dignity. syn. -yatanga, -tambwa. rel. -yenangela (yenangezi) to ~ somewhere. caus.  -yenangisa (yenangisize) to cause to ~.

Yenda, n. October. (see: kweli).

-yendama (yendami or yendamile) v.i. to be leaning on, against. der. mayendameno, mayendamo. fig. to depend, to rely on someone

-yendamena (yendamezi) v.i. as -yendama.

-yendeka (yendekile) v.t. to lean something against (something): Yendeka silabo fa lapa, lean the paddle against the fence. der. siyendekaminsi. cf. -endeka. fig. to provide accommodation for a traveller. rel. -yendekela (yendekezi) to ~ for someone. inv. -yendula (yenduzi) to take a thing from where it was leaning. (see: -yendula).

-yenduka1 (yendukile) v.i. to cease leaning upon and fall down: Mabani ku luna, malapa a manata a yendukile hahulu bakeinisa lona linangwa lani; yesterday, many palisˆdes fell down in our village because of that hurricane. caus. -yendukisa (yendukisize) to cause to fall down.

-yenduka2 (yendukile) v.i. to go downstream, to float downstream. der. muenduko (see: -enduka).

-yenduka3 (yendukile) v.i. to be taken from a landing place by the wind, etc. (canoe).

-yendula (yenduzi) v.t. to take a thing from where it was leaning: Ki mani ya yenduzi lilumo la ka fa? who has removed my spear from this place?

-yenga (yengile) v.t. to give a smooth finish to wood-work with a knife, a hatchet, etc. (spear handle, paddle, etc.). der. muyengi, siyengiso, muyengelo. syn. -beha. fig. to refuse to give, to be avari-cious. rel. -yengela (yengezi) to ~  for someone.

-yenga-yenga (yenga-yengile) v.i. to start raining. fig. exp: ku yenga-yenga mioko, to be on the point of shedding tears cf. -cipita (see: -enga-enga). caus. -yenga-yengisa (yenga-yengisize) fig. to cause someone to shed tears: Se ne si ni yenga-yengisize mioko ki ku bona mw'a n'a nyandisezwa: what made me ready to weep was to see how she was ill-treated.

-yengaeta (yengaetite) v.t. to display things meant to be carried unobserved. (as -engaeta).

-yepa (yepile) v.t. to dig, to excavate, to scoop out earth. der. muyepi, muyepisi, siyepiso, muyepelo. cf. -tokola. fig. (2) to run; (2) to beat, to strike: rel. -yepela (yepezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yepisa (yepisize) to order or to help to ~. stat. -yepeha (yepehile) to be able to be excavated: Ha ku yepehi hande bakeni sa mabu ku bulumuka, it is difficult to scoop out earth because it is very crumbly. freq. -yepaka (yepakile) fig. to strike repeatedly. inv. -yepulula (yepuluzi) to scoop again earth out of hole, a canal dug previously, etc. red. -yepa-yepa (yepa-yepile) to ~ slightly. ref. -ikepela (ikepezi) to ~ for oneself.

-yetela (yetezi) v.i. to breathe with difficulty, to be out of breath, to gasp for breath (dogs). caus. -yetelisa (yetelisize) to cause to ~.

-yeuka (yeukile) v.i. to be raised by the wind (skirt, etc.).

-yeula (yeuzi) v.t. to raise up (skirt, dress, etc.).

-yeya (yeyile) v.i. Luyana. to meditate, to consider. der. mayeya. syn. -hupula, -nahana.

-yeyanga (yeyangile) v.t. to eat bit  by bit a large portion of food. syn. -yeyenga.

-yeyauka (yeyaukile) v.i. to walk lightly and fast on a thick layer of grass (litindi).

-yeyema (yeyemi or yeyemile) v.i. (1) to speak with difficulty or hesitation because of fear or anger; (2) to show undue haste in speaking or doing things. der. kayeye.

-yeyenga (yeyengile) v.t. as -yeyanga.

yo! dem. pron. sing. (class: mu-ba) 1st and 2nd degree; this, that: Musali yo na mu ziba; I know that lady.

yo! adv. here, there: Ki na yo! here I am! Ha ba yo! they are not there! -yobangela (yobangelile) v.i. to go hunting through a thickly grassed or wooded country. rel. -yobangelela (yobangelezi) to ~ some-where: Kacenu mu y'o yobangelela kai? where are you going to hunt today?

-yobila (yobilile) v.i. see: -cobila.

-yobola (yobozi) v.i. to take the name of an ancestor during a formal occasion, a ritual dance, etc. der. mayobo. cf. -yola.

-yokoka (yokokile) v.i. (1) to come out of the fire unbroken (as ear-then ware after firing): Lipiza za ka kaufela li yokokile hande kabakala mulilo wa masu, all my pots came out unbroken for the firing was made with dry cow-dung; (2) to remain unscathed after a trial by boiling water ordeal. fig. to recover after a severe illness or a very great affliction.

-yokola (yokozi) v.t. to take out of the fire (maize ears, cassava roots, earthen ware, red-hot iron when forging, etc.). der. siyokoliso. rel. -yokolela (yokolezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -yokolisa (yokolisize) to  help to ~. inv. -yokolola (yokolozi) to push embers aside in order to take something out of the fire.

-yokomoka (yokomokile) v.i. to rise up suddenly and disappear. syn. -pundumuka, -yokotoka.

-yokomona (yokomozi) v.t. to take by surprise, to frighten; to cause an animal to bolt and disappear. syn. -pundumuna.

-yokomwena (yokomwezi) v.t. to inhale the vapour of medicinal boiling water (African doctors' usual method of healing). syn. -yumena. cf. -olela.

-yokotoka (yokotokile) v.i. to be frightened, to suddenly rise up and disappear. syn. -pundumuka, -yokomoka.

-yola (yolile) v.t. to succeed to the throne, to succeed to a dignity; to inherit. der. coliso. cf. -shwana, -yobola. caus. -yolisa (yolisize) to choose a successor to someone. fig. exp: ku yolisa linako ze sinye-hile, to make up for wasted time.

-yomama (yomami or yomamile) v.i. to be inside a larger thing of the same kind (as a small box inside a larger one or a small basket inside a larger one). fig. to introduce oneself in a group of people (paddlers, etc.).

-yomeka (yomekile) v.t. to put something in a basket, a box, etc.: Mu yomeke mbonyi yeo mwa sizuma, put that maize into the basket.

-yomona (yomozi) v.t. to kill in some obscure way, taking the person's soul out of his body (witch-craft). syn. -hola, -tukula.

-yonga (yongile) v.i. to catch fire and burn completely; to die out (fire wood). fig. (1) to get very thin (mostly after an iliness); (2) to die and 'disappear' without leaving any trace (sorcery). syn. -iconga.  caus. -yongisa (yongisize) to cause to ~: Banana ba yongisize likota kaufela mabani; yesterday, the children let the logs burn through completely. fig. Uyongisize lisika la baba ne ba mu toile kaufela, he made all the people who hated him 'disappear'.

-yonga-yonga (yonga-yongile) v.t. to take many things for oneself with-out discrimination: Mutu yo h 'a zibi ku keta, u yonga-yonga fela, that man does not choose, he takes everything for himself indiscriminately; Yena h'a zibi ku nyala basali ba bande, u yonga-yonga fela, he does not know how to choose a good wife, he just marries any. der. -mayonga-yonga.

-yongola (yongozi) v.i. Mbunda. to speak. der. miyongo, kamuyongole. syn. -bulela.

-yooya (yooyile) v.i. to be spacious (canoe, room, house, etc.).

yo-shoo! expression used by men in royal salutation indicating one's praise, happiness and obedience.

-yotamena (yotamezi) v.i. to bask in the sun (reptiles) cf. -ola.

-yotela (yotezi) v.t. to inhale the smoke of medicinal burning roots. der. siyotelelo. syn. -olela. cf. -yo-komwena.

Yowa1, n. February. (sce: Kweli).

-yowa2 (yowile) v.t. to bake in hot ashes (sweet potatoes, etc.). rel. -yowela (yowezi) to ~ for someone. int. -yowelela (yowelezi) to ~ the whole lot. ref. -icowela (icowezi) to ~ for oneself.

-yowaela (yowaezi) v.i. to walk in very thick grass or in bush.

-yowala (yowalile) v.i. to have thick, bushy hair; to have a long beard. -yowama (yowami or yowamile) v.i. to be hidden by long grass, reeds, bushes, etc.

 

-yowamana (yowamanile) v.i. to sit surrounded by long grass, reeds, bushes, etc.

-yowana (yowani or yowanile) v.i. Luyana. to bathe, to swim splash-ing about. syn. -tapa.

-yowela (yowezi) v.i. to be thick, dense (new grass, reed, bush, etc.). -yowilikana (yowilikani or yowilikanile) v.t. to make noise (as many people scolding someone to-gether). syn. -showilikana.

-yoya (yoyile) v.i. Luyana. to live. spec. exp: (1) Mu y'o yoyanga, go well, may life be good to you; (2) Mu y'o yoyangisa ko mu ya, take our best wishes to all the people where you go to. idiom. exp.: Kalufu-ka-lu-yo, to become ill often (we) contrive to exist (neither death nor life).

yoyaela (yoyaezi) v.i. to be out of breath (after running, etc.); to be at one's last gasp.

yoyomana (yoyomani or yoyomanile) to seize, to grasp; to take hold, to catch to get hold of someone; to apprehend. syn. -swala, -nyamatala.

yuba (yubile) v.t. (1) to scoop, to ball out:ku yuba mezi mwa mukolo, to bail out a canoe; (2) to scoop water out of a shallow pool in order to catch fish. der. muyubi siyubo, siyubiso, muyubelo. rel. -yubela (yubezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yubisa (yubisize) to order or to help to ~.

-yubauka (yubaukile) or -yuboka (yubokile) v.i. to be brimming over, to run over, to boil over (milk, etc.). rel. -yubaukela (yubaukezi) to spill over, to run over: Mabisi a ne ni lwezi a ni yubaukezi hahulu, the milk I was carrying spilled over me. caus. -yubaukisa (yubaukisize) to cause to ~. freq. -  yubaula (yubauzi) to cause a liquid to slop over.

-yubeka (yubekile) v.t. to desert somebody in a treacherous way or by carelessness: Kini ha u y'o yubeka mutu y'o zamaile ni yena? why did you leave behind the man with whom you were travelling?

-yuboka (yubokile) v.i. sce: -yu-bauka.

-yubuka1 (yubukile) v.i. to peel, to fall off (skin). syn. -yunuka. cf. -pampumuka.

-yubuka2 (yubukile) v.i. to fall out of the pot (food, etc.). cf. -suluha. rel. -yubukela (yubukezi) to fall down out of a pot.

-yubula1 (yubuzi) v.t. to pour food out of a pot. int. -yubulelela (yubulelezi) to pour the whole contents of a pot into a dish.

-yubula2 (yubuzi) v.t. to take by force, to snatch from someone. rel. -yubulela (yubulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yubulisa (yubulisize) to cause to ~. freq. -yubaula (yubauzi) to snatch from many people.

-yuka (yukile) v.i. to be steaming (water, food, etc.).

-yukaela (yukaezi) v.i. to walk os-tentatiously. rel. -yukaelela (yukaeleli) to ~ somewhere. caus. -yukaelisa (yukaelisize) to cause to ~.

-yukuka1 (yukukile) v.i. to go fast (canoe); to dash, to make a rush at, upon: Ha yukuka kuli a y'o nata kana ka hae, se ka mata! when he made a rush at his child to beat him, the boy was already off!

-yukuka2 (yukukile) v.i. to scold, to altercate, to row with, to brawl. der. liyuku. rel. -yukukela ( yukukezi) to give a scolding to someone. rec. -yukaukelana (yukaukelani) to have a very big row with someone. ref. -iyukaukela (iyukau-  kezi) as rec.

-yukula (yukuzi) v.t. to push a boat forward; to paddle hard. syn. -sindumuna, -yuna.

-yukumuka (yukumukile) v.i. to grow (up) quickly (plants, people, etc.).

-yukumwena (yukumwezi) v.t. as -yokomwena.

-yukweka (yukwekile) v.t. to burn, to set fire to, to cause a conflagration. syn. -cisa. rel. -yukwekela (yukwekezi) to set fire to some one's property: Ki kale ba mu yuk-wekela ndu ya hae, they have just set fire to his house.

-yuluka (yulukile) v.i. to come suddenly to the surface of water (hippopotamus, crocodile, etc.). cf. -cimbuka. fig. to raise suddenly the voice with anger.

-yumba (yumbile) v.t. Luyana. (1) to throw. spec. exp: ku yumba mayumbo, to propound a riddle to someone. (2) to ccase to care for, to abandon: U yumbile bashemi ba hae, h'a ba babaleli; he abandoned his parents and does not take the slightest care of them. spec. exp ku yumba simulamu, to abandon completely. der. mayumbo, mayumbelo. rec. -yumbana (yumbani or yumbanile) to propound riddles to each other.

-yumbangeta (yumbangetite) v.t. Luyana. to pray to ancestors, der. siyumbangetiso. syn. -pailela. rel. -yumbangetela (yumbangetezi) to pray to ancestors in favour of someone.

-yumbela1 (yumbezi) v.t. to poison water in order to kill fish. der. siyumbela. cf. -bunjinje.

-yumbela2 (yumbezi) v.t. (1) to build a dyke, to build a terrace in order to protect a village of the plain against flood erosion (2) to heap  up garden beds for the planting of sweet potatoes. der. muyumbeli, siyumbeliso. cf. -umbela. rel. -yumbelela (yumbekezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -yumbelisa (yumbelisize) to order or to help to ~.  ref. -lcum-belela (icumbelezi) or -iyumbelela (iyumbelezi) to ~ for oneself.

-yumbula (yumbuzi) v.t. to give food to welcome a visitor. der. muyumbuli, sima.yumbula, liyumbu, mayumbulelo. rel. -yumbulela (yum-bulezi) to ~ on another's behalf. caus. -yumbulisa (yumbulisize) to help to ~: Kacenu se ni ka yumbulisa baenyi ba ka ni ka si fumana kai? where shall I find food today to welcome my guests? ref. -lyum-bula (iyumbuzi) or -icumbula (icum-buzi) to eat from one's own pro-visions when stopping in a village during a journey.

-yumena1 (yumezi) v.i. Luyana. to be close fisted, to be avariclous.

-yumena2 (yumezi) v.t. to inhale the vapour of medicated boiling water (African doctor's usual method of healing). der. muyumena, siyumeneno. syn. -yokomwena. cf. -olela. caus. -yumenisa (yumenisize) to help to ~.

-yuna (yunile) v.t. to push a boat forward; to paddie hard. syn. -sindumuna, -yukula.

-yuna-yuna (yuna-yunile) v.i. to float about (as a crocodile on the surface of water). fig. to go here and there with an evil intention. rel.-yuna-yunela (yuna-yunezi) to ~ in order to seize a prey. caus. -yuna-yunisa (yuna-yunisize) to cause to ~.

-yunda1 (yundile) v.i. to die one after another; to become extinct (family, clan, etc.): Lisika la Nyambe li yundile kaufela, all the people belonging to Nyambe's  family have died. caus. -yundisa (yundisize) or -yundula (yunduzi) to exterminate. (see: -yundula). int. -yundelela (yundelezi) or -yunduka (yundukile) to die out, to become extinct (a whole family).

-yunda2 (yundile) v.t. to peep, to observe with curiosity. der. siyunda. syn. -nangela, -ukumela.

yundu, n. pl. see: liundu.

-yundula (yunduzi) v.t. to peel sikuswani tuber by rubbing it in water. rel. -yundulela (yundulezi) to ~ for someone caus. -yundulisa(yundulisize) to help to ~.

-yundulula (yunduluzi) v.t. to plough, to cultivate a large garden.

-yunga (yungile) v.i. to fly far away (arrow, plane, etc.). cf. -lenda. rel. -fig. exp: ka yungela mute mutakwe, to go to someone with the purpose of challenging him to fight. caus. -yungisa (yungisize) to shoot far away: Yena u kona hahulu ka yungisa beta, he is a very good shot with a bow.

-yunguka (yungukile) v.i. to cease raining (when the fact is believed to be caused by the action of a rain-maker).

-yungula (yunguzi) v.t. to sift meal hurriedly and carelessly. freq. -yungaula (yungauzi) or -yungola (yungozi) to ~ frequently.

-yungula (yunguzi) v.t. to make the rain stop (power attributed to a rain-maker).

-yunuka (yunukile) v.i to peel, to fall off (skin) syn. -yubuka. cf. -pamumuka.

-yununa (yunuzi) v.t. to pull of skin (when burnt by the sun).

-yupa (yupile) v.t. Luyana. to listen to with inquisitiveness, curiosity der. mayupeleti.

-yusa (yusize) v.t. see: -usa.

 

-yuso, n. gen. n. triangular designs made on mats with dyed strings: Miseme ya yuso, mats having such designs. (from: -usa).

-yuumena (yuumezi) v.t. to take a medicmal steam bath. caus. -yuumenisa (yuumenisize) to give someone a steam bath.

-yuwa (yuwile) v.i. to itch. der. kayuwe. caus. -yuwisa (yuwisize) to cause to itch (by putting kayuwe on the skin).

-yuya (yuyile) v.i. (1) (body) to smell (caused by a disease); (2) to become decayed (Fish).

-yuyoka (yuyokile) v.i. to speak very strongly. der. muyuyaukelo or muyuyokelo. rel. -yuyokela (yuyokezi) to ~ to someone: U sike wa yuyokela yo muhulu, u ta ka shapa: do not speak impolitely to an elder person he will beat you. caus. -yuyokisa (yuokisize) to cause to ~.

-yuyuka (yuyukile) v.i. to come to the surface of water (dead body or carcass). cf. -cimbuka, -tumuka.

-yuyula (yuyuzi) v.t. to paddle without dipping in one's oar very much.

-yuyuluka (yuyulukile) vi. to refuse to obey, to be obstinate. syn. -tunduluka fig. rel. -yuyulukela (yuyulukzi) to resist someone's orders. caus. -yuyulukisa (yuyulukisize) to cause to resist obstinately. spec. exp: U sike wa yuyulukisa maswafu a hao cwalo, do not swell out with pride and arrogance like this.

-yuyumana (yuyumani or yuyumanile) v.i. to remain motionless on a thick layer of grass, on the surface of water (crocodile, iguana, etc.). fig. to be almost losing one's power or authority without being aware of it.

<div>Z

Z. z, Pronounced as in English.

za, pron. subj. pl. (class: (i) hi) used when the verb has no object or has a simple pronoun as object; they: Ni boni likomu za bona, za Sula; I saw their cattle, they are grazing. za, poss. pron. pl. (class: si-li and (i) hi); (of): Lilabo za ka li lobehile, my paddies are broken; Libyana za hae ki Zen ata, his belongings ares many.

-zala (zalile) v.t. to ejaculate.

-zamaisa (zamaisize) v.t.see: -zamaya caus.

zamaisano, n. mutual guiding, friendly intercourse. (from: -zamaya).

zamaiso, n. guidance, leading; driving; supervision.

-zamaya (zamaile) v.i. to walk, to march, to go; to go away, to leave: spec. exp: ka zamaya mute kwapili, to precede someone; ka zamaya mute mwamulaho, to follow someone. der. muzamai, muzamao, muzamaelo, muzamaisi, zamaiso, bu-zamaisi, zamaisano, buizamaeli, buizamaiso. syn. -enda. cf. -ya. rel. -zamaela (zamaezi) to ~ with a purpose: U zamaela lifi mute yo? what is that man after? caus. -zamaisa (zamaisize) to lead, to guide, to conduct; to escort; to drive; to oversee, to supervise; to command. red. -zamaya-zamaya (zamaya-zamaile) to walk every now and then, to take a walk ref. a) -izamaela (izamaezi) to walk without purpose; b) -izamaisa (izamaisize) to be independent.

zanana, adv. straight, vertically: ka yema zanana, to stand straight as in a parade. syn. nonga.

 zanda (zandile) v.i. to refuse, to deny; to resist stubbornly. der. mizanda. syn. -hana.

-zangalakana (zangalakani or zangalakanile) or zangilikana (zangilikani or zangilikanile) v.i. to be long and in disorder, to be all ruffled (hair). der. mazangala-zangala. syn. -shukwala.

-zanguka (zangukile) v.i. to become wise, intelligent, clever; to become experienced. syn. -talifa.

ze, dem. pron. pl. (class: si-li and (i) -li). 1st degree; these: Liyaleto ze ki za linyunywani mani? which birds build these nest; Likota ze Hi na no muluti o munde, these trces offer pleasant shade.

zebe (li-) n. ear; ya tibani lizebe, a deaf person.

-zeka (zekile) v.t. put before court, to dispute, to quarrel about; to contest; to claim: Mu ka y'o zeka lili taba ya mina? when are you going to put your case before the court? der. muzeki, muzekisi, muzeko, sizekiso. rel. -zekela (zekezi) to plead in favour of someone. caus. -zekisa (zekisize) to bring someone to justice. int. -zekelela (zekelezi) to dispute, to claim with persistence. rec. -zekisana (zekisani or zekisanile) to quarrel about, to claim for or from each other; to have a dispute.

-zela (zelile) v.t. to surround, to encircle: Nifumani bats ba zelile nzila kaufela, I found that they were watching all the way round. cf. -ambeka.

-zelenga (zelengile) v.t. to give an artistic touch to one's work (pottery, basketry, etc.).

 

zemba (zembile) v.i. to make a search, to spy: Mupolisa yo s'a zembafale, u utwile sika maiii? what is that policeman searching for over there, has he heard about anything? der. kazemba.

zembelela (zembelezi) v.t. to hove-rover towards in order to attack (hawk) fig. to walk about amusing people, in order to be given some-thing.

-zenga1 (zengile) v.i. to feel unwell: Ha ni ikutwi hande, ni zengafela, I don't feel well, I am just trying to stand up.

zenga2 (zengile) or -zengana (zengani or zenganile) to hover, to soar (birds).

zeo. dem. pron. pl. (class: si-li and (i) -li) 2nd degree; those: Lipula zeo mu li lekisa cwani? what is the price of those chairs? Likii zeo ki za maiii? whose are those keys?

-zetula (zetuzi) v.t. to beat someone with a thin walking stick.

-zeuka (zeukile) v.i. to burst. spec. exp: U zeukefahali! may you burst open and die! cf. kauke!

-zeula (zeuzi) v.t. to curse (saying: U zeuke fahali! see: -zeuka)

zeze, n. gen. n. Tswana tsetse fly.

-zezula (zezuzi) v.t. see: -zetula.

-ziba (zibile) v.i. & v.t. to know; to be aware of; to be experienced; to recognize: Lu ine lu nze lu ziba kuli butata bu ta lu tela kwapili, let us be aware that we shall meet difficul-ties in the future. Ki ko kunde kufa mutu musebezi w'a zibile kale, it pays to give someone work for which he has long experience Mwa ni ziba, nji mu ni timelezwi? do you recognise me or have you for-gotten me? der. muzibi, sizibi, zibo, zibano, zibiso, zibisano, busibelo. cf. -tekelela. rel. -zibela (zibezi) to recognize someone by something  Ni mu zibezi kwa sitenda sa he, I have recognized him by his bald-head. rec. -zibelana (zibelani) to know something about each other: ku zibelana mikwa, to know about each other's conduct. caus. -zibisa (zibisize) to inform, to acquaint with, to announce; to give notice, to notify: Na ha ba sika ni zibisa se sinwi bakensa mukiti wa bona, they did not notify me about their feast rel. -zibizeza (zibiselize) to inform on someone's behalf: Mu ni zibiseze yena kuli kamuso ni yo munata ko ku yena! tell him that I shall see him tomorrow, so he had better be ready for me! int. -zibisisa (zibisisize) to know thoroughly. rec. -zibisana (zibisani) to give mutual in-formation. int. -zibelela (zibelezi) to know thoroughly. int-stat. -zibahala (zibahezi or zibahalile) to become known, to be well known, to be of common knowledge. caus. -zibahaza (zibahalize) to make known, to advertise. rec. -zibana (zibani or zibanile) to know each other. rel. -zibanela (zibanezi) to know of each other. freq. -zibanga to be accustomed to ~: Mu n'o zibanga ku pila hande ni batu, learn how to live on good terms with people. ref. -iziba (izibile) to know oneself, to be aware of one's nature rel. -izibela (izibezi) to be experienced in: Ku izibela misebezi ye minata ki ko kunde, it is very helpful to have a good knowledge of many different kinds of work int-stat. -izibahaza (izibahalize) to make oneself know: Mutu ki yo munde ku izibahaza ka mikwa ye minde kwa batu, it is desirable for a man to make himself known by his good deeds

zibano, n. knowledge of each other, acquaintance (from: -ziba).

 

-zibisa (zibisize) v.t. notify see: -ziba caus.

zibisano (li-) n. mutual information. (from: -ziba).

zibiso (li-) n. notice, information, announcement, proclamation. (from: -ziba).

zibo, n. knowledge, inteligence.

-zieleha (zielehile) v.i. to be in difficulty, in distress; to be puzzled, to be perplexed. syn. -kayamana. rel. -zielehela (zielehezi) to be in diffi-culty somewhere: U il'o zielehela mwa mushitu, It was in the forest that he got into difficulties.

-zieza (zielize) v.t. to embarrass, to puzzle, to distress, to trouble, to bewilder. der. ziezi, cf. -zinga. rec. -ziezana (ziezani or ziezanile) to embarrass each other, to get each other into trouble, difficulty. ref. -izieza (izielize) to get oneself into trouble.

ziezi (li- or ma-) n. difficulty, distress, perplexity, trouble, worry (from: -zieza). fig. funeral, Ku na ni ziezi kwa hae, there is a funeral at home.

-zikinyeha (zikinyehile) v.i. to shake, to quake. der. zinkinyeho. fig. to have doubts in one's own views because of others' arguments; to hesitate, to be unsteady.

zikinyeho (li-) n. shaking; sikinyeho ya lifasi, earth tremor, earthquake (from: -zikinyeha).

zikiti, adv. motionlessly: Mutuyani a li ku li zikitifani, kanti u batani? what is that man looking for overthere, being so long without moving?

-zina-zina (zina-zinile) v.i. to hesitate, to delay caus. -zina-zinisa (zina-zinizise) to cause delay.

-zinda (zindile) v.i. to be strong; to be resistant: Mushimani yo s'a zindile hahulu, that boy is already very  strong; a muni otele muhala o zindile, twist a strong, resistant rope for me.

-zinga (zingile) v.t. to embarrass, to puzzle, to perplex: Litaba li mu zingile, the matter embarrassed him. der. sizingwa, buzingwa, zingo. cf. -zieza. stat. -zingeha (zingehile) to be embarrassed, puzzled, perplexed.

zingo, n. embarrassement, puzzlement, perplexity. (from: -zinga).

-zinguluka (zingulukile) v.i. to be dizzy, giddy; to have vertigo, to feel the head swimming; to whirl. caus. -zingulukisa (zingulukisize) to cause to ~.

zita, n. kind of grass (long marsh-grass the feathery seed of which is used for making pillows and cushions).

-zizibala (zizibezi or zizibalile) or zizilika (zizilikile) v.i. to be feeble-minded. caus. -zizibalisa (zizibalisize) or zizibaza (zizibalize) to cause someone to think or act in a stupid way: Ki matokwani a mu zizibalize, it is hemp that made him such a dull-witted person.

-zizila (zizilile) v.i. to be unwell syn. -kula.

-zizilika (zizilikile) v.i. as zizibala.

-zompoka (zompokile) v.i. to jump. der. lizompo. syn. -tula.

zona, emph. pron. pl. class: si-li and (i) -li); those: Ni lata zona zeo I like those things (no others): Ni lata zona ze. I like these things.

-zota (zotile) v.i. to set one's heart on doing something. rel. -zotela (zotelize) same meaning: N'a sa zoteli ku ze ne ni mu bulela kaufela he did not set his heart on doing ali that I was telling him to do.

zote, adv. all. entirely. Likomu zote za kula; all the cows are sick.

-zuba (zubile) v.i. & v.t. to smoke,  to snuff (tobacco). der. muzubi, muzubisi, sizubelo, muzubelo. syn. -feba. rel. -zubela (zubezi) muzubisi, sizubelo, muzubelo. syn. -feba. rel. -zubisa (zubisize) to give someone snuff or tobacco. rec. -zubisana (zubisani) to give each other a pinch of snuff. ref. -izubisa (izubisize) as rec.

-zubunkana (zubunkani or zubunkanile) v.i. to bank up, to pile up (clouds): Male s'a zubunkana, a storm is brewing.

-zuha (zuhile) v.i. to wake up, to get up; ka zuha kwa bafu, to rise from the dead, to resuscitate. ka zuha kwa butuku, to come back again, to recur (illness); syn. -shangumuka. spec. exp. Mu zuhile! good morning! der. zuho, sizuhelwa. rel. zuhela (zuhezi) to attack, to assail, to use violence against: Butuku be mu zuhezi ka mata, he is very seriously ill. caus. -zusa (zusize) to waken. (see: -zusa).

zuho, n. (1) waking, awakening; resurrection (2) health, well-being (from: -zuha).

-zukuza (zukulize., v.t. to shake, to stir, to rinse; to agitate, to wave; to wag. rel. -zukuzeza (zukuzelize) to rinse for someone: U y'o zukuzeza munyan'a hao liapalo za hae, go and rinse out your brother's clothes. caus. -zukuzisa (zukuzisize) to help to rinse.

-zuma (zumile) v.t. to hunt. der. muzumi, muzumisi, sizumi, buzumi, buzumo, zumo, luzumo, muzumelo. fig. to act as a detective: ka zuma mute ya tobile mwa tolongo, to in-vestigate about someone who escaped from prison. rel. -zumela (zumezi) to hunt for someone. caus. -zumisa (zumisize) to accompany a hunter. spec. exp: ka zumisa Linda, to hunt with a pack of dogs.  rec. -zumana (zumani) fig. to hate each other to have a grudge against each other ref. -izumela (izumezi) to hunt for oneself.

zumo, n. hunting. (from: -zuma).

-zumununa (zumunuzi) v.t. see -tumununa.

-zunga (zungile) v.i. to be very high (house).

-zunga-zunga (zunga-zungile) v.i. to totter about (a tall person). to move about though unwell.

-zungubaza (zungubalize) v.t. to urge to pay, to force to pay. der. muzungubazi.

-zusa (zusize) v.t. (1) to waken: ka zusa mute ya lobezi, to waken a sleeping person. fig. exp: ka zusa mute papa, to educate someone, using strong methods, (2) to re-build: ka zusa lapa, to rebuild a fence; (3) to resuscitate. rel. -zuseza (zuselize) (1) to disturb a person by causing~the waking of another: Mu sike mwa eza lilata, mu ka ni zuseza mwanana; do not be so noisy, you will wake up the child. (2) to make someone angry, to get someone's temper up; to provoke: idiom. exp: Ki kale a ni zuseza malamo; now look, he is putting me in great difficulty. ref. -izusa (izusize) to awake, to wake up. spec. exp: Mu y'o izusa hande! good night, sleep well!

-zwa (zwile) v.i. to go out; to come from; to come out: Zwa ka, get away, Mu zwa kai? where are you coming from? ka zwa mwa musima, to come out of a hole. rel. -zwela (zwezi) to come out in a certain direction; to come from a certain place: Mu zwela kai. kwa mboela ndi? where are you coming from, from the south? spec. exp: ka zwela phi, to continue, to advance, to progress. (see: zwelopili) caus. -  zwisa (zwisize) to bring out, to take out; to deduce, to subtract. (see: -zwisa). red. -zwela-zwela (zwela-zwezi) (fande) to go out continu-ally at-every moment. ref. -izwisa (izwisize) to take oneself out of: ku izwisa mwa mufilifili, to escape trouble.

zwabula (zwabuzi) v.t. to take by force, to snatch. freq. -zwabaula (zwabauzi) to snatch repeatedly.

zwabulula (zwabuluzi) or -zwabuluza (zwabululize) v.t. to take off long strips of bark from a tree; to pull of long strips of meat from a dried hide.

-zwafa (zwafile) v.t. to lose courage, to be cast down, dispirted; to be inclined to negligence. der. muzwafi, muzwafisi, buzwafi, buzwafisi, cf. -tepelela. rel. zwafela (zwafezi) to take a dislike to: Se ni zwa-fela ka eza musebezi wo o tata! I really feel that I am taking a dislike to that very hard work. caus. -zwafisa (zwafisize) to discourage. syn. . -shengwaetisa.

zwaka (zwakile) v.t. to mix to mingle: Buhobe bwa mbonyi ki bobunde ha be zwakilwe ni mwanja, cooked mealie meal is very tasty when mixed with cassava meal. der. mazwake, sizwakiso. rel. -zwa-kela (zwakezi) to mix, to mingle for someone. stat. -zwakeha (zwakehile) to be mixable.

-zwakeza (zwakelize) v.t. to catch with a rope, with a lasso: Mu nge muhala, mu zwakeze komu yeo mwa toho, take a rope and catch that cow by its head. fig. exp: Ku zwakeza mute taba, to accuse someone falsely.

-zwala (zwezi) v.t. to give birth (animals). to bring forth; to lay eggs. der. muzwezi, zwezi, zwalo, muzwalelo. cf. -pepa, -leya, -shema. spec.  exp: (1) ya zwala kuku, great-grand parent, (2) mwana zwezi, a well mannered child, a child born into a wealthy family; (3) ka zwala hahulu, to be prolific. rel. -zwalela (zwalezi) to bring forth at (a place): Ki ko ka zwalela litau, it is a place where lions bring forth their cubs.

zwalo (li-) n. womb. spec. exp: ka tibana zwalo, to be barren, sterile. (from: -zwala).

zwapula (zwapuzi) v.t. to despise, to contemn, to scorn. caus. -zwa-pulisa (zwapulisize) to cause to ~. freq. -zwapaula (zwapauzi) to ~ again and again.

zwelopili, n. progess, evolution, cul-ture, civilisation, development

-zwepa (zwepile) v.t. to suck from the breast or cow's udder. syn. -anya.

-zweta (zwetile) v.i. to ooze, to seep; to sweat, to drip, to trickle; to leak out. der. muzwetela.

zwezi (ma-) n. cow which has a young calf. syn. muzwezi. (from: -zwala).

-zwikama (zwikami or zwikamile) or -zwikima (zwikimile) v.t. to have a spite against; to hate. syn. -toya. cuas. -zwikamisa (zwikamisize) to cause to ~. rec. -zwikimana (zwikimani) to have mutual hatred.

-zwisa (zwisize) v.t. (1) to take out, to take away, to remove: Mu zwise libyana mwa ndu, remove utensils and personal effects from the house; (2) to deduct, to subtract: Ku zwisa ka bunolo kufita ka alula subtraction is easier than division. rel. -zwiseza (zwiselize) to take out for or to caus. -zwisisa (zwisisize) to order or to help to take away. int. -zwiseleza (zwiselelize) to remove completely. spec. exp: ka zwiseza naha pill, to develop a nation.